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Encyclopedia > Oil refinery
View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California.
View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California.

An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil refineries are typically large sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units. Image File history File links ShellMartinez-refi. ... Image File history File links ShellMartinez-refi. ... Martinez Court House, California Martinez is the county seat of Contra Costa County, California. ... Process (lat. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Petroleum products are useful materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (1858-1913), inventor of the diesel engine. ... Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ... Base layer of asphalt concrete in a road under construction. ... Heating oil, or burning oil, also known in the United States as No. ... Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a colorless flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Spherical Gas Container typically found in Refineries. ... Piping is used to convey fluids (usually liquids and gases but sometimes loose solids) from one location to another. ... A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress regardless of the magnitude of the applied stress. ... sulfur sucks--207. ...

Contents

Operation

Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation. The fractionating column is cooler at the top than at the bottom because the fractions at the top have lower boiling points than the fractions at the bottom. The heavier fractions that emerge from the bottom of the fractionating column are often broken up (cracked) to make more useful products. All of the fractions are subsequently routed to other refining units for further processing.
Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation. The fractionating column is cooler at the top than at the bottom because the fractions at the top have lower boiling points than the fractions at the bottom. The heavier fractions that emerge from the bottom of the fractionating column are often broken up (cracked) to make more useful products. All of the fractions are subsequently routed to other refining units for further processing.

Raw oil or unprocessed ("crude") oil is not very useful in the form it comes in out of the ground. Although "light, sweet" (low viscosity, low sulfur) oil has been used directly as a burner fuel for steam vessel propulsion, the lighter elements form explosive vapors in the fuel tanks and so it is quite dangerous, especially so in warships. For this and many other uses, the oil needs to be separated into parts and refined before use in fuels and lubricants, and before some of the byproducts could be used in petrochemical processes to form materials such as plastics, and foams. Petroleum fossil fuels are used in ship, automobile and aircraft engines. These different hydrocarbons have different boiling points, which means they can be separated by distillation. Since the lighter liquid elements are in great demand for use in internal combustion engines, a modern refinery will convert heavy hydrocarbons and lighter gaseous elements into these higher value products using complex and energy intensive processes. Diagram drawn by Theresa knott File links The following pages link to this file: Oil refinery User:Theresa knott/image gallery Categories: GFDL images ... Diagram drawn by Theresa knott File links The following pages link to this file: Oil refinery User:Theresa knott/image gallery Categories: GFDL images ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... A fractionating column is an essential item used in the distillation of liquid mixtures so as to separate the mixture into its component parts, or fractions, based on the differences in their volatilities. ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... Factory of Shukhov cracking process, Baku, USSR, 1934 In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga class cruiser. ... For information on the band, see Fuel (band). ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube) is a substance introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sea foam on the beach. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing natural resources such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. ... Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of deep water navigation. ... Karl Benzs Velo (vélo means bicycle in French) model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race 2005 MINI Cooper S. An automobile (also motor car or simply car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An engine is something that produces an effect from a given input. ... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... Laboratory distillation set-up using, without a fractionating column 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ...


Oil can be used in so many various ways because it contains hydrocarbons of varying molecular masses, forms and lengths such as paraffins, aromatics, naphthenes (or cycloalkanes), alkenes, dienes, and alkynes. Hydrocarbons are molecules of varying length and complexity made of only hydrogen and carbon atoms. Their various structures give them their differing properties and thereby uses. The trick in the oil refinement process is separating and purifying these. The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... Paraffin is a common name for a group of alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, where n is greater than about 20, discovered by Carl Reichenbach. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Cycloalkanes are chemical compounds with a one or more rings of carbons to which hydrogens are attached according to the formula CnH2n. ... cyclobutane Cycloalkanes are chemical compounds with a one or more rings of carbons to which hydrogens are attached according to the formula CnH2n. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... Dienes are hydrocarbons which contain two double bonds. ... Alkynes are hydrocarbons that have at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ...


