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Encyclopedia > Ohio in the Civil War

During the American Civil War, nearly 320,000 Ohioans served in the Union Army, more than any other northern state except New York and Pennsylvania. Of these, 5,092 were free blacks. Ohio had the highest percentage of its population enlisted in the military of any state, with 60% of all the men between the ages of 18 and 45 in the service. Ohio mustered 230 regiments of infantry and cavalry, as well as 26 light artillery batteries and 5 independent companies of sharpshooters. Total casualties among these units numbered 35,475 men, over 10% of all the Buckeyes in uniform during the war. 6,835 men were killed in action, including 402 officers. Combatants Union (remaining U.S. states) Confederate States of America Commanders Abraham Lincoln† Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties KIA: 110,000 Total dead: 360,000 Wounded: 275,200 KIA: 94,000 Total dead: 258,000 Wounded: 137,000+  The... Official language(s) None Capital Largest city Columbus Columbus (largest metropolitan area is Cleveland) Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Largest city Albany New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi  (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None Capital Largest city Harrisburg Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi  (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ... A regiment is a military unit, larger than a company and smaller than a division. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers or marines who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units. ... Cavalry is also a common misspelling of the Biblical hill Calvary. ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... A marksman (also designated marksman) is a profession which is mostly to be found in military context. ...


At the outbreak of the war, in response to a call to arms by President Abraham Lincoln, Ohio raised 23 infantry regiments for three months service, 10 more regiments than the state's quota. Soon, when it became evident that the war would not end quickly, Ohio began raising regiments for three-year terms of enlistment, the vast majority stocked with volunteers and recruits. By the war's end, they would be joined by 8,750 draftees. There were dozens of small camps established across the state to train and drill the new regiments, in addition to two large military posts, Camp Chase in Columbus and Camp Dennison near Cincinnati. The first military action seen by Ohioans was at the Battle of Philippi Races in June 1861, where the 14th and 16th Ohio participated in the Union victory. Ohioans comprised one-fifth of the Union army at the April 1862 Battle of Shiloh, where 1,676 Buckeyes would be killed or wounded. Ohio would suffer its highest casualty count at the Battle of Chickamauga in September 1863, with 3,591 killed or wounded and 1,351 more taken prisoner of war by the Confederates. The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed the Rail Splitter, Honest Abe and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Nickname: The Arch City The Discovery City Official website: http://www. ... Nickname: The Queen City Official website: http://www. ... For the Roman Civil War battle, see Battle of Philippi. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston† P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894) and Army of the Ohio (17,918) Army of Mississippi (44,699) Casualties 13,047 (1,754 killed, 8,408... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (66,000) Casualties 1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing 2,312 killed, 14,674 wounded, 1... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


A disproportionate number of leading generals and army commanders hailed from Ohio. The General-in-Chief of the Union armies, Ulysses S. Grant, was born in Clermont County in 1822. Among the more reknown major generals were Don Carlos Buell, Jacob D. Cox, George Crook, George Armstrong Custer, James A. Garfield, Alexander D. McCook (of the "Fighting McCook" family, which sent a number of generals into the service), Irvin McDowell, George B. McClellan, James B. McPherson, William S. Rosecrans, Philip H. Sheridan, and William T. Sherman. In addition to Grant and Garfield, three other Ohio soldiers would become President in the decades following the war – William B. McKinley, Rutherford B. Hayes, Benjamin Harrison. Over 100 soldiers from Ohio units would win the Medal of Honor during the conflict. During the war, three men would serve as Governor of Ohio – William Dennison, David Tod and John Brough. The Copperhead movement had significant traction in Ohio, driven in part by noted Southern sympathizer Clement Vallandigham. A General is an officer of high military rank. ... Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Clermont County is a county located in the state of Ohio, just east of Cincinnati. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Don Carlos Buell ( 23 March 1818- 19 November 1898) was an American assistant adjutant general who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... Jacob Dolson Cox (October 27, 1828 - August 4, 1900) was an officer in the Union Army during the Civil War and later a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Portrait of George Crook George Crook (September 8, 1828 – March 21, 1890) was a career U.S. Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... George Armstrong Custer George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839–June 25, 1876) was a United States Army cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 – September 19, 1881) was the 20th President of the United States (1881), and the second U.S. President to be assassinated. ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general (and briefly the general-in-chief of the Union Army) during the American Civil War. ... James B. McPherson James Birdseye McPherson (November 14, 1828 – July 22, 1864) was a career U.S. Army officer who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 - March 11, 1898), nicknamed Old Rosy, served as an American military officer. ... Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888), a military man and one of the great generals in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ... William Brown McKinley was a United States Senator and congressman from the State of Illinois; He was born near Petersburg, Illinois on September 5, 1856. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, and military leader from the U.S. state of Ohio. ... Benjamin Harrison VI (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was the 23rd President of the United States. ... Three different versions of the Medal of Honor are awarded: one each for the Army, Navy, and Air Force. ... William Dennison, Jr. ... David Tod (February 21, 1805 - November 13, 1868) was a politician from Ohio. ... John Brough (rhymes with huff) (September 17, 1811 - August 29, 1865) was a War Democrat politician from Ohio. ... In biology, a copperhead is any of four species of venomous snake: the American copperhead of eastern North America, and three species of Australian copperhead. ... Clement Vallandigham Clement Laird Vallandigham (velan´digham, -gam) (July 29, 1820 - June 17, 1871), Ohio politician, a key leader of the Copperheads in the American Civil War, was born in New Lisbon (now Lisbon), Ohio. ...


Ohio has a number of Civil War sites. Two significant cemeteries for the dead from the Confederate States Army can be found in the Buckeye State, including one at the prison camp on Johnson's Island and another at Camp Chase, where over 2,000 Southerners were interred. The only battlefield of significance is Buffington Island, which is threatened today by development. This was the largest fight of the July 1863 dash across Ohio by Confederate cavalry under John Hunt Morgan, an incursion immortalized as Morgan's Raid. Extreme south-central Ohio had previously been briefly invaded in early September 1862 by cavalry under Albert G. Jenkins. Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven southern states seceded from the United States (with four more to follow). ... Johnsons Island was the site of a prisoner-of-war camp for Confederate officers captured during the American Civil War. ... Battle of Buffington Island, also known as Buffington Island Skirmish, took place on July 19, 1863, during the American Civil War, in Meigs County, Ohio. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan John Hunt Morgan (June 1, 1825 – September 4, 1864) was a Confederate general and cavalry officer in the American Civil War. ... Confederate Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan Morgans Raid was a highly publicized incursion by Confederate cavalry into the Northern states of Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War. ...


President Lincoln's train passed through Ohio en route to Washington D.C. for his inauguration, with brief stops in numerous cities. Although Lincoln had visited the state several times before the war, he would not return during the Civil War until his funeral train passed through the state for Springfield, Illinois, in 1865. Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Motto: Nickname: Map Political Statistics Founded 1819 Incorporated Sangamon County Mayor Timothy Davlin Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 156. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


References

  • Harper, Robert S., Ohio Handbook of the Civil War, Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio Historical Society, 1961.
  • Reid, Whitelaw, Ohio in the War, 2 Volumes, 1868.

 
 

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