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Encyclopedia > Oil platform
Offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico
Offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico

An oil platform or oil rig is a large structure used to house workers and machinery needed to drill and/or produce oil and natural gas through wells in the ocean bed. Depending on the circumstances, the platform may be attached to the ocean floor, consist of an artificial island, or be floating. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 2049 KB) Photographer: Chad Teer from Coquitlam, Canada Title: Offshore Description: Offshore platform located in the Gulf of Mexico, port location Cd. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 2049 KB) Photographer: Chad Teer from Coquitlam, Canada Title: Offshore Description: Offshore platform located in the Gulf of Mexico, port location Cd. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Before Mexico City, Tenochtitlan was an artificial island of 250,000 (Dr Atl) Dejima, not allowed direct contact with nearby Nagasaki Formoza (Gdynia) The World in Dubai An artificial island is an island that has been formed by human, rather than natural means. ... Oil has been produced from offshore locations since the 1950s. ...


Generally, oil platforms are located on the continental shelf, though as technology improves, drilling and production in deeper waters becomes both feasible and profitable. A typical platform may have around thirty wellheads located on the platform and directional drilling allows reservoirs to be accessed at both different depths and at remote positions up to 5 miles (8 kilometres) from the platform.  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ...


Many platforms also have remote wellheads attached by umbilical connections, these may be single wells or a manifold centre for multiple wells. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Contents

History

The Thames Sea Forts of World War II are considered the direct predecessors of modern offshore oil platforms, having been pre-constructed in a very short time, they were then floated to their location and placed on the shallow bottom of the Thames estuary.[1][2] In 1938, the Superior Oil company constructed the first offshore oil platform off the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Maunsell Sea Forts were small fortified towers built in the Thames and Mersey estuaries during World War II to aid in the defence of the United Kingdom. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... Superior Oil Company (1921–1984) was an independent American oil company that is now part of ExxonMobil. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Types

Larger lake- and sea-based oil platforms and oil rigs are some of the largest moveable man-made structures in the world. There are several distinct types of platforms and rigs:

  • Fixed Platforms, built on concrete and/or steel legs anchored directly onto the seabed, supporting a deck with space for drilling rigs, production facilities and crew quarters. Such platforms are, by virtue of their immobility, designed for very long term use (for instance the Hibernia platform). Various types of structure are used, steel jacket, concrete caisson, floating steel and even floating concrete. Steel jackets are vertical sections made of tubular steel members, and are usually piled into the seabed. Concrete caisson structures, pioneered by the Condeep concept, often have in-built oil storage in tanks below the sea surface and these tanks were often used as a flotation capability, allowing them to be built close to shore (Norwegian fjords and Scottish firths are popular because they are sheltered and deep enough) and then floated to their final position where they are sunk to the seabed. Fixed platforms are economically feasible for installation in water depths up to about 1,700 feet (520 m).
A fixed platform base under construction on a Louisiana river
A fixed platform base under construction on a Louisiana river
  • Compliant Towers, consist of narrow, flexible towers and a piled foundation supporting a conventional deck for drilling and production operations. Compliant towers are designed to sustain significant lateral deflections and forces, and are typically used in water depths ranging from 1,500 and 3,000 feet (450 and 900 m).
  • Semi-submersible Platforms having legs of sufficient buoyancy to cause the structure to float, but of weight sufficient to keep the structure upright. Semi-submersible rigs can be moved from place to place; can be ballasted up or down by altering the amount of flooding in buoyancy tanks; they are generally anchored by cable anchors during drilling operations, though they can also be kept in place by the use of dynamic positioning. Semi-submersible can be used in depths from 600 to 6,000 feet (180 to 1,800 m).
  • Jack-up Platforms, as the name suggests, are platforms that can be jacked up above the sea using legs which can be lowered like jacks. These platforms, used in relatively low depths, are designed to move from place to place, and then anchor themselves by deploying the jack-like legs.
  • Drillships, a maritime vessel that has been fitted with drilling apparatus. It is most often used for exploratory drilling of new oil or gas wells in deep water but can also be used for scientific drilling. It is often built on a modified tanker hull and outfitted with a dynamic positioning system to maintain its position over the well.
  • Floating production systems are large ships equipped with processing facilities and moored to a location for a long period. The main types of floating production systems are FPSO (floating production, storage, and offloading system), FSO (floating storage and offloading system), and FSU (floating storage unit). These ships do not actually drill for oil or gas.
  • Tension-leg platforms, consist of floating rigs tethered to the seabed in a manner that eliminates most vertical movement of the structure. TLPS are used in water depths up to about 6,000 feet (2,000 m). The "conventional" TLP is a 4-column design which looks similar to a semisubmersible. Proprietary versions include the Seastar and MOSES mini TLPs; they are relatively low cost, used in water depths between 600 and 3,500 feet (200 and 1,100 m). Mini TLPs can also be used as utility, satellite or early production platforms for larger deepwater discoveries.
A 'Statfjord' Gravity base structure under construction in Norway. Almost all of the structure will end up submerged.
A 'Statfjord' Gravity base structure under construction in Norway. Almost all of the structure will end up submerged.
  • SPAR Platforms, moored to the seabed like the TLP, but whereas the TLP has vertical tension tethers the Spar has more conventional mooring lines. Spars have been designed in three configurations: the "conventional" one-piece cylindrical hull, the "truss spar" where the midsection is composed of truss elements connecting the upper buoyant hull (called a hard tank) with the bottom soft tank containing permanent ballast, and the "cell spar" which is built from multiple vertical cylinders. The Spar may be more economical to build for small and medium sized rigs than the TLP, and has more inherent stability than a TLP since it has a large counterweight at the bottom and does not depend on the mooring to hold it upright. It also has the ability, by use of chain-jacks attached to the mooring lines, to move horizontally over the oil field. The first production spar was Kerr-McGee's Neptune, which is a floating production facility anchored in 1,930 feet (588 m) in the Gulf of Mexico, however spars (such as Brent Spar) were previously used as FSOs. Dominion Oil's Devil's Tower is located in 5,610 feet (1,710 m) of water, in the Gulf of Mexico, and is the world's deepest spar. The first Truss spars were Kerr-McGee's Boomvang and Nansen. The first (and only) cell spar is Kerr-McGee's Red Hawk.
  • Normally unmanned installations"(sometimes called toadstools),are small platforms, consisting of little more than a well bay, helipad and emergency shelter. They are designed for operate remotely under normal operations, only to be visited occasionally for routine maintenance or well work.

