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Encyclopedia > Ogonek
Ą ą
Ę ę
Į į
Ǫ ǫ
Ǭ ǭ
Ų ų
Diacritical marks

accent
Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ogonek. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...

acute accent ( ´ )
double acute accent ( ˝ )
grave accent ( ` )
double grave accent (  ̏ )

breve ( ˘ )
caron / háček ( ˇ )
cedilla ( ¸ )
circumflex ( ^ )
diaeresis / umlaut ( ¨ )
dot ( · )
The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... The double grave accent is a diacritic used in scholarly discussions of the Serbo-Croatian language complex and sometimes of the Slovenian language. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese. ...

anunaasika ( ˙ )
anusvara (  ̣ )
chandrabindu (   ँ   ঁ   ઁ   ଁ ఁ )

hook / dấu hỏi (  ̉ )
horn / dấu móc (  ̛ )
macron ( ¯ )
ogonek ( ˛ )
ring / kroužek ( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing / spiritus asper (  ῾ )
smooth breathing / spiritus lenis (  ᾿ )
Anunaasika is a dot on top of a breve above a letter ( मँ ), used as a diacritic in Sanskrit written in devanagari script to represent vowel nasalization. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... This article is about Chandrabindu, the character in several Brahmi derived scripts. ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of horn, see horn (disambiguation). ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilón, ψιλόν) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. ...

Marks sometimes used as diacritics

apostrophe ( )
bar ( | )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
hyphen ( ˗ )
tilde ( ~ )
titlo (  ҃ )
For the prime symbol (′) used for feet and inches, see Prime (symbol). ... The bar or stroke can be a diacritic mark, when used with some letters in the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. ... The colon (:) is a punctuation mark, visually consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. ... For other uses, see Comma. ... This article is about the punctuation mark. ... The tilde (~) is a grapheme with several uses. ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol first used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ...

The ogonek (Polish for "little tail", the diminutive of ogon) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European and Native American languages. Ogonyok is one of the oldest Russian weekly illustrated magazines, issued since December 21 (December 9 (O.S.) 1899. ... A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...

Contents

Languages that use the ogonek

Example in Polish: The Creek language, also known as Muscogee (Mvskoke in Creek), is a Muskogean language spoken by the Muscogee (Creek) Nation and Seminole Indians in Florida and Oklahoma. ... Reading Adahooniigii — The Navajo Language Monthly Navajo or Navaho (native name: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken in the southwest United States by the Navajo people (Diné). It is geographically and linguistically one of the Southern Athabaskan languages (the majority of Athabaskan languages are spoken... Links Western Apache-English Dictionary (White Mountain) White Mountain Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) San Carlos Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) Tonto Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) Yavapai-Apache Nation Official Website Yavapai-Apache Nation (Arizona Intertribal Council) White Mountain Apache Tribe White Mountain Apache photographs map of Fort Apache... Chiricahua is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Chiricahua tribe in Oklahoma and New Mexico. ... Mescalero is a Southern Athabaskan language that is spoken in New Mexico. ... Tutchone, an Athabaskan language spoken in Yukon. ... Älvdalsmål (rough pronunciation in Swedish ellv-daahls-mawl) (English: lit. ... The Gwichin (sometimes rendered as Kutchin or Gwitchin), literally one who dwells, are a First Nation people who live in the northern part of North America. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ...

Wół go pyta: „Panie chrząszczu,
Po co pan tak brzęczy w gąszczu?”
Jan Brzechwa, Chrząszcz

Example in Lithuanian: Jan Brzechwa, real name Jan Lesman-No!! Jan Lesmian was another polish poet !!!! (August 15, 1900 – July 2, 1966) was a Polish poet and author, mostly known for his contribution to childrens literature. ... ChrzÄ…szcz (a beetle, chafer) by Jan Brzechwa is a poem famous for being one of the hardest to pronounce texts in Polish literature, even for adult, native Polish speakers: Listen to those lines pronounced in Polish Most of native Polish speakers find the first two lines alone unpronounceable even...

Lydėdami gęstančią žarą vėlai
Pakilo į dangų margi sakalai
— Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas, Margi sakalai

Example in Älvdalen Dalecarlian: Älvdalen Municipality in Dalarna Elfdalian (Övdalsk in Elfdalian, Älvdalska or ÄlvdalsmÃ¥l in Swedish) is a linguistic variety of the Scandinavian language branch spoken in the old parish of Övdaln, which is located in the southern part of Älvdalen Municipality in Northern Dalarna, Sweden. ...

