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Encyclopedia > Ohio Country
The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries
The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries

The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie. One of the first frontier regions of the United States, the area encompassed roughly the present-day states of Ohio, eastern Indiana, western Pennsylvania, and northwestern West Virginia. The issue of settlement in the region is considered by historians to have been a primary cause of the French and Indian War and a contributing factor to the American Revolutionary War. Ohio Country © 2004 Matthew Trump File links The following pages link to this file: Chillicothe, Ohio Ohio Country Categories: GFDL images | Historical maps of the United States ... Ohio Country © 2004 Matthew Trump File links The following pages link to this file: Chillicothe, Ohio Ohio Country Categories: GFDL images | Historical maps of the United States ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the... A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of North American mountains, partly in Canada, but mostly in the United States, extending as a zone, from 100 to 300 miles wide, running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 1500 miles south... The Ohio River is a principal tributary of the Mississippi River, 1,579 km (981 mi) long in the eastern United States. ... Lake Erie, looking southward from a high rural bluff near Leamington, Ontario Lake Erie (ee ree) is is one of the five large freshwater Great Lakes in North America, among the worlds largest such lakes. ... In the United States and Canada, the frontier was the term applied until the end of the 19th century to the zone of unsettled land outside the region of existing settlements of European immigrants and their descendants. ... State nickname: The Buckeye State Official languages None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Governor Bob Taft (R) Senators Mike DeWine (R) George V. Voinovich (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 34th 116,096 km² 8. ... State nickname: The Hoosier State Official languages English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Governor Mitch Daniels (R) Senators Richard Lugar (R) Evan Bayh (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 38th 94,321 km² 1. ... State nickname: The Keystone State Official languages None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Governor Ed Rendell (D) Senators Arlen Specter (R) Rick Santorum (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 33rd 119,283 km² 2. ... State nickname: Mountain State Official languages English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Governor Joe Manchin (D) Senators Robert Byrd (D) Jay Rockefeller (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 41st 62,809 km² 0. ... The French and Indian War is the American name for the decisive nine-year conflict (1754-1763) in North America between the Kingdom of Great Britain and France, which was one of the theatres of the Seven Years War. ... Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, allies British Empire, allies Commanders George Washington Comte de Rochambeau Nathanael Greene William Howe Henry Clinton Charles Cornwallis Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties {{{casualties1}}} {{{casualties2}}} The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was the military side of the American Revolution. ...

Contents


History

Colonial Era

In the 17th century, the area north of the Ohio River had been occupied by the Algonquian-speaking Shawnee tribes. Around 1660, the Shawnee were driven out by the Iroquois during the Beaver Wars, but by 1730 the Shawnee had returned to reclaim the region. The Shawnee were largely under the control of two septs, with the Chalahgawtha (northern sept), in control of the area north of the Ohio. Major villages of the region included Chalahgawtha in present-day western Ohio, named for the Shawnee sept, as well Kittanning on the Allegheny River, in present-day western Pennsylvania. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... The Shawnee, or Shawano, are a people native to North America. ... Events Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces. ... The Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee, also known as the League of Peace and Power, Five Nations, or Six Nations) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... The French and Iroquois Wars (also called the Iroquois Wars or the Beaver Wars) were an intermittent series of conflicts fought in the late 17th century in eastern North America, in which the Iroquois sought to expand their territory and take control of the role of middleman in the fur... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births April 16 - Henry Clinton, British general (d. ... Chalahgawtha (or Chillicothe) was the name of one of the two principal septs of the Shawnee tribe of Native Americans in the Ohio Country in North America during the 18th century, as well as the name one of the principal village of this sept. ... Kittanning was an 18th century Native American village in the Ohio Country, located on the Allegheny River at present-day Kittanning, Pennsylvania. ... The Allegheny River (historically, especially in New York state, also spelled Allegany River) is a principal tributary of the Ohio River, which it forms with the Monongahela River at the downtown Pittsburghs Golden Triangle point. The river is approximately 325 mi (523 km) long, in the U.S. states...


