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Encyclopedia > Oil spill
A beach after an oil spill
A beach after an oil spill

An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters. The oil may be a variety of materials, including crude oil, refined petroleum products (such as gasoline or diesel fuel) or by-products, ships' bunkers, oily refuse or oil mixed in waste. Spills take months or even years to clean up. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... Petro redirects here. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Marine is an umbrella term for things relating to the ocean, as with marine biology, marine geology, and as a term for a navy, etc. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Sea areas in international rights Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3nm and 12nm shown. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Petrol redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ...


Oil is also released into the environment from natural geologic seeps on the sea floor. [1] Most human-made oil pollution comes from land-based activity, but public attention and regulation has tended to focus most sharply on seagoing oil tankers. [2] Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... Look up seep in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The seabed (also sea floor, seafloor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean. ... Man-Made is the eigth album by British alternative rock band Teenage Fanclub, released in 2005. ...

Contents

Environmental effects

The oil penetrates and opens up the structure of the plumage of birds, reducing its insulating ability, and so making the birds more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water. It also impairs birds' flight abilities, making it difficult or impossible to forage and escape from predators. As they attempt to preen, birds typically ingest oil that coats their feathers, causing kidney damage, altered liver function, and digestive tract irritation. This and the limited foraging ability quickly causes dehydration and metabolic imbalances. Most birds affected by an oil spill die unless there is human intervention.[3][4] Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... Preening is the art of cleaning, grooming, and maintaining parts of the body. ... The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ...


Marine mammals exposed to oil spills are affected in similar ways as seabirds. Oil coats the fur of Sea otters and seals, reducing its insulation abilities and leading to body temperature fluctuations and hypothermia. Ingestion of the oil causes dehydration and impaired digestion. A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae A Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), a member... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable...


Largest oil spills

Volunteers cleaning up the aftermath of the Prestige oil spill
Volunteers cleaning up the aftermath of the Prestige oil spill
Bottsand class oil recovery ship of the German Navy
Bottsand class oil recovery ship of the German Navy
Main article: List of oil spills
Oil Spills of over 100,000 tonnes or 30 million US gallons, ordered by Tonnes[a]
Spill / Tanker Location Date *Tonnes of crude oil Reference
Gulf War oil spill Persian Gulf January 23, 1991 136,000 - 1,500,000 [5][6]
Ixtoc I oil well Gulf of Mexico June 3, 1979- March 23, 1980 454,000 - 480,000 [7]
Atlantic Empress / Aegean Captain Trinidad and Tobago July 19, 1979 287,000 [8] [9]
Fergana Valley Uzbekistan March 2, 1992 285,000 [6]
Nowruz oil field Persian Gulf February 1983 260,000 [10]
ABT Summer 700 nautical miles (1,300 km) off Angola 1991 260,000 [8]
Castillo de Bellver Saldanha Bay, South Africa August 6, 1983 252,000 [8]
Amoco Cadiz Brittany, France March 16, 1978 223,000 [8] [6]
Amoco Haven tanker disaster Mediterranean Sea near Genoa, Italy 1991 144,000 [8]
Odyssey 700 nautical miles (1,300 km) off Nova Scotia, Canada 1988 132,000 [8]
Sea Star Gulf of Oman December 19, 1972 115,000 [8] [6]
Torrey Canyon Scilly Isles, UK March 18, 1967 80,000 - 119,000 [8] [6]
Irenes Serenade Navarino Bay, Greece 1980 100,000 [8]
Urquiola A Coruña, Spain May 12, 1976 100,000 [8]