Once separated and purified of any contaminants and impurities, the fuel or lubricant can be sold without any further processing. Smaller molecules such as isobutane and propylene or butylenes can be recombined to meet specific octane requirements of fuels by processes such as alkylation or less commonly, dimerization. Octane grade of gasoline can also be improved by catalytic reforming, which strips hydrogen out of hydrocarbons to produce aromatics, which have much higher octane ratings. Intermediate products such as gasoils can even be reprocessed to break a heavy, long-chained oil into a lighter short-chained one, by various forms of cracking such as Fluid Catalytic Cracking, Thermal Cracking, and Hydrocracking. The final step in gasoline production is the blending of fuels with different octane ratings, vapor pressures, and other properties to meet product specifications. Butane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C4H10. ... Propylene, also known by its IUPAC name propene, is an organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6. ... Butylene, also known as butene, is the name of the three isomeric hydrocarbon gases with chemical formula C4H8. ... Octane is an alkane with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)6CH3. ... Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. ... Dimerization is the formation of a polymer from two similar chemical structures. ... Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas, typically having low octane ratings, into high-octane liquid products called reformates which are components of high-octane gasoline (also known as petrol). ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Gasoline, as it is known in North America, or petrol, in many Commonwealth countries (sometimes also called motor spirit) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Gasoil is an intermediate product in an oil refinery that is heavier than diesel but lighter than lube oil or residual fuel. ... Factory of Shukhov cracking process, Baku, USSR, 1934 In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ...


Oil refineries are large scale plants, processing from about a hundred thousand to several hundred thousand barrels of crude oil per day. Because of the high capacity, many of the units are operated continuously (as opposed to processing in batches) at steady state or approximately steady state for long periods of time (months to years). Traditional wooden barrels in Cutchogue Modern stainless steel beer barrels - also called casks or kegs - outside the Castle Rock microbrewery in Nottingham, England For other uses, see Barrel (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings see steady state (disambiguation). ...

Major products of oil refineries

Base layer of asphalt concrete in a road under construction. ... Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (1858-1913), inventor of the diesel engine. ... Naphtha is a group of various volatile flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures used primarily as feedstocks in refineries for the reforming process and in the petrochemical industry for the production of olefins in steam crackers. ... Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. ... Gasoline or petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of hydrocarbons and enhanced with benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a colorless flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ... Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in jet-engined aircraft. ... Liquified petroleum gas (also called liquefied petroleum gas, liquid petroleum gas, LPG, LP gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing fluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube, although this may also refer to personal lubricants) is a substance (usually a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... Paraffin is a common name for a group of high molecular weight alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, where n is greater than about 20. ... Tar is a viscous black liquid derived from the destructive distillation of organic matter. ...

Common process units found in a refinery

  • Desalter Unit (washes out salt from the crude oil before it goes into the atmospheric distillation unit)
  • Atmospheric Distillation Unit (distills crude oil into fractions). See Continuous distillation.
  • Vacuum Distillation Unit (further distills residual bottoms after atmospheric distillation)
  • Naphtha Hydrotreater Unit (uses hydrogen to desulfurize naphtha from atmospheric distillation. Must hydrotreat the naphtha before sending to a Catalytic Reformer Unit.)
  • Catalytic Reformer Unit (contains catalyst used to convert the naphtha-boiling range molecules into higher octane reformate (reformer product). The reformate has higher content of aromatics, olefins, and cyclic hydrocarbons). An important byproduct of a reformer is hydrogen released during the catalyst reaction. The hydrogen is used either in the hydrotreaters and hydrocracker.)
  • Distillate Hydrotreater Unit (desulfurizes distillate (diesel) after atmospheric distillation)
  • Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Unit (upgrades heavier fractions into lighter, more valuable products)
  • Hydrocracker Unit (uses hydrogen to upgrade heavier fractions into lighter, more valuable products)
  • Merox treater - In certain cases such as for jet fuel or kerosene treatment, a Merox process unit may be used to oxidize mercaptans to organic disulfides.
  • Coking unit (processes asphalt into gasoline and diesel fuel, leaving coke as a residual product)
  • Alkylation unit (produces high octane component for gasoline blending)
  • Dimerization Unit
  • Isomerization Unit (converts linear molecules to higher octane branched molecules for blending into gasoline or feed to alkylation units)
  • Steam reforming Unit (produces hydrogen for the hydrotreaters or hydrocracker)
  • Liquified gas storage units for propane and similar gaseous fuels at pressure sufficient to maintain in liquid form - these are usually spherical or bullets (horizontal cylinder with rounded ends).
  • Storage tanks for crude oil and finished products, usually cylindrical, with some sort of vapor enclosure and surrounded by an earth berm to contain spills
  • Amine gas treater, Claus unit, and tail gas treatment for processing hydrogen sulfide from hydrodesulfurization
  • Utility units such as cooling towers for circulating cooling water, boiler plants for steam generation, and wastewater collection and treating systems to make such water suitable for reuse or for disposal.