This article is about the construction material. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Location map. ... In geotechnical engineering, a caisson is a retaining, watertight structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships. ... A Condeep under construction in Norway. ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway Geirangerfjord, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a long, narrow estuary with steep sides, made when a glacial valley is filled by rising sea water levels. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Firth (disambiguation). ... A Semi-submersible platform or rig, is a mobile structure used for drilling for oil and natural gas in offshore environments. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... Offshore Support Vessel Toisa Perseus with, in the background, the fifth-generation deepwater drillship Discoverer Enterprise, at the Thunder Horse location. ... A drillship is a maritime vessel that has been fitted with drilling apparatus. ... Offshore Support Vessel Toisa Perseus with, in the background, the fifth-generation deepwater drillship Discoverer Enterprise, at the Thunder Horse location. ... Terra Nova FPSO A Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel (FPSO; also called a unit and a system) is a type of floating tank system used by the offshore oil and gas industry and designed to take all of the oil or gas produced from a nearby platform (s), process... Terra Nova FPSO A Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel (FPSO; also called a unit and a system) is a type of floating tank system used by the offshore oil and gas industry and designed to take all of the oil or gas produced from a nearby platform (s), process... A Floating Storage and Offloading unit (FSO) is, as its name suggests, a floating storage device, usually for oil. ... A Tension-leg Platform is a vertically moored floating structure normally used for the production of oil or gas, and is particularly suited for water depths greater tha, 300 metres (about 1000 ft. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (941x1289, 116 KB)This is an off shore oil platform under construction in Norway, taken in early 1980s. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (941x1289, 116 KB)This is an off shore oil platform under construction in Norway, taken in early 1980s. ... A gravity base structure (GBS) is a support structure held in place by gravity. ... The Brent Spar oil storage buoy Brent Spar or Brent E, was an oil storage and tanker loading buoy in the Brent oilfield, operated by Shell UK. With the completion of a pipeline connection to the oil terminal at Sullom Voe in Shetland, the storage facility had continued in use... An Atlas Oryx helicopter touches down on a helipad onboard the High Speed Vessel Swift (HSV 2) ship. ...

Especially large examples

The Petronius Platform is an oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico, which stands 2,000 feet above the ocean floor. This structure is partially supported by buoyancy. Depending on the criteria it may be the world's tallest structure. The Petronius Platform is a deepwater oil platform operated by ChevronTexaco and Marathon Oil in the Gulf of Mexico, 210 km Southeast of New Orleans. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For many millennia the record holder for worlds tallest structure was clearly defined (see table below. ...


