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Encyclopedia > Oil paint
View of Delft in oil paint, by Johannes Vermeer.
View of Delft in oil paint, by Johannes Vermeer.

Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint consisting of small pigment particles suspended in a drying oil. Oil paints have been used in England as early as the 13th century for simple decoration,[1] but were not widely adopted for artistic purposes until the 15th century. The most common modern application of oil paint is domestic, where its hard-wearing properties and luminous colours make it desirable for both interior and exterior use. Its slow-drying properties have recently been used in paint-on-glass animation. Download high resolution version (2024x1724, 326 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2024x1724, 326 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... --74. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For animal and plant pigments, see Pigment, biology. ... A drying oil is an oil which hardens to a tough, solid film after a period of exposure to air. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Aleksandr Petrovs 1999 The Old Man and the Sea (Academy Award for Animated Short Film) Paint-on-glass animation is a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow-drying oil paints on sheets of glass. ...

Contents

History

The slow-drying properties of organic oils were commonly known to early painters. However, the difficulty in acquiring and working the materials meant that they were rarely used. As public preference for realism increased, however, the quick-drying tempera paints became insufficient. Flemish artists combined tempera and oil painting during the 1400s, but by the 1600s easel painting in pure oils was common, using much the same techniques and materials found today. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A 1367 tempera on wood by Niccolò Semitecolo. ... The Arnolfini portrait by Jan van Eyck. ... Events and Trends Categories: 1400s ... November 5, 1605 â€” The Gunpowder Plot to blow up the British Parliament. ...


Though the ancient Mediterranean civilizations of Greece, Rome, and Egypt were familiar with vegetal oils, there is little evidence to indicate their use as media in painting. Indeed, linseed oil was long rejected as a medium because of its tendency to dry slowly, darken, and crack, unlike mastic and wax. Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Vegetable oil redirects here. ... Linseed oil is a yellowish drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum, Linaceae). ... Binomial name Pistacia lentiscus L. Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing to 3–4 m tall, mainly cultivated on the Greek island of Chios[1], but it is also native throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Iberia east to Syria and Israel and north... candle wax This page is about the substance. ...


However, Greek writers such as Aetius Amidenus recorded recipes involving the use of oils for drying, such as walnut, poppy, hempseed, pine nut, castor, and linseed. When thickened, the oils became resinous and could be used as varnish to seal and protect paintings from water. Additionally, when yellow pigment was added to oil, it could be spread over tin foil as a less expensive alternative to gold leaf. Early Christian monks maintained these records and used the techniques in their own artworks. Theophilus Presbyter, a 12th century German monk, recommended linseed oil from the Baltic Sea area, but advocated against the use of olive oil due to its excessively long drying time. Aëtius Amidenus or Aëtius of Amida (Αέτιος Αμιδηνός) was the court physician of Justinian I. He wrote a medical encyclopedia called either Sixteen Medical Books or Tetrabibloi (Βιβλία Ιατρικά) which documents the medical knowledge of the Late Antique period, drawing on previous medical authors, including Galen and the encyclopedia of Oribasius. ... A drying oil is an oil which hardens to a tough, solid film after a period of exposure to air. ... Walnut oil was one of the most important and vital oils of the Renaissance. ... Poppyseed oil (also poppy seed oil or poppy oil) is oil extracted from the seeds of the opium poppy ( The whole seeds of the poppy plant are edible and non-toxic, and have been used for various culinary purposes (particularly baking) since ancient times. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Pine nut oil, also called pine seed oil or cedar nut oil, is a pressed vegetable oil, extracted from the edible seeds of several species of pine. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials. ... For animal and plant pigments, see Pigment, biology. ... Tin foil or tinfoil is a thin leaf made of tin. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Metal leaf. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... Theophilus Presbyter (approx. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... A bottle of olive oil. ...


As early as the 13th century, oil was used to add details to tempera paintings. In the 14th century, Cennino Cennini presented a painting technique utilizing tempera painting covered by light layers of oil. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Cennino DAndrea Cennini (c. ...