A desalter is a process unit on an oil refinery that removes salt from the crude oil. ... Continuous distillation is a distillation process, which does not require interruption for adding raw material. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A hydrotreater is a common process unit in an oil refinery that is used to treat products such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel, and intermediates such as gasoil. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas, typically having low octane ratings, into high-octane liquid products called reformates which are components of high-octane gasoline (also known as petrol). ... Reformate is the hydrocarbon mixture output of a catalytic reformer unit on a crude oil refinery. ... Factory of Shukhov cracking process, Baku, USSR, 1934 In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e. ... Factory of Shukhov cracking process, Baku, USSR, 1934 In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e. ... Merox is short for Mercaptan oxidation. ... In chemistry, thiols (formerly known as mercaptans) are those compounds which contain the thiol group -SH attached to a carbon atom. ... In chemistry, a disulfide is an ion formed by sulfur atoms. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. ... Dimerization is the formation of a polymer from two similar chemical structures. ... In chemistry, isomerization is the transformation of a molecule into a different isomer. ... Steam reforming, hydrogen reforming or catalytic oxidation, is a method of producing hydrogen from hydrocarbons. ... A berm is a level space or shelf separating two features. ... Amine gas treating refers to a group of processes that use aqueous solutions of various amines to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English), H2S, is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas that is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Hydrodesulfurization is one means of lowering the sulfur content of liquids from oil/coal. ... Cooling towers are structures for cooling water or other working medium to near-ambient temperature. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ...

Flow diagram of typical refinery

The image below is a schematic flow diagram of a typical oil refinery that depicts the various unit processes and the flow of intermediate product streams that occurs between the inlet crude oil feedstock and the final end products. The diagram depicts only one of the literally hundreds of different oil refinery configurations. The diagram also does not include any of the usual refinery facilities providing utilities such as steam, cooling water, and electric power as well as storage tanks for crude oil feedstock and for intermediate products and end products.[1][2][3][4] We dont have an article called Process flow diagram Start this article Search for Process flow diagram in. ... A Chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures chemicals, usually on a large scale. ... A feedstock is a petrochemical used as a raw material to be fed into a machine or processing plant. ...

Schematic flow diagram of a typical oil refinery
Schematic flow diagram of a typical oil refinery

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (584x706, 31 KB) I drew this flow diagram of a typical refinery using Microsofts Paint program. ...

Specialty end products

These will blend various feedstocks, mix appropriate additives, provide short term storage, and prepare for bulk loading to trucks, barges, product ships, and railcars. A feedstock is a petrochemical used as a raw material to be fed into a machine or processing plant. ...

  • Gaseous fuels such as propane, stored and shipped in liquid form under pressure in specialized railcars to distributors.
  • Liquid fuels blending (producing automotive and aviation grades of gasoline, kerosene, various aviation turbine fuels, and diesel fuels, adding dyes, detergents, antiknock additives, oxygenates, and anti-fungal compounds as required). Shipped by barge, rail, and tanker ship. May be shipped regionally in dedicated pipelines to point consumers, particularly aviation jet fuel to major airports, or piped to distributors in multi-product pipelines using product separators called pipeline inspection gauges ("pigs").
  • Lubricants (produces light machine oils, motor oils, and greases, adding viscosity stabilizers as required), usually shipped in bulk to an offsite packaging plant.
  • Wax (paraffin), used in the packaging of frozen foods, among others. May be shipped in bulk to a site to prepare as packaged blocks.
  • Sulfur (or sulfuric acid), byproducts of sulfur removal from petroleum which may have up to a couple percent sulfur as organic sulfur-containing compounds. Sulfur and sulfuric acid are useful industrial materials. Sulfuric acid is usually prepared and shipped as the acid precursor oleum.
  • Bulk tar shipping for offsite unit packaging for use in tar-and-gravel roofing.
  • Asphalt unit. Prepares bulk asphalt for shipment.
  • Petroleum coke, used in specialty carbon products or as solid fuel.
  • Petrochemicals or petrochemical feedstocks, which are often sent to petrochemical plants for further processing in a variety of ways. The petrochemicals may be olefins or their precursors, or various types of aromatic petrochemicals.

Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... A pig used in natural gas pipelines A Pipeline inspection gauge or pig in the pipeline industry is a tool that is sent down a pipeline and propelled by the pressure of the product in the pipeline itself. ... A lubricant (colloquially, lube, although this may also refer to personal lubricants) is a substance (usually a liquid) introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. ... Motor oil is a type of liquid oil used for lubrication by various kinds of internal combustion engines. ... Look up grease in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The related Category:Units of viscosity has been nominated for deletion, merging, or renaming. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Frozen food is food preserved under the process of freezing. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Sulfuric acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Oleum refers to a solution of sulfur trioxide in sulfuric acid or sometimes more specifically to pyrosulfuric acid, disulfuric acid. ... Tar is a viscous black liquid derived from the destructive distillation of organic matter. ... Base layer of asphalt concrete in a road under construction. ... Petroleum coke (often abbreviated pet coke) is a carbonaceous solid derived from oil refinery cracking processes. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... A Chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures chemicals, usually on a large scale. ... A synonym for the more widely accepted term, alkene. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ...