a One tonne of crude oil is roughly equal to 308 US gallons, or 7.33 barrels. Volunteers cleaning the coastline in Galicia in the aftermath of the Prestige catastrophe Photo by user Viajero, March 3, 2003, released under GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Volunteers cleaning the coastline in Galicia in the aftermath of the Prestige catastrophe Photo by user Viajero, March 3, 2003, released under GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Volunteers cleaning the coastline in Galicia in the aftermath of the Prestige catastrophe, March, 2002 The Prestige was an oil tanker whose sinking in 2002 off the Galician coast caused a large oil spill. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1932 × 2576 pixel, file size: 702 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) own work Bottsand at the Kiel Week 2007 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1932 × 2576 pixel, file size: 702 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) own work Bottsand at the Kiel Week 2007 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air... This is a list of oil spills throughout the world. ... The Gulf War oil spill was one of the worst oil spills in history, resulting from actions taken during the Gulf War in 1991. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Ixtoc I was an exploratory oil well in the Gulf of Mexico, about 600 miles south of Texas. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Atlantic Empress was a ship was involved in the two large oil spills. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Fergana Valley or Farghana Valley (Uzbek: , Kyrgyz: Фергана өрөөнү, Tajik: водии Фaрғонa, Russian: , Persian: ) is a region in the Tian Shan mountain ranges of Central Asia spreading across eastern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Saldanha Bay is an inlet on the south-western coast of South Africa, north west of Cape Town, forming a land-locked harbour. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... The Amoco Cadiz was a supertanker, owned by Amoco, that split in two after running aground on Portsall Rocks, three miles off the coast of Brittany, in March 16, 1978, resulting in the 5th-largest oil spill in history. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... In 1991 the Haven (formerly Amoco Milford Haven), an oil tanker owned by Troodos Shipping and loaded with 144,000 tonnes (1 million barrels) of crude oil, exploded, caught fire and sank off the coast of Genoa, Italy, killing six people and flooding the Mediterranean with up to 50,000... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Gulf of Oman The Gulf of Oman (Arabic: خليج عمان; transliterated: khalÄ«j Ê¿umān, Persian: دریای عمان یا دریای پازس; transliterated: daryā-ye Ê¿omān,Pars) Persian sea is a strait that connects the Arabian Sea with the Persian Gulf; it is generally included as a branch of the Persian Gulf, not as an arm of... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Torrey Canyon was the first of the big supertankers, capable of carrying a cargo of 120,000 tons of crude oil, and was wrecked off the western coast of Cornwall in 1967 causing an environmental disaster. ... The Isles of Scilly (Cornish: Ynysek Syllan) are an archipelago of islands off the Cornish coast. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Location Coordinates : Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name La Coruña (Galician) Spanish name La Coruña Postal code 15xxx Area code 34 (Spain) + 981 (La Coruña) Website http://www. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Estimating the volume of a spill

Pollution
v  d  e
Air pollution
Acid rainAir Quality IndexAtmospheric dispersion modelingChlorofluorocarbonGlobal dimmingGlobal warming • Haze • Indoor air qualityOzone depletionParticulateSmog
Water pollution
EutrophicationHypoxiaMarine pollutionOcean acidificationOil spillShip pollutionSurface runoffThermal pollutionWastewaterWaterborne diseasesWater qualityWater stagnation
Soil contamination
Bioremediation • Herbicide • Pesticide • Soil Guideline Values (SGVs)
Radioactive contamination
Actinides in the environmentEnvironmental radioactivityFission productNuclear falloutPlutonium in the environmentRadiation poisoningRadium in the environmentUranium in the environment
Other types of pollution
Invasive speciesLight pollutionNoise pollutionRadio spectrum pollutionVisual pollution
Inter-government treaties
Montreal ProtocolNitrogen Oxide ProtocolKyoto Protocol • CLRTAP
Major organizations
DEFRAEPAGlobal Atmosphere WatchGreenpeaceNational Ambient Air Quality Standards
Related topics
Environmental ScienceNatural environment