The modern technique of oil painting was created circa 1410 by Jan van Eyck. Though van Eyck was not the first artist to use oil paint, he was the first who is known to have produced a stable siccative oil mixture which could be used to bind mineral pigments. Van Eyck’s mixture probably consisted of piled glass, calcined bones, and mineral pigments boiled in linseed oil until reaching a viscous state. March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... Portrait of a Man in a Turban (actually a chaperon), probably a self-portrait, painted 1433 Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (c. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Calcination is the process of heating a substance to a high temperature, but below its melting or fusing point, to bring about thermal decomposition or a phase transition in its physical or chemical constitution. ... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress. ...


Antonello da Messina later introduced another improvement to oil paint: he added litharge, or lead oxide, to the mixture. The new mixture had a honey-like consistency and increased siccative properties. This medium was known as oglio cotto—"cooked oil." Portrait, called the Condottiere, dated 1475 (Louvre) Antonello da Messina (c. ... Litharge is the natural mineral form of lead(II) oxide, PbO. Litharge is a secondary mineral which forms from the oxidation of galena ores. ...


Leonardo da Vinci improved the technique even further by cooking the mixture at a low temperature and adding 5 to 10% beeswax, which prevented dramatic darkening of the finished paint. Giorgione, Titian, and Tintoretto each slightly altered this recipe for their own purposes. The Mona Lisa Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer. ... Beeswax cake Fresh wax scales (in the middle of the lower row) Beeswax is a product from a bee hive. ... Pastoral Concert (c. ... Titians self-portrait, 1566. ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin) September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ...


During his stay in Italy, Rubens studied the Italian oil paint mixture. He later made his own improvement, using walnut oil warmed with litharge and adding mastic dissolved in turpentine. Rubens and Isabella Brant in the Honeysuckle Bower Alte Pinakothek Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was the most popular and prolific Flemish and European painter of the 17th century. ... For the band, see Turpentine (band). ...


Since that time, experiments to improve paint and coatings have been conducted with other oils. Today, oils from bladderpod, sandmat, ironweed, and calendula plants are used to increase resistance or to decrease drying time. Bladderpod oil is a seed oil, extracted from the seeds of the Lesquerella fendleri and other species of genus Lesquerella, Native to the plains and mesas of southwestern United States, eastward to Kansas and southward into northern Mexico. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Species About 1000; see text Vernonia is a large genus of plants in the family Asteraceae, named for English botanist William Vernon. ... Species About 20, see text : also numerous garden hybrids and cultivars The marigolds, genus Calendula L., are a genus of about 20 species of annual or perennial herbaceous plants in the daisy family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean region and Macaronesia. ...


Practical properties of oil paint

Many artists today consider oil paint to be one of the fundamental art media; something that a student should learn to appreciate, because of its properties and use in previous, very popular artwork. Typical qualities of oil paint include:

  • the long open time, where paint will not dry for up to several weeks, allowing the artist to work on a painting for several sessions.
  • the propensity for the paint to blend into surrounding paint allowing very subtle blending of colors.
  • vivid, high chroma colors

Carrier

Traditional oil paints require an oil that will gradually harden, forming a stable, impermeable film. Such oils are called siccative, or drying, oils, and are characterized by high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. One common measure of the siccative property of oils is iodine number, the number of grams of iodine one hundred grams of oil can absorb. Oils with an iodine number greater than 130 are considered drying, those with an iodine number of 115-130 are semi-drying, and those with an iodine number of less than 115 are non-drying. Linseed oil, the most prevalent vehicle for artists' paints, is a drying oil. A drying oil is an oil which hardens to a tough, solid film after a period of exposure to air. ... A polyunsaturated organic compound is one in which more than one double bond exists within the representative molecule. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... The iodine number in chemistry is the mass of iodine in grams that is consumed by 100 grams of a chemical substance. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Atomic mass 126. ...


When exposed to air, oils do not undergo the same evaporative process that water does. Instead, they oxidize into a dry solid. Depending upon the source, this process can be very slow, resulting in paints with an extended drying time. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... To oxidize an element or a compound is to increase its oxidation number. ...