Co-plant siting

Frequently a chemical plant will be sited adjacent to a refinery, utilizing intermediate products as feedstocks for the production of specialized materials such as plastics or agrichemicals. A Chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures chemicals, usually on a large scale. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Agrichemicals are sprayed onto areas to control pests and diseases, or weeds. ...


Safety and environmental concerns

MiRO refinery at Karlsruhe
MiRO refinery at Karlsruhe

The refining process releases numerous different chemicals into the atmosphere; consequently, there are substantial air pollution emissions[5] and a notable odor normally accompanies the presence of a refinery. Aside from air pollution impacts there are also wastewater concerns,[6] upset risks of fire and explosion, and both occupational noise and environmental noise health effects. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1296x972, 155 KB) Oil refinery File links The following pages link to this file: Oil refinery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1296x972, 155 KB) Oil refinery File links The following pages link to this file: Oil refinery ... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[2] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor or odour (see spelling differences) is a chemical dissolved in air, generally at a very low concentration, which we perceive by the sense of olfaction. ... Environmental noise can produce irreversible hearing loss Noise health effects, the collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries. ...


The public has demanded that many governments place restrictions on contaminants that refineries release, and most refineries have installed the equipment needed to comply with the requirements of the pertinent environmental protection regulatory agencies. In the United States, there is strong pressure to prevent the development of new refineries, and no major refinery has been built in the country since Marathon's Garyville, Louisiana facility in 1976. However, many existing refineries have been expanded during that time. Environmental restrictions and pressure to prevent construction of new refineries may have also contributed to rising fuel prices in the United States[citation needed]. Additionally, many refineries (over 100 since the 1980s) have closed due to obsolescence and/or merger activity within the industry itself. This activity has been reported to Congress and in specialized studies not widely publicised. Marathon Petroleum Company is a fully owned, American subsidiary of the Marathon Oil Corporation. ... Garyville is a census-designated place located in St. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Environmental and safety concerns mean that oil refineries are sometimes located some distance away from major urban areas. Nevertheless, there are many instances where refinery operations are close to populated areas and pose health risks such as in Tenerife, Spain,[7] which is sited in a densely-populated city center and next to the only two major evacuation routes in and out of the city. In California's Contra Costa County and Solano County, a shoreline necklace of refineries and associated chemical plants are adjacent to urban areas in Richmond, Martinez, California, Pacheco, Concord, Pittsburg, Vallejo and Benicia, with occasional accidental events that require "shelter in place" orders to the adjacent populations. Flag of Tenerife Tenerife, a Spanish island, is the largest of the seven Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. ... Official language(s) English Capital  Sacramento Largest city  Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Contra Costa County is a suburban county in Californias San Francisco Bay Area. ... Solano County is a county located in central California, about halfway between San Francisco and Sacramento. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Martinez Court House, California Martinez is the county seat of Contra Costa County, California. ... Pacheco is a census-designated place located in Contra Costa County, California. ... Motto: Where Families Come First Location of Concord in California. ... Pittsburg is a city located in north central Contra Costa County, California. ... Vallejo (pronounced IPA: , vuh-LAY-oe) is a city in Solano County, California, United States. ... Benicia is a waterside city in Solano County, California, United States. ...


History

The world's first oil refinery opened at Ploieşti, Romania in 1856.[8] Several other refineries were built at that location with investment from United States companies before being taken over by Nazi Germany during World War II. Most of these refineries were bombarded by the US Air Corps in Operation Tidal Wave, August 1, 1943. Since then they have been rebuilt, and currently pose somewhat of an environmental concern. County Prahova County Status County seat Mayor Emil Calotă, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 232,452 234,707 - National Institute of statistics, July 1, 2004 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Operation Tidal Wave was a military operation by the allied forces to destroy Ploiesti, consisting of air raids conducted on August 1, 1943 Links http://www. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ...


Another early example is Oljeön, now preserved as a museum at the UNESCO world heritage site Engelsberg. It started operation in 1875 and is part of the Ecomuseum Bergslagen. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Engelsberg is a village in Fagersta municipality in Västmanland, Sweden. ...