With the arrival of the Europeans, the region was claimed by both Great Britain and France, which both sent merchants into the area to trade with the Shawnee. The region was also claimed by the Iroquois by right of conquest. The rivalry between the two European nations, the Iroquois, and the Shawnee for control of the region played an important part of the French and Indian War in the 1750s. The Shawnee largely sided with the French. The Shawnee and their allies the Lenape had been driven from east of the Alleghenies by the British of the Pennsylvania Colony through what the Shawnee considered to have been an unjust treaty. Armed with supplies and guns from the French, they undertook brutal raids via the Kittanning Path against British settlers east of the Alleghenies. After one such raid destroyed Fort Granville in the summer of 1756, colonial governor John Penn ordered Lt. Colonel John Armstrong to destroy the Shawnee villages west of the Alleghenies. The war ended with the defeat of the French and their allies. The 1763 Treaty of Paris gave control of the region to Great Britain. A satellite composite image of Europe // Etymology Picture of Europa, carried away by bull-shaped Zeus. ... Events and Trends Scientific navigation is developed The Seven Years War (1756-1763) fought between two rival alliances: the first consisting of the Kingdom of Great Britain, Hanover, and Prussia; the second consisting of Austria, France, Imperial Russia, Saxony, and Sweden. ... The Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans) were, in the 1600s, loosely organized bands of Native American people practicing small-scale agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region around the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. ... The Allegheny Mountains are a part of the Appalachian mountain range located in the eastern United States. ... The Province of Pennsylvania, better known to Americans as Pennsylvania Colony, was a North America colony granted to William Penn in 1681 by King Charles II of England. ... The Kittanning Path was a major east-west Native American trail in western Pennsylvania used during the 18th century. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... John Penn (1729-1795) was one of the last colonial proprietors of Pennsylvania, and Lieutenant Governor of the colony from 1763 to 1776. ... John Armstrong (1717-1795) was an American civil engineer and soldier who served as a major general in the Revolutionary War. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... (Redirected from 1763 Treaty of Paris) The Treaty of Paris, February 10, 1763, was signed by the Kingdom of Great Britain, France and Spain with Portugal in agreement. ...


American Revolution and early Republic

Despite its acquisition by Great Britain, the area remained officially closed to white settlement by the Proclamation of 1763, which arose in part of the British desire to regain peaceful relations with the Shawnee and other tribes in the region. This proclamation also effectively established that the Crown no longer recognized claims of the colonies made on the land. On June 22, 1774, the parliament passed the Quebec Act which annexed this region to the province of Quebec, and was referred to as one of the Intolerable Acts leading to the American Revolution. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763 by the British government in the name of King George III to prohibit settlement by British colonists beyond the Appalachian Mountains in the lands captured by Britain from France in the French and Indian War/Seven Years War and to... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1774 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Quebec Act of 1774 was an act by the British Parliament setting out procedures of governance in the area of Quebec. ... This article describes the Canadian province. ... The Intolerable Acts, called by the British the Coercive Acts or Punitive Acts, were a series of laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 in response to the growing unrest in thirteen American colonies, particularly in Boston, Massachusetts after incidents such as the Boston Tea Party. ...


Despite the actions of the Crown, frontiersmen from the Virginia and Pennsylvania colonies had begun crossing the Allegheny Mountains and coming into conflict with the Shawnee. The Shawnee referred to the settlers as the Long Knives, and the realization of the threat they posed led the Shawnee, as well as the other tribes of the Ohio Nations, to side with the British against the Americans during the American Revolutionary War. In the United States and Canada, the frontier was the term applied until the end of the 19th century to the zone of unsettled land outside the region of existing settlements of European immigrants and their descendants. ... The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Virginia Colony refers to the English colony in North America that existed during the 17th and 18th centuries before the American Revolution. ... The Province of Pennsylvania, better known to Americans as Pennsylvania Colony, was a North America colony granted to William Penn in 1681 by King Charles II of England. ...


