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Encyclopedia > Ohio Constitution

The Ohio Constitution is the basic governing document of the State of Ohio, which in 1803 became the 17th state to join the United States of America. Ohio has had four constitutions since statehood was granted. State nickname: The Buckeye State Official languages None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus (largest metropolitan area is Cleveland) Governor Bob Taft (R) Senators Mike DeWine (R) George V. Voinovich (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 34th 116,096 km² 8. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ...


Ohio was created from the easternmost portion of the Northwest Territory. In 1787, the United States Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance, establishing a territorial government and providing that "[t]here shall be formed in the said territory, not less than three nor more than five states." The Ordinance prohibited slavery and provided for freedom of worship, the right of habeas corpus and trial by jury, and the right to make bail except for capital offenses. Ohio courts have noted that the Northwest Ordinance "was ever considered as the fundamental law of the territory." Ludlow's Heirs v. Johnston (1828), 3 Ohio 553, 555; State v. Bob Manashian Painting (2002), 121 Ohio Misc.2d 99, 103. The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a government and region within the early United States. ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom Ordinance) was an act of the Continental Congress of the United States passed on July 13, 1787 under the Articles of Confederation. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Freedom of worship and freedom of religion have two totally different meanings. ... In English Common Law habeas corpus is the name of several writs which may be issued by a judge ordering a prisoner to be brought before the court. ... This article may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to enhance clarity. ... Traditionally, bail is some form of property deposited or pledged to a court in order to persuade it to release a suspect from jail, on the understanding that the suspect will return for trial or forfeit the bail (skipping bail, or jumping bail, is also illegal). ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 2002 (MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


1802 Constitution

The Ohio territory's population grew steadily in the 1790s and early 1800s. Congress passed an enabling bill to establish a new state, which President Thomas Jefferson signed into law on April 30, 1802. A state constitutional convention was held in November 1802 in Chillicothe, Ohio, and it adopted what became known as the 1802 Constitution. Largely due to the perception that territorial governor Arthur St. Clair had ruled heavy-handedly, the constitution provided for a "weak" governor and judiciary, and vested virtually all power in a bicameral legislature, known as the General Assembly. Congress accepted the constitution and approved statehood; on February 19, 1803, President Jefferson signed the bill into law. It provided that Ohio "had become one of the United States of America," and that Federal law "shall have the same force and effect within the said State of Ohio, as elsewhere within the United States." This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining, as the last day in April. ... --69. ... ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... --69. ... Chillicothe is a city located in Ross County, Ohio. ... Arthur St. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The first General Assembly first met in Chillicothe, the new state capital, on March 1, 1803. This has come to be considered the date of Ohio statehood. List of capitals of subnational entities covers currently the following national entities: #A-C: Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Peoples Republic of China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, #D-F: Denmark, Finland, France, #G-L: Germany, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Ireland, Japan... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


1851 Constitution

By law, Ohio voters are asked every twenty years whether a new constitutional convention should be called. In the early decades of statehood, it became clear that the General Assembly was disproportionately powerful as compared to the executive and judicial branches. Much of state business was conducted through private bills, and partisan squabbling greatly reduced the ability of state government to do its work. The legislature widely came to be perceived as corrupt, subsidizing private companies and granting special privileges in corporate charters. State debt also exploded between 1825 and 1840. A new constitution, greatly redressing the checks and balances of power, was drafted by a convention in 1850-51, as directed by the voters, and subsequently adopted in a statewide referendum on June 17, 1851, taking effect on September 1 of that year. Private bills are acts considered or acted upon by a legislature that help a single individual by affording relief from another law, granting a unique benefit, or relieving the individual from legal responsibility for some allegedly wrongful act. ... Debt is that which is owed. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The doctrine and practice of dispersing political power and creating mutual accountability between political entities such as the courts, the president or prime minister, the legislature, and the citizens. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 1851 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ...


A constitutional convention in 1873, chaired by future Chief Justice of the United States Morrison R. Waite, proposed a new constitution that would have provided for annual sessions of the legislature, a veto for the governor which could be overriden by a three-fifths vote of each house, establishment of state circuit courts, eligibility of women for election to school boards, and restrictions on municipal debt. It was soundly defeated by the voters in August 1873. 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calaber). ... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Categories: People stubs | Chief Justices of the U.S. | 1816 births | 1888 deaths ... The word veto comes from Latin and literally means I forbid. ... Circuit courts previously were United States federal courts established in each federal judicial district. ... This article or section should be merged with board of education A school board (or school committee) is an elected council that helps determine educational policy in a small regional area, such as a city, state, or province. ... Note: as an adjective (stressed on the second syllable instead of the first), august means honorable. ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calaber). ...


1912 Constitution

In the Progressive Era, pent-up demand for reform led to the convening of another constitutional convention in 1912. The delegates were generally progressive in their outlook, and noted Ohio historian George W. Knepper wrote, "It was perhaps the ablest group ever assembled in Ohio to consider state affairs." Several national leaders addressed the convention, including President William Howard Taft, an Ohioan; former president (and Bull Moose Party candidate) Theodore Roosevelt; three-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan; California's progressive governor Hiram Johnson; and Ohio's own reform-minded governor, Judson Harmon. In the United States of America, the Progressive Era was a period of reform that began in Americas urban regions from, approximately the 1890s and lasted through the 1920s, although some experts say it lasted from 1900 to 1920. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States. ... ... Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was the 26th (1901–09) President of the United States. ... William Jennings Bryan, 1907 William Jennings Bryan, (March 19, 1860–July 26, 1925) born in Salem, Illinois, was a gifted orator and three-time United States Democratic nominee for President. ... State nickname: The Golden State Official languages English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Senators Dianne Feinstein (D) Barbara Boxer (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 4. ... Hiram Warren Johnson (September 2, 1866–August 6, 1945) was a leading American Progressive politician from California; he served as Governor from 1911 to 1917, and as a United States Senator from 1917 to 1945. ... Judson Harmon (February 3, 1846 - February 22, 1927) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ...