The Hibernia platform is the world's largest oil and gas platform, located on the Jeanne D'Arc basin, in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Newfoundland. The Gravity Base Structure (GBS), which sits on the ocean floor, is 364 feet high and has storage capacity for 1.3 million barrels of crude oil in its 278.8 foot high caisson (Dorel Iosif). The platform acts as a small concrete island with serrated outer edges designed to withstand the impact of an iceberg. The GBS contains production storage tanks and the remainder of the void space is filled with ballast with the entire structure weighing in at 1.2 million tons. The platform stands 734 feet high, which is half the height of New York's Empire State Building (1473) and 108 feet taller than the Calgary Tower (626.6 feet). The Hibernia oil platform. ... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... A gravity base structure (GBS) is a support structure held in place by gravity. ... For other uses, see Iceberg (disambiguation). ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Maintenance and supply

A typical oil production platform is self-sufficient in energy and water needs, housing electrical generation, water desalinators and all of the equipment necessary to process oil and gas such that it can be either delivered directly onshore by pipeline or to a Floating Storage Unit and/or tanker loading facility. Elements in the oil/gas production process include wellhead, production manifold, production separator, glycol process to dry gas, gas compressors, water injection pumps, oil/gas export metering and main oil line pumps. All production facilities are designed to have minimal environmental impact. Drilling The system of spools, valves and assorted adapters that provide pressure control of a production gas or oil well. ... Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name:ethane-1,2-diol) is a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze (coolant). ... A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. ...


Larger platforms are assisted by smaller ESVs (emergency support vessels) like the British Iolair that are summoned when something has gone wrong, e.g. when a search and rescue operation is required. During normal operations, PSVs (platform supply vessels) keep the platforms provisioned and supplied, and AHTS vessels can also supply them, as well as tow them to location and serve as standby rescue and firefighting vessels. Iolair on Elbe river in 1990 for the yacht see Iolaire The Iolair (Gaelic for eagle) is an oil rig that served as an Emergency Support Vessel (ESV). ... Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea... Platform supply vessel (often abbreviated as PSV) is a ship specially designed to supply offshore oil platforms. ... Anchor handling tug supply (AHTS) vessels supply oil platforms, as well as tow them to location and serve as standby rescue and firefighting vessels. ...


Crew

The size and composition of the crew of an offshore installation will vary greatly from platform to platform. Because of the cost intensive nature of operating an offshore platform, it is important to maximise productivity by ensuring work continues 24 hours a day. This means that there are essentially two complete crews onboard at a time, one for day shift and the other for night shift. Crews will also change out at regular intervals, nominally two weeks.


Essential personnel

Not all of these personnel are present on every platform, on smaller platforms workers will be responsible for several areas. The names shown are not industry-wide.

  • OIM (offshore installation manager) is the ultimate authority during his/her shift and makes the essential decisions regarding the operation of the platform.
  • Operations Team Leader (OTL)
  • Offshore Operations Engineer (OOE) is the senior technical authority on the platform
  • PSTL or Operations coordinator for managing crew changes
  • Dynamic Positioning Operator, navigation, ship or vessel manuevering (MODU), station keeping, fire and gas systems operations in the event of incident
  • 2nd Mate - Meets manning requirements of flag state, operates Fast Rescue craft, cargo ops, fire team leader.
  • 3rd Mate - Meets manning requirements of flag state, operates Fast Rescue craft, cargo ops, fire team leader
  • Ballast Control Operator _ also fire and gas systems operator
  • Crane operators to operate the cranes for lifting cargo around the platform and between boats.
  • Scaffolders to rig up scaffolding for when it is required for workers to work at height.
  • Coxwains for maintaining the lifeboats and manning them if necessary.
  • Control room operators - Especially FPSO or Production platforms.
  • Catering crew will include people tasked with performing essential functions such as cooking, laundry and cleaning the accommodation.
  • Production techs for running the production plant
  • Helicopter Pilot(s) live on some platforms that have a helicopter based offshore. The helicopter flight crew transports workers to other platforms or to shore on crew changes.
  • maintenance technicians (instrument ,electrical ,mechanical )

The OIM is the most senior member of management on many larger drilling rigs, particularly large jack-up rigs and some semi-submersibles. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... The name PILOT is an acronym, and stands for Programmed Instruction, Learning, Or Teaching. ...