The desire of the Americans to establish control over the region was strong. In 1778, after victories in the region by American General George Rogers Clark, the Virginia legislature organized the first civil government in the region, called the county of Illinois, which encompassed all of the lands lying west of the Ohio River to which Virginia had any claim. The high-water mark of the Native American struggle to retain the region was in 1782, when the Ohio Nations and the British met in a council at the Chalawgatha village along the Little Miami River and planned the successful rout of the Americans at the Battle of Blue Licks south of the Ohio River two weeks later. 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Clark as painted by Matthew Harris Jouett in 1825 George Rogers Clark (November 19, 1752 – February 13, 1818) was the preeminent American military leader on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... ... The Battle of Blue Licks, on August 19, 1782 was the last major battle of the American Revolutionary War. ...


In 1783, following the Treaty of Paris, the area became part of the original territory of the United States and was immediately opened to legal settlement. The Ohio Country quickly became one of the most desirable locations for Trans-Appalachian settlements, in particular among veterans of the American Revolutionary War. 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... Combatants American Revolutionaries, France, allies British Empire, allies Commanders George Washington Comte de Rochambeau Nathanael Greene William Howe Henry Clinton Charles Cornwallis Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties {{{casualties1}}} {{{casualties2}}} The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was the military side of the American Revolution. ...


Several treaties such as the Treaty of Fort McIntosh in 1785 and the Treaty of Fort Harmar in 1789 fixed boundaries between American and tribal lands. Some tribes such as the Shawnee however continued to resist the encroachment of settlement into their lands. This resistance led to the Northwest Indian War which lasted until 1795. The Treaty of Fort McIntosh was a treaty between the United States government and representatives of the Wyandotte, Delaware, Chippewa and Ottawa nations of Native Americans. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Fort Harmar was an agreement between the United States government and several Native American tribes with claims to the Ohio Country. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Shawnee, or Shawano, are a people native to North America. ... The Northwest Indian War (1785-1795), often known as Little Turtles War in older reference works, was a war fought between the United States and a large confederation of Native Americans (Indians) for control of the Old Northwest, which ended with a decisive U.S. victory at the Battle... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


By 1800, many of the Shawnee had ceded their lands to control of the United States in exchange for lands in Missouri. The last great resistance to white settlement in the area was during the War of 1812, when Tecumseh led a disastrous war against the Americans. By 1817, the Shawnee, as well as the other Algonquin-speaking tribes in the region, had ceded all their lands to the United States. 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... State nickname: The Show Me State Official languages English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City (largest metropolitan area is Saint Louis) Governor Matt Blunt (R) Senators Kit Bond (R) Jim Talent (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 21st 69,709 mi²; 180,693 km² 1. ... This page refers to the war between the United States of America and Great Britain. ... This 1848 drawing of Tecumseh was based on a sketch done from life in 1808. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Claims of the states

The area was seen as highly desirable for settlement in the early years of the existence of the United States, which lead to the area being subject to overlapping and conflicting territorial claims of several eastern states. These claims arose from existing colonial charters. Specifically:

  • Virginia, based on the charter of the Virginia Colony, claimed the entire region.
  • New York claimed the entire region.
  • Connecticut claimed a strip of land across the northern part of the region delineated by the westward extension of its northern and southern state boundaries.

Another result was that unlike the rest of the Northwest Territory, which was surveyed more or less uniformly under the Public Land Survey System, sections of the Ohio Lands were incrementally granted to various parties and were surveyed using disparate survey systems. State nickname: Old Dominion Official languages English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner (D) Tim Kaine (D-Governor Elect) Senators John Warner (R) George Allen (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 7. ... The 1609 charter for the Virginia colony from sea to sea The Virginia Colony refers to the English colony in North America that existed during the 17th and 18th centuries before the American Revolution. ... State nickname: The Empire State Official languages English Capital Albany Largest city New York City Governor George Pataki (R) Senators Charles Schumer (D) Hillary Clinton (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 13. ... State nickname: The Constitution State Official languages English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Governor M. Jodi Rell (R) Senators Chris Dodd (D) Joe Lieberman (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 48th 14,371 km² 12. ... The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a government and region within the early United States. ... This General Land Office map shows the theoretical sectioning of a standard survey township. ... The Ohio Lands were the myriad grants, tracts, districts and cessions which make up what is now the U.S. state of Ohio. ...