By observing the thickness of the film of oil and its appearance on the surface of the water, it is possible to estimate the quantity of oil spilled. If the surface area of the spill is also known, the total volume of the oil can be calculated.[11] Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since the late 1970s; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities, which can be harmful to organisms and... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Pumping of highly toxic (dark black) sludge, much seeps back into the ocean in the form of particles. ... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... Thermal pollution is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated drinking water is consumed. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... Standing water redirects here. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil pollution comprises the pollution of soils with materials, mostly chemicals, that are out of place or are present at concentrations higher than normal which may have adverse effects on humans or other organisms. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... This article about actinides in the environment is about the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in the environment. ... The environmental radioactivity page is devoted to the subject of radioactive materials in man and his environment. ... Fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large nucleus fissions. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness or a creeping dose, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... // Radium Radium in quack medicine See the story of Eben Byers for details of one very nasty case which involved a product called Radithor this contained 1 mCi of 226Ra and 1 mCi of 228Ra per bottle. ... Uranium in the environment, this page is devoted to the science of uranium in the environment and in animals (including humans). ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Radio spectrum pollution is the straying of waves in the radio and electromagnetic spectrums outside their allocations that cause problems for some activities. ... Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person might want to look at. ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Convention (disambiguation). ... Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes, opened for signature on 31 October 1988 and entered into force on 14 February 1991, was to provide for the control or reduction of nitrogen oxides and... The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. ... note - abbreviated as Air Pollution opened for signature - 13 November 1979 entered into force - 16 March 1983 objective - to protect the human environment against air pollution and to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution parties - (48) Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in England. ... EPA redirects here. ... Global Atmosphere Watchs logo The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization – a United Nations agency – to monitor trends in the Earths atmosphere. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... This article is about the natural environment. ...

Film Thickness Quantity Spread
Appearance in mm gal/sq mi L/ha
Barely visible 0.0000015 0.0000380 25 0.370
Silvery sheen 0.0000030 0.0000760 50 0.730
First trace of color 0.0000060 0.0001500 100 1.500
Bright bands of color 0.0000120 0.0003000 200 2.900
Colors begin to dull 0.0000400 0.0010000 666 9.700
Colors are much darker 0.0000800 0.0020000 1332 19.500

Methods of cleaning

A sheen is usually dispersed (but not cleaned up) with detergents which makes oil settle to the bottom. Oils that are denser than water, such as Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can be more difficult to clean as they make the seabed toxic. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Labelling transformers containing PCBs. ...

Clean-up efforts after Exxon Valdez oil spill.
Clean-up efforts after Exxon Valdez oil spill.

Methods for cleaning up include:

  • Bioremediation: use of microorganisms [1] or biological agents [2] to break down or remove oil
  • Controlled burning can effectively reduce the amount of oil in water, if done properly.[12] But it can only be done in low wind[citation needed], and can cause air pollution.[13]
  • Dispersants act as detergents, clustering around oil globules and allowing them to be carried away in the water.[14] This improves the surface aesthetically, and mobilises the oil. Smaller oil droplets, scattered by currents, may cause less harm and may degrade more easily. But the dispersed oil droplets infiltrate into deeper water and can lethally contaminate coral. Recent research indicates that some dispersants are toxic to corals.[15]
  • Watch and wait: in some cases, nautural attentuation of oil may be most appropriate, due to the invasive nature of facilitated methods of remediation, particularly in ecologically sensitive areas.[citation needed]
  • Dredging: for oils dispersed with detergents and other oils denser than water.
  • Skimming: Requires calm waters
  • Solidifying[citation needed]

Equipment used includes[12]: Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... A biological agent is an infectious disease that can be used in bioterrorism or biological warfare. ... Burning may refer to any of the following: Combustion The use of a CD burner The Burning Man festival Burning-in of Photographic paper Immolation An insult (slang term) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... A dispersant is a compound consisting of a surfactant and a solvent, sprayed to dissipate oil slicks. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A skimmer is a machine that separates a liquid or particles floating on another liquid. ...