It is difficult to exactly state which is largest oil refinery in the world. At one time this was claimed to be Ras Tanura, Saudi Arabia, owned by Saudi Aramco. For most of the 20th century, the largest refinery of the world was that of Abadan in Iran. This refinery suffered extensive damage in the IRAN/IRAQ war. The Guinness Book of World Records now (October 2006) records the BP Amoco refinery in Texas City, USA as the refinery with the largest capacity (433,000 barrels/day which is approximately 15,100,000 Imperial Gallon). Map of Ras Tanura Region Ras Tanura (more accurately Ras Tannūrah, Arabic: رأس تنورة meaning top/head of the barbeque spit) is a city in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia located on a peninsula extending into the Persian Gulf. ... Saudi Aramco, the national oil company of Saudi Arabia (formerly just Aramco, standing for the Arabian American Oil Company), is the largest oil corporation in the world and the worlds largest in terms of proven crude oil reserves and production. ... Arvand river between Abadan (left) and khorramshahr (right). ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ...


Early US refineries processed crude oil to recover the kerosene. Other products (like gasoline) were considered wastes and were often dumped directly into the nearest river. The invention of the automobile shifted the demand to gasoline and diesel, which remain the primary refined products today. Refineries pre-dating the EPA were very toxic to the environment. Strict legislation has mandated that refineries meet modern air and water cleanliness standards. In fact, obtaining a permit to build even a modern refinery with minimal impact on the environment (other than CO2 emissions) is so difficult and costly that no new refineries have been built (though many have been expanded) in the United States since 1976. As a result, some believe that this may be the reason that the US is becoming more and more dependent on the imports of finished gasoline, as opposed to incremental crude oil. On the other hand, studies have revealed that accelerating merger activity in the refining and production sector has reduced capacity further, resulting in tighter markets in the United States in particular. Kerosene or paraffin oil (British English, not to be confused with the waxy solid also called paraffin wax or just paraffin) is a colorless flammable hydrocarbon liquid. ...


See also

A refinery at night. The gas flare is in the center of the picture.
A refinery at night. The gas flare is in the center of the picture.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x356, 23 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Oil refinery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x356, 23 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Oil refinery ... Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e. ... The AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, was first published by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1968. ... Image 1: Natural draft wet cooling towers at Didcot Power Station, UK Cooling towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling water or other working medium to near the ambient wet-bulb air temperature. ... Information on pump, California. ... A gas flare at an oil refinery. ... This is a list of oil refineries. ... A refinery is composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations used for refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value. ... Acid gas or Sour gas, also sour acid gas or acid sour gas, is natural gas which contains up to 20% hydrogen sulfide contaminant by weight and the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, mixed xylenes and ethylbenzene. ... Acid gas or Sour gas, also sour acid gas or acid sour gas, is natural gas which contains up to 20% hydrogen sulfide contaminant by weight and the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene, mixed xylenes and ethylbenzene. ...

References

  1. ^ Gary, J.H. and Handwerk, G.E. (1984). Petroleum Refining Technology and Economics, 2nd Edition, Marcel Dekker, Inc. ISBN 0-8247-7150-8. 
  2. ^ Guide to Refining from Chevron Oil's website
  3. ^ Refinery flowchart from Universal Oil Products' website
  4. ^ An example flowchart of fractions from crude oil at a refinery
  5. ^ AP 42, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors
  6. ^ Beychok, Milton R. (1967). Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants, 1st Edition, John Wiley & Sons. LCCN 67-19834. 
  7. ^ Smoke, oil spills and now radiation - whatever next? www.atan.org
  8. ^ WORLD EVENTS: 1844-1856 www.pbs.org

Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) is one of the worlds largest global energy companies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants is a book about the composition and treatment of the various wastewater streams produced in the hydrocarbon processing industries (i. ...

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Oil refinery

  Results from FactBites:
 
The great oil refinery shortage. - By Daniel Gross - Slate Magazine (893 words)
The National Petrochemicals and Refiners Association says that the last new refinery built in the United States was Marathan Ashland's Garyville, La., plant—and it was completed in 1976.
It makes sense to refine oil relatively near where it is produced or—in the case of imported oil—near its port of entry.
Locals are concerned about the environmental impact of refineries, their contribution to smog, their traffic of giant trucks carrying hazardous materials, and the potential for devastating leaks in event of an earthquake.
How does an oil refinery work? (783 words)
Processing a barrel of crude oil at the Conoco refinery yields an average of 57 percent in various grades of gasoline.
The basic purpose of a refinery is to separate and transform these various hydrocarbon groups so that they may be used, combined or further treated to create the thousands of products made from petroleum.
The liquid or residual oil is drawn off at the bottom to be used as asphalt or heavy fuel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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