This earliest and still most commonly used vehicle is linseed oil, made from the seed of the flax plant. The seeds are crushed and the oil extracted. Modern processes use heat or steam in order to produce refined varieties of oil, which contain fewer impurities, but cold-pressed oils are still the favorite of many artists.[2] Other sources of carrier oils exist. Hemp, poppy seed, walnut, sunflower, safflower, and soybean oils are often used as an alternative to linseed oil. Other oils are used for a variety of reasons. Some oils, such as walnut and poppy, are paler and allow for more vibrant whites. Linseed oil is a yellowish drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum, Linaceae). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum Linnaeus. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Poppyseed oil (also poppy seed oil or poppy oil) is oil extracted from the seeds of the opium poppy ( The whole seeds of the poppy plant are edible and non-toxic, and have been used for various culinary purposes (particularly baking) since ancient times. ... Walnut oil was one of the most important and vital oils of the Renaissance. ... Sunflower Oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. ... Safflower oil is an oil extracted from the safflower seed. ... Binomial name Glycine max Merr. ...


Once the oil is extracted additives are sometimes used to improve its chemical properties. In this manner the paint can be made to dry more quickly if that is desired, or to have varying levels of gloss. Modern oils paints can, therefore, have complex chemical structures; for example, affecting resistance to UV or giving a suede like appearance. Look up Additive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary When used as a noun, additive refers to something that is introduced to a larger quantity of something else, usually to alter characteristics of the larger quantity. ... A gloss is a note made in the margins or between the lines of a book, in which the meaning of the text in its original language is explained in another language. ... UV redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Non-oil carriers

The twentieth century saw the development of new carriers for paint. In many cases, such as acrylic paint, a different binder is substituted for oil. Fully substituting oil based paints by those based on a completely different medium that displays characteristics that are, for the most part, not oil-like, will reduce the artists range of possible expression. Some manufacturers, in an attempt to produce a medium that is oil-based but avoids toxic cleaners and thinners, have managed to produce water-based oil paints. The vehicle for such paints is an oil with a surfactant molecule chemically bonded to it which allows oil to mix with water in much the same way dish soap does but with greater sophistication. Carduelis tristis painted in Acrylic paints Pheucticus melanocephalus painted in Acrylic paints Acrylic paint is fast-drying paint containing pigment suspended in an acrylic polymer emulsion. ... A binder is a material used to bind together two or more other materials in mixtures. ... Surfactants are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ...


How oil paint dries

Unlike water-based paints, oils do not dry by evaporation. The drying of oils is the result of an oxidative reaction, chemically equivalent to slow, flameless combustion. In this process, a form of autoxidation, oxygen attacks the hydrocarbon chain, touching off a series of addition reactions. As a result, the oil polymerizes, forming long, chain-like molecules. Following the autoxidation stage, the oil polymers cross-link: bonds form between neighboring molecules, resulting in a vast polymer network. Over time, this network may undergo further change. Certain functional groups in the networks become ionized, and the network transitions from a system held together by nonpolar covalent bonds to one governed by the ionic forces between these functional groups and the metal ions present in the pigment. The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ... Autoxidation is any oxidation that occurs in open air or in presence of oxygen and/or UV radiation and forms peroxides and hydroperoxides. ... Hydrocarbons are refined at oil refineries and processed at chemical plants A hydrocarbon is a chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... An addition reaction, in chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass consisting of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Chemical substances are not infinitely divisible into smaller fractions of the same substance: a molecule is generally considered the smallest particle of a pure... In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... Ionization is the physical process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by changing the difference between the number of protons and electrons. ... In chemistry, a nonpolar compound is one that does not have concentrations of positive or negative electric charge. ... Covalent bonding is a description of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms. ... Hot metal work from a blacksmith In chemistry, a metal (Greek: Metallon) is an element that readily loses electrons to form positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds between metal atoms. ... ...