  • Booms: large floating barriers that round up oil and lift the oil off the water
  • Skimmers: skim the oil
  • Sorbents: large sponges that absorb oil
  • Chemical and biological agents: helps to break down the oil
  • Vacuums: remove oil from beaches and water surface
  • Shovels and other road equipments: typically used to clean up oil on beaches

A skimmer is a machine that separates a liquid or particles floating on another liquid. ... Shovel with wide blade - especially appropriate for lifting snow or coal A shovel is a tool for lifting and moving loose material such as coal, gravel, snow, soil, or sand. ...

Prevention

  • Secondary containment - methods to prevent releases of oil or hydrocarbons into environment.
  • Oil Spill Prevention Containment and Countermeasures (SPCC) program by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
  • Double hulling - build double hulls into vessels, which reduces the risk and severity of a spill in case of a collision or grounding. Existing single-hull vessels can also be rebuilt to have a double hull.

EPA redirects here. ... A double hull is a ship hull design and construction method where the bottom and sides of the ship have two complete layers of watertight hull surface: one outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship, and a second inner hull which is somewhat further into the ship, perhaps...

See also

  • Erika (tanker)
  • Low-temperature thermal desorption
  • National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan

Erika was the name of a tanker built in 1975 and last chartered by Total-Fina-Elf. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Categories: Stub | Oil spills ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Volunteers cleaning the coastline in Galicia in the aftermath of the Prestige catastrophe, March, 2002 The Prestige was an oil tanker whose sinking in 2002 off the Galician coast caused a large oil spill. ...

References

  1. ^ http://seeps.geol.ucsb.edu/
  2. ^ 16. Petroleum: Oil Spill
  3. ^ Dunnet, G., Crisp, D., Conan, G., Bourne, W. (1982) "Oil Pollution and Seabird Populations [and Discussion]" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. B 297(1087): 413–427
  4. ^ Untold Seabird Mortality due to Marine Oil Pollution, Elements Online Environmental Magazine.
  5. ^ George Draffan. Major Oil Spills (HTML) (English). Endgame. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  6. ^ a b c d e History (HTML) (English). The Mariner Group.
  7. ^ John S. Patton, Mark W. Rigler, Paul D. Boehm & David L. Fiest (1981-03-19). Ixtoc 1 oil spill: flaking of surface mousse in the Gulf of Mexico (HTML) (English). NPG (Nature Publishing Group). Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Statistics (HTML) (English). ITOPF. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  9. ^ Atlantic Empress/Aegean Captain (HTML) (English). Cedre (2006-04). Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  10. ^ Oil Spills and Disasters (HTML) (English). infoplease. infoplease. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  11. ^ Metcalf & Eddy. Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. 98.
  12. ^ a b Emergency Response: Responding to Oil Spills. Office of Response and Restoration. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2007-06-20).
  13. ^ Oil Spills
  14. ^ Detergent and Oil Spills (HTML) (English). NEWTON BBS (2002-10-12). Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  15. ^ Barry, Carolyn (2007). Slick Death: Oil-spill treatment kills coral, Science News vol. 172, p. 67.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2004
  • Oil Spill Case Histories 1967-1991, NOAA/Hazardous Materials and Response Division, Seattle WA, 1992
  • Nelson-Smith, Oil Pollution and Marine Ecology, Elek Scientific, London, 1972; Plenum, New York, 1973

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oil Spills (3016 words)
Oil spills happen when people make mistakes or are careless and cause an oil tanker to leak oil into the ocean.
If workers have found sea birds that are not dead because of oil, they will take the birds to a cleaning center or captivity where they are kept in a facility because they can not live in the wild on their own.
Oil spills are one of the many ways killer whales have become endangered.
1985 Grand Eagle Oil Spill (1336 words)
Oil spills can have numerous adverse effects on marine life in coastal environments where wetlands, bottom sediments, and recreational activities are concentrated.
Oil was still present on these plants one month after the oil spill although the oiled unvegetated beach around Battery Park had been cleaned up by October/November.
Local weather conditions, nature of the oil spilled (light crude is considered to be less toxic than refined oil), and the fact that the spill occurred as plants were entering their dormant stage probably contributed to the minimal impact that the oil had on the marsh.
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