Recalling how the 1873 convention's work had all been for naught, the 1912 convention drafted and submitted to the voters a series of amendments to the 1851 Constitution. The amendments expanded the state's bill of rights, provided for voter-led initiative and referendum, established civil service protections, and granted the governor a line-item veto in appropriation bills. Other amendments empowered the legislature to fix the hours of labor, establish a minimum wage and a workers compensation system, and address a number of other progressive measures. A home rule amendment was proposed for Ohio cities with populations over 5,000. In U.S. politics, the initiative and referendum process is one of the signature reforms of the Progressive Era. ... A civil servant or public servant is a civilian career public sector employee working for a government department or agency. ... In government, the line-item veto is the power of an executive to veto parts of a bill, usually budget appropriations. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... Workers compensation programs and laws exist to protect employees who are injured while on the job. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ...


On September 3, 1912, despite strong conservative opposition, voters adopted 33 of the 41 proposed amendments. It was so sweeping a change to the 1851 Constitution that most legal scholars consider it to have become a new "1912 Constitution." Among the eight losing proposed amendments were female suffrage, the use of voting machines, the regulation of outdoor advertising and abolition of the death penalty. Voters also rejected a proposal to strike the word "white" from the 1851 Constitution's definition of voter eligibility. Although blacks could vote in Federal elections in Ohio due to the 15th Amendment, the color bar for voting in state elections was not abolished until 1923. September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas, usually by an identified sponsor. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... (Redirected from 15th Amendment) The Fifteenth Amendment may refer to the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution - guarantees the right to vote regardless of race. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


1951 Constitution

With the tremendous growth of the state's population, and the strains and exigencies of the Great Depression and both World War I and World War II, it became clear that the 1851 Constitution was inadequate to the needs of a modern state government. A fifth constitutional convention drafted a new constitution, which was duly adopted by state voters, taking effect on September 1, 1951. With numerous amendments, the 1951 Constitution remains the basic law of the state to this day. It has one of the shortest preambles of any state constitution: The Great Depression was a massive global economic recession (or depression) that ran from 1929 to approximately 1939. ... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machine guns, and poison gas. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Look up Preamble in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The preamble is an introductory statement, a preliminary explanation. ...


We, the people of the State of Ohio, grateful to Almighty God for our freedom, to secure its blessings and promote our general welfare, do establish this Constitution. God is the term used to denote the Supreme Being believed by monotheistic religions to exist and to be the creator and ruler of the Universe. ... Personal liberty is one of the meanings of freedom. Freedom refers, in a very general sense, to the state of being free (i. ...


The current state constitution contains the following articles:

The Ohio Constitution's Bill of Rights is substantially similar to its Federal counterpart, but also includes the right to alter, reform or abolish government; rights of conscience and education; rights for victims of crime; a prohibition of imprisonment for debt; and the right to payment of damages for wrongful death. A bill of rights is a statement of certain rights which, under a societys laws, citizens and/or residents either have, want to have, or ought to have. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics. ... A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A Township in the United States refers to a small geographic area, ranging in size from 6 to 54 square miles (15. ... The membership of the United States House of Representatives changes each decade following the decennial United States Census. ... A corporation is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name AS (anonymous society) or something similar, depending on language (see below). ... Jurisprudence is the scientific study of law through a philosophical lens. ... Amendment has at least two meanings: An amendment is a formal alteration to any official document or record, typically with the aim of improving it. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... A Municipal Corporation is a legal defintion for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, and towns. ... Conscience is generally thought of as a moral faculty, sense, or feeling that impels individuals to believe that particular activities are morally right or wrong. ... Wrongful death is a claim in tort against a person who can be held liable for a death. ...


Was Ohio not properly admitted as a state?

It has been suggested from time to time that Ohio was never properly admitted as a state due to some supposed defect in the legal process. This would indicate that the numerous Ohioans who served as President of the United States did so illegally, as they were were not U.S. citizens. A second statehood bill was passed by Congress and signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, mostly tongue-in-cheek, in time for the state sesquicentennial in 1953. Claims that Ohio was not properly admitted are thought by most historians and legal scholars to be spurious, however, and have always been rejected by Federal and state courts (often in cases brought by tax protestors). See, e.g., Lewingdon v. Celeste 810 F.2d 201 (6th Cir. 1986); State v. Bob Manashian Painting, supra, 121 Ohio Misc.2d at 104. The President of the United States (unofficially abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state of the United States. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician. ... An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Those who disagree with the extent of Federal power in the United States, or national policy, or who feel disenfranchised or discriminated against, may become tax protesters. ... Court citation is a standard system used in common law countries such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and Australia to uniquely identify the location of past court cases in special series of books called reporters. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States District Courts: Western and Eastern Districts of Kentucky Western and Eastern Districts of Michigan Northern and Southern Districts of Ohio Western, Middle, and Eastern Districts of Tennessee The... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ohio Historical Society / Resources / Searchable Databases / Fundamental Documents (3488 words)
Every bill shall be read on three different days in each house, unless, in case of urgency, three-fourths of the house where such bill is so depending, shall deem it expedient to dispense with this rule, and every bill having passed both houses, shall be signed by the speakers of their respective houses.
All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the State of Ohio, sealed with the seal, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the secretary.
The style of all process shall be, "The State of Ohio"; all prosecutions shall be carried on in the name and by the authority of the State of Ohio, and all indictments shall conclude, "against the peace and dignity of the same."
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