Vegetable oils consist of glycerol esters of fatty acids, long hydrocarbon chains with a terminal carboxyl group. In oil autoxidation, oxygen attacks a hydrocarbon chain, often at the site of an allylic hydrogen (a hydrogen on a carbon atom adjacent to a double bond). This produces a free radical, a substance with an unpaired electron which makes it highly reactive. A series of addition reactions ensues. Each step produces additional free radicals, which then engage in further polymerization. The process finally terminates when free radicals collide, combining their unpaired electrons to form a new bond. The polymerization stage occurs over a period of days to weeks, and renders the film dry to the touch. However, chemical changes in the paint film continue. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Glycerol, also well known as glycerin and glycerine, and less commonly as propane-1,2,3-triol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. ... For the Biblical Ester, see Esther. ... In chemistry, a carboxyl group is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom doubly bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydroxyl (-OH) group, typically written as -COOH: where R is a hydrogen or an organic group. ... An allyl group is an alkene hydrocarbon group with the formula H2C=CH-CH2-. It is made up of a vinyl group, CH2=CH-, attached to a methylene -CH2. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... e- redirects here. ...


As time passes, the polymer chains begin to cross-link. Adjacent molecules form covalent bonds, forming a molecular network that extends throughout painting. In this network, known as the stationary phase, molecules are no longer free to slide past each other, or to move apart. The result is a stable film which, while somewhat elastic, does not flow or deform under the pull of gravity. Elasticity is a branch of physics which studies the properties of elastic materials. ...


During the drying process, a number of compounds are produced that do not contribute to the polymer network. These include unstable hydroperoxides (ROOH), the major by-product of the reaction of oxygen with unsaturated fatty acids. The hydroperoxides quickly decompose, forming carbon dioxide and water, as well as a variety of aldehydes, acids, and hydrocarbons. Many of these compounds are volatile, and in an unpigmented oil, they would be quickly lost to the environment. However, in paints, such volatiles may react with lead, zinc, copper or iron compounds in the pigment, and remain in the paint film as coordination complexes or salts. A large number of free fatty acids are also produced during autoxidation, as most of the original ester bonds in the triglycerides undergo hydrolysis. Some portion of the free fatty acids react with metals in the pigment, producing metal carboxylates. Together, the various non-cross-linking substances associated with the polymer network constitute the mobile phases. Unlike the molecules that are part of the network itself, they are capable of moving and diffusing within the film, and can be removed using heat or a solvent. The mobile phase may play a role in plasticizing the paint film, preventing it from becoming too brittle. Organic peroxides are organic molecules containing the peroxide functional group ROOR If the R is hydrogen, the compound is called organic hydroperoxide. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Impact of a drop of water. ... An aldehyde. ... Acidity redirects here. ... Hydrocarbons are refined at oil refineries and processed at chemical plants A hydrocarbon is a chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... A compound is an area of land that is surrounded by fences, walls, or barbed wire and is used for a particular purpose, especially an area containing buildings and where the entry and exit of people is controlled. ... For animal and plant pigments, see Pigment, biology. ...


One simple technique for monitoring the early stages of the drying process is to measure weight change in an oil film over time. Initially, the film becomes heavier, as it absorbs large amounts of oxygen. Then oxygen uptake ceases, and the weight of the film declines as volatile compounds are lost to the environment.


As the paint film ages, a further transition occurs. Carboxyl groups in the polymers of the stationary phase lose a hydrogen ion, becoming negatively charged, and form complexes with metal cations present in the pigment. The original network, with its nonpolar, covalent bonds is replaced by an ionomeric structure, held together by ionic interactions. At present, the structure of these ionomeric networks is not well understood. A cation is an ion with positive charge. ...


Pigment

The colour of oil paint derives from the small particles mixed with the carrier. Common pigment types include mineral salts such as white oxides: lead, zinc and titanium, and the red to yellow cadmium pigments. Another class consists of earth types, e.g sienna or umber. Synthetic pigments are also now available. Natural pigments have the advantage of being well understood through centuries of use but synthetics have greatly increased the spectrum available, and many are tested well for their lightfastness. For PB or pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Atomic mass 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... General Name, Symbol, Number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass 47. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Atomic mass 112. ... Clay earth pigments are naturally occurring minerals that have been used since prehistoric times as pigments. ... This page is not about Siena, Italy. ... Raw umber Umber is a natural brown clay pigment which contains iron and manganese oxides. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ...