Northwest Ordinance

In 1784 the area was part of the Trans-Appalachian region that Thomas Jefferson proposed for the creation of future states to be admitted to the Union. Jefferson proposed that the states surrender their respective claims to the region. One of the most contentious issues was whether or not the area would be open to slavery. 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ...


In 1787, with the passage by the Congress of the Northwest Ordinance, the boundaries of the region were firmly established. Virginia was granted the land south of the Ohio and Pennsylvania was granted the area around the headwaters of the Ohio. The remaining area west of the Pennsylvania boundary and north of the Ohio became part of the newly-formed Northwest Territory, the first organized territory in the United States, with a civil government under the jurisdiction of the Congress. 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom Ordinance) was an act of the Continental Congress of the United States passed on July 13, 1787 under the Articles of Confederation. ... State nickname: Old Dominion Official languages English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner (D) Tim Kaine (D-Governor Elect) Senators John Warner (R) George Allen (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 7. ... State nickname: The Keystone State Official languages None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Governor Ed Rendell (D) Senators Arlen Specter (R) Rick Santorum (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 33rd 119,283 km² 2. ... The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a government and region within the early United States. ... In the history of the United States, an organized territory is a territory for which the United States Congress has enacted an Organic Act. ...


All the existing states surrendered all their claims to the Ohio Country land within the Northwest Territory. Connecticut and Virginia reserved the right to use land in the new territory as payment to veterans of the Revolutionary War, without claiming sovereignty over the reserved areas, known respectively as the Connecticut Western Reserve and the Virginia Military District. The Connecticut Western Reserve was land claimed by Connecticut in the Northwest Territory in what is now northeastern Ohio. ... The Virginia Military District was an approximately 4. ...


The Northwest Ordinance prohibited slavery in the territory and adopted the Jeffersonian proposal that the territory should be eventually admission as future states of the Union. The "Ohio Territory" is sometimes used in reference to the Northwest Territory. In 1802, the Enabling Act specifically provided for the admission of new states, the first of which, Ohio, was admitted to the Union on February 19, 1803, celebrated as March 1, 1803, the date of the first meeting of the Ohio state legislature. --69. ... The Enabling Act of 1802 was made into law on April 30, 1802 by the Seventh Congress of the United States. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Ohio General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Ohio. ...


See also

yup yip yupOhio Company was the name of 18th century companies organized for the colonization of the Ohio River Valley. ... The Ohio Lands were the myriad grants, tracts, districts and cessions which make up what is now the U.S. state of Ohio. ... French settlements and forts in the Illinois Country in 1763, showing U.S. current state boundaries. ... The Northwest Indian War (1785-1795), often known as Little Turtles War in older reference works, was a war fought between the United States and a large confederation of Native Americans (Indians) for control of the Old Northwest, which ended with a decisive U.S. victory at the Battle...

External links

  • Ohio History Central: The Ohio Country
  • Ohio Lands in the History Community at RootsWeb
  • Ohio Territory Grant Map
  • National Archives: Historical Documents Celebrating the 200th Anniversary of Ohio Statehood
  • Ohio Division of Geological Survey: Map of Original Land Subdivisions of Ohio (1.9 MB pdf)
  • Shawnee History

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ohio Country - definition of Ohio Country in Encyclopedia (1200 words)
The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake Erie.
Virginia was granted the land south of the Ohio and Pennsylvania was granted the area around the headwaters of the Ohio.
The remaining area west of the Pennsylvania boundary and north of the Ohio became part of the newly-formed Northwest Territory, the first organized territory in the United States, with a civil government under the jurisdiction of the Congress.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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