Incidental personnel

  • Drill crew will be onboard if the installation is performing drilling operations. A drill crew will normally comprise:
  • Well services crew will be onboard for well work. The crew will normally comprise:
    • Well services supervisor
    • Wireline or coiled tubing operators
    • Pump operator

Lewis Hines 1920 Power house mechanic working on steam pump. ... Roustabout is a 1964 musical movie starring Elvis Presley. ... Company Man is the seventeenth episode of the NBC drama series Heroes. ... A mud engineer is an oil rig worker, whose sole purpose is to determine the correct mud to use for a borehole, and monitoring its condition. ... The Derrickhand or Derrickman position varies greatly from one drilling rig to another. ... The Geologist by Carl Spitzweg A geologist is a contributor to the science of geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system (see planetary geology). ...

Drawbacks

Risks

A typical offshore Oil/Gas platform.

The nature of their operation — extraction of volatile substances sometimes under extreme pressure in a hostile environment — has risk and frequent accidents and tragedies occur. In July 1988, 167 people died when Occidental Petroleum's Alpha offshore production platform, on the Piper field in the North Sea, exploded after a gas leak. The accident greatly accelerated the practice of providing living accommodations on separate rigs, away from those used for extraction. Oil platform from NASA JPL. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Oil platform from NASA JPL. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Oxy headquarters in Westwood, CA Occidental Petroleum Corporation (Oxy) NYSE: OXY is an international oil and gas exploration and production company with operations in the United States, Middle East/North Africa and Latin America regions. ... The Piper Alpha was a North Sea oil production platform operated by Occidental Petroleum (Caledonia) Ltd. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


However, this was, in itself, a hazardous environment. In March 1980, the 'flotel' (floating hotel) platform Alexander Kielland capsized in a storm in the North Sea with the loss of 123 lives. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Flotel, a composition of the terms floating hotel, refers to the installation of living quarters on top of rafts or semi-submersible platforms. ... Alexander Kielland was a Norwegian oil platform in the Ekofisk oil field. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


Given the number of grievances and conspiracy theories that involve the oil business, and the importance of gas/oil platforms to the economy, platforms in the United States are believed to be potential terrorist targets. Agencies and military units responsible for maritime counterterrorism in the US (Coast Guard, Navy SEALs, etc.) often train for platform raids. USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... SEALs in from the water. ...


Ecological effects

In British waters, the cost of removing all platform rig structures entirely was estimated in 1995 at $345 billion, and the cost of removing all structures including pipelines — a so-called "clean sea" approach — at $621 billion.


Further effects are the leaching of heavy metals that accumulate in buoyancy tanks into water; and risks associated with their disposal. There has been concern expressed at the practice of partially demolishing offshore rigs to the point that ships can traverse across their site; there have been instances of fishery vessels snagging nets on the remaining structures. Proposals for the disposal at sea of the Brent Spar, a 449 ft tall storage buoy (another true function of that which is termed an oil rig), was for a time in 1996 an environmental cause célèbre in the UK after Greenpeace occupied the floating structure. The event led to a reconsideration of disposal policy in the UK and Europe. For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... The Brent Spar oil storage buoy Brent Spar or Brent E, was an oil storage and tanker loading buoy in the Brent oilfield, operated by Shell UK. With the completion of a pipeline connection to the oil terminal at Sullom Voe in Shetland, the storage facility had continued in use... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Look up cause célèbre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ...


In the United States, Marine Biologist Milton Love has proposed that oil platforms off the California coast be retained as artificial reefs, instead of being dismantled (at great cost), because he has found them to be havens for many of the species of fish which are otherwise declining in the region, in the course of 11 years of research. Love is funded mainly by government agencies, but also in small part by the California Artificial Reef Enhancement Program. NOAA has said it is considering this course of action, but wants money to study the effects of the rigs in detail. Construction in place of an artificial reef from hollow tile blocks Ship about to be scuttled to act as an Artificial Reef An artificial reef is a man-made, underwater structure, typically built for the purpose of promoting marine life in areas of generally featureless bottom. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ...


In the Gulf of Mexico, more than 200 platforms have been similarly converted. In 2002, an oil rig exploded just offshore near New Orleans. Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...


Tallest oil platforms

The Petronius Platform is a deepwater oil platform operated by ChevronTexaco and Marathon Oil in the Gulf of Mexico, 210 km Southeast of New Orleans. ... Baldpate Platform is a 579. ... Bullwinkle Platform is a 529. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Troll oil field. ... Gullfaks C is an offshore platform of Statoil at Block 34/10 in the North Sea. ...