Toxicity

Many of the historical pigments were dangerous. Many toxic pigments, such as emerald green (copper(II)-acetoarsenite) and orpiment (arsenic sulfide), to name only two, have fallen from use. Some pigments still in use are toxic to some degree, however. Many of the reds and yellows are produced using cadmium. Flake white and Cremnitz white are made with basic lead carbonate. The cobalt colors, including cerulean blue, are made with cobalt. Some varieties of cobalt violet are made with cobalt arsenate. Manufacturers advise that care should be taken when using paints with these pigments. They advise never to spray apply toxic paints. Read the health warnings on the label. Some artists choose to avoid toxic pigments entirely, while others find that the unique properties of the paints more than compensate for the small risks inherent in using them. General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Atomic mass 74. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Atomic mass 112. ... Sample of cerussite-bearing quartzite Cerussite (also known as Horn silver, Lead carbonate, White lead ore) is a mineral consisting of lead carbonate (PbCO3), and an important ore of lead. ... Cerulean blue is a cerulean (light blue or azure) pigment used in artistic painting. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Zinc white and titanium white may carry a California health label for lead content. Those paints contain far less lead than the lead whites. Some manufacturers put the text "California only" above the warning.


Thinners such as turpentine and white spirit are flammable. Some of them, particularly the poor grades of turpentine, have a strong odour. Both turpentine and odorless mineral spirits can be harmful to the health if used inappropriately. Thinners made from D-limonene are thought by some to have some potential for risk. The EPA has not made that determination, however. [1] For the band, see Turpentine (band). ... White spirit also known as Stoddard solvent is a paraffin derived clear, transparent liquid which is a common organic solvent used in painting and decorating. ...


References

  1. ^ Charles Eastlake, Materials for a History of Oil Painting, Longman, Longman, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1847.
  2. ^ H. Gluck, "The Impermanences of Painting in Relation to Artists' Materials", Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Volume CXII 1964

General

  • Mayer, Ralph. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques Viking Adult; 5th revised and updated edition, 1991. ISBN 0-670-83701-6

History


Chemistry of Oil Paint Daniel Smith Art Supply (sometimes advertised as Daniel Smith Artists Materials) is an art supply manufacturer and retailer. ...

  • “Autoxidation.” McGraw Hill Encyclopedia. 8th ed. 1997.
  • Friedman, Ann, et. al., Painting, World Book online, 46 Stetson St. #5 Brookline, MA. 10 May, 2006.
  • Mecklenburg, Marion, Autoxidation of Oil, 13 Jan 2006. The Painter's Handbook, Mark David Gottsegen. 11 June 2006.
  • van den Berg, Jorit D.J., Mobile and Stationary Phases in Traditional Aged Oil PaintPDF (3.08 MiB), MOLART 2002. 8 May 2006

Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixed-layout... A mebibyte (a contraction of mega binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated MiB. 1 MiB = 220 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes = 1,024 kibibytes The mebibyte is closely related to the megabyte (MB), which can either be a synonym for mebibyte, or refer to 106...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Oil painting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1599 words)
Oil painting is done on surfaces with pigments that are ground and mixed into a medium of oil — especially in early modern Europe, linseed oil.
Oil painting was ideal for the northern European painters, because the preferred fresco painting media did not work as well in their cooler climate.
Although not technically true oils (the medium is an unidentified "non-drying synthetic oily liquid, imbedded with a heat sensitive curing agent"), the paintings resemble oil paintings and are usually shown as oil paintings.
oil painting: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1832 words)
Painting in oil colours, a medium consisting of pigments suspended in drying oils.
Oil paint enables both fusion of tones and crisp effects and is unsurpassed for textural variation.
Oil as a painting medium is recorded as early as the 11th century, though the practice of easel painting with oil colours stems directly from 15th-century techniques of painting with tempera (see tempera painting).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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