"Ja, eð war įe plåg að gęslkallum, dar eð war slaik uondlostjyner i gęslun."
— Vikar Margit Andersdotter, I fäbodlivet i gamla tider.

Values

Nasalization

The use of the ogonek to indicate nasality is common in the transcription of the indigenous languages of the Americas. This usage originated in the orthographies created by Christian missionaries to transcribe these languages. Later, the practice was continued by Americanist anthropologists and linguists who still follow this convention in phonetic transcription to the present day (see Americanist phonetic notation). A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through nose as well as the mouth. ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ... Americanist phonetic notation (also Americanist Phonetic Alphabet, American Phonetic Alphabet, sometimes abbreviated APA) is a system of phonetic notation originally developed by European and Euro-American anthropologists and language scientists (former Neo-grammarians) for the phonetic and phonemic transcription of Native American and European languages. ...


The ogonek is also used in academic transliteration of Old Church Slavonic and Old Norse. In Polish, Old Church Slavonic, Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua, and Älvdalen Dalecarlian it indicates that the vowel is nasalized. Even if ę is nasalized e in Polish, ą is nasalized o not a. Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic ) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ...


Length

In Lithuanian, where it formerly indicated nasalization which is no longer distinctive, it indicates that a vowel is long. The Lithuanian word for "ogonek" is nosinė which literally means "nasal". In linguistics, vowel length is the duration of a vowel sound. ...


Tone

In Navajo, Chiricahua, Western Apache, and Mescalero it can be combined with the acute and grave accents where it indicates high tone, or in long vowels high, falling, rising tone (e.g. ą́, ǫ́ǫ́, į́į). In the orthography conventions of Willem de Reuse, Western Apache has combinations of ogonek and macron (e.g. ǭ, į̄į̄). It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ...


Typographical notes

The ogonek should be almost the same size as a descender (in larger type sizes may be relatively quite shorter) and should not be confused with the cedilla or comma diacritic marks used in other languages. The descenders are the parts of the characters that lie below the baseline, highlighted in red. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ... For other uses, see Comma. ... A diacritic mark or accent mark is an additional mark added to a basic letter. ...


The HTML/Unicode numbers for ogonek letters are: HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ...

Upper Case Lower Case
Letter HTML Alt Code Letter HTML Alt Code
Ą Ą Alt + 0260 ą ą Alt + 0261
Ę Ę Alt + 0280 ę ę Alt + 0281
Į Į Alt + 0302 į į Alt + 0303
Ǫ Ǫ Alt + 0490 ǫ ǫ Alt + 0491
Ų Ų Alt + 0370 ų ų Alt + 0371
˛ ˛ Alt + 0731

LaTeX2e

In LaTeX2e macro k will typeset a letter with ogonek, if it is supported by the font encoding , e.g. k{a} will typeset ą. The package TIPA activated by using the command "usepackage{tipa}", offers a different way: "textpolhook{a}" will produce ą. The LaTeX logo, typeset with LaTeX LATEX, written as LaTeX in plain text, is a document preparation system for the TEX typesetting program. ... TIPA is a free software package providing IPA and other phonetic character capabilities for TeX and LaTeX. Written by Rei Fukui, TIPA is based upon the authors previous work in TSIPA. TIPA characters are placed within a LaTeX document using any of the following commands: textipa{...}, {tipaencoding . ...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ogonek. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ... For other uses, see Comma. ... Ansuz Variations of the rune in Younger Futhark. ...

External links

  • Diacritics Project — All you need to design a font with correct accents
  • Polish Diacritics — How To?
  • Förslag till en enhetlig stavning för älvdalska (March, 2005)
The ISO basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letters using ogonek sign
ĄąĘęĮįǪǫŲų

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ottawa Business Journal - News Story (441 words)
Ogonek's last chief executive position was as president and CEO of Akara Corp. He oversaw the acquisition of the Ottawa firm by Ciena Corp. last August for US$45 million.
Ogonek declined to offer up specific numbers for the present, though he acknowledged that revenues have increased from the levels of 2000.
Ogonek said it's too soon to say what the best exit strategy may be for the company's investors, be it an IPO, a merger or an acquisition.
Polish Diacritics: how to? (734 words)
In a vast majority of cases ogonek should be smoothly connected with the base glyph, it should be a part of the glyph.
As ogonek is a glyph modifier and it should be integrated smoothly, you will be usually forced to separately design the area where ogonek merges with all base letters.
There are two correct ways of attaching ogonek to the base serif of capital A. The attaching point can be either placed in the centre of the stem or may be merged with the inner part of the base serif.
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