See also

The Brent oilfield is one of the most productive parts of Scotlands offshore oil assets, although now in steady decline. ... A Condeep under construction in Norway. ... Drilling Rig, Reverse circulation in Western Australia A drilling rig is a machine which creates holes (usually called boreholes) and/or shafts in the ground. ... Offshore Support Vessel Toisa Perseus with, in the background, the fifth-generation deepwater drillship Discoverer Enterprise, at the Thunder Horse location. ... Terra Nova FPSO A Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel (FPSO; also called a unit and a system) is a type of floating tank system used by the offshore oil and gas industry and designed to take all of the oil or gas produced from a nearby platform (s), process... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... This is a list of famous or notable buildings with articles about them. ... // North Sea Oil Platforms North Sea oil refers to oil and natural gas (hydrocarbons) produced from oil reservoirs beneath the North Sea. ... Petro redirects here. ... Saudi Aramco Rig 201 is the only offshore rig owned by Saudi Aramco, the largest oil company in the world in terms of production and proven reserves. ... The Texas Towers were a set of off-shore radar facilities used by the United States Air Force during the Cold War that were modeled on the offshore oil drilling platforms first employed off the Texas coast. ...

References

  1. ^ Project Redsand
  2. ^ 11.2 Azerbaijan's Oil History Brief Oil Chronology since 1920 ­ Part 2 by Mir-Yusif Mir-Babayev

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Oil platform
  • Oil Rig Disposal (pdf) — Post note issued by the UK Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology.
  • Overview of Conventional Platforms Pictoral treatment on the installation of platforms which extend from the seabed to the ocean surface
  • Exploring the Future of Offshore Oil and Gas Development in BC: Lessons from the Atlantic
  • Offshore Oil Drilling News Offshore Oil Drilling News
  • Oil Rig Disasters Listing of Oil Rig Accidents
  • Oil Rig Photos Collection of pictures of Drilling Rigs and Production Platforms
  • An independent review of Offshore Platforms in the North Sea
The Burj Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates is currently the worlds tallest man-made stucture. ... The Burj Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates is currently the worlds tallest man-made stucture. ... // This is a list of the tallest buildings and structures by country. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest completed building, is located in Taipei City, Taiwan These are lists of skyscrapers, ranked by: structural height (vertical elevation from the base to the highest architectural or integral structural element of the building). ... The following table is a list of buildings with 100 floors or more under construction. ... Tallest churches, heights in metres From the Middle Ages until the advent of the skyscraper, Christian churches have been among the tallest buildings in the world. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest skyscraper by roof height on high rise. ... While skyscrapers remain sparser in Europe than in Asia or the Americas, a significant number of cities still distinguish themselves by the number of highrise buildings they host. ... This is a list of skyscrapers in Israel, ranked by structural height. ... The Warsaw radio mast, built in 1974, was the tallest structure ever built at 646. ... The following fall under the definition of a tower which is a tall man-made structure, always taller than it is wide, and usually much higher. ... A list of the tallest chimneys of the world. ... This is a list of the tallest structures in the Commonwealth of Nations. ... A list of the tallest structures of any kind in Europe, which exist or existed in Europe. ... A list of the tallest structures in Luxemburg. ... // Overhead line crossing Suez Canal, 221 meters Cairo Tower, 187 meters Great Pyramid of Giza, built c. ... An additionally guyed tower is a free-standing tower, which is also additionally guyed. ... An architectural structure is a free-standing or guy anchored manmade outdoor construction for permanent use. ... The Aspects for Antenna heights considerations are depending upon the wave range and economical reasons. ... An Air traffic obstacle is a tall structure which can endanger air traffic. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Height restriction laws are laws, which restrict the maximum height of structures. ... A partially guyed towers is a tower structure which consists of a free-standing basement, in most cases of concrete or of lattice steel with a guyed mast on the top. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of famous or notable buildings with articles about them. ... This article is about the largest buildings in the world. ... Domes are in architectural terms particularly demanding structures. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
OIL RIGS (2987 words)
An oil platform is a large structure used to house workers and machinery needed to drill and then produce oil and natural gas in the ocean.
Depending on the circumstances, the platform may be attached to the ocean floor, consist of an artificial island, or be floating.
A typical platform may have around thirty wellheads located on the platform and directional drilling allows reservoirs to be accessed at both different depths and at remote positions up to 5 miles (8 kilometres) from the platform.
UKOOA - United Kingdom Offshore Operators Association - Education - For Students - Production - How Crude Oil and Gas ... (980 words)
However because floating production platforms are less able to cope with heavy storms, production is more likely to be suspended during adverse weather conditions than it would be using a fixed platform.
An underwater wellhead is installed to produce oil and gas from these small reservoirs which is then piped back to the platform for processing and transportation to shore.
Crude oil is naturally forced to the surface because it is under pressure in the reservoir.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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