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Encyclopedia > Oghuz Turks
A Seljuk Prince.

The Oghuz Turks (variously transliterated Oguz, Oğuz, Uguz, Uğuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz, Ghuzz, "Kuz" and Uz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. Image File history File links Acap. ... Image File history File links Seljuk_prince. ... Image File history File links Seljuk_prince. ... This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ...


The Oghuz Turks are direct ancestors[1] of today's Southwestern Turks in general, and the linguistic ancestors of others, totalling a combined population of 100 million and ranging from eastern Europe to western Asia. The peoples who identify themselves as descendants of the Oghuz Turks include the Azerbaijanis, Turks (of Turkey), Turkish Cypriots, Balkan Turks, Turkmens, Qashqai, Khorasani, and Gagauz. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... For a specific analysis of the population of Turkey, see People of Turkey and Demographics of Turkey. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... mother fucking terrorists Khorasani Turkish (تركي خراساني / Xorasan Türkçeəsı) is variety of speech belonging to the Turkic language family. ... The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ...


During the Turkic mass-migrations of the 9th through the 12th century, the Oghuz were among the indigenous Turks of Central Asia who migrated towards western Asia and eastern Europe via Transoxiana. From the 5th century onward, the Oghuz were the founders and rulers of several important Turkic kingdoms and empires, the most notable of which were the Seljuks and Ottomans. As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29...


In later centuries, they adapted and applied their own traditions and institutions to the ends of the Islamic world and emerged as empire-builders with a constructive sense of statecraft. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...

Contents

Name

The name Oghuz is derived from the word ok, which means "arrow" or "tribe". The depiction of an archer shooting an arrow was the flag of the Seljuk Empire, founded by the Oghuz Turks in the 10th century. For other uses, see Flag (disambiguation). ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of...


The designation of "Oghuz" was given to a series of Turkic tribes in Central Asia who had united into a new confederation. This socio-political union led to the emergence of a new larger inter-tribal Turkic entity, the Oghuz. The Oghuz gradually grew larger as various other Turkic tribes united during the Göktürk Empire (6th and 7th centuries.) Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient North and Central Asia, Eastern Europe and northwestern China. ...


Oghuz is not an ethnic name, and it can be simply translated into "Turkic tribes". The "Oghuz Turk branch" or "Western Turk branch" is one of the traditional six branches of the modern Turkic peoples. The "Oghuz branch" is a geographical and historical designation, not a separate ethnic term since the Turkic peoples of the world share the same ethnic roots.


They are referred to as "Western Turks" because they moved west from other Turkic peoples after the Göktürk empire collapsed, and because the majority of the areas in which they inhabit today (except Turkmenistan and the Turkmen Sahra) are west of the Caspian Sea, while those referred to as "eastern Turks" live east of the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


Origins

Their history as kings, statesmen, warriors, as well as an enormous tribal union and large communal branch begins in the pre-Islamic period, yet their achievements and progression in the centuries after the arrival of Islam have left their mark on history and civilization. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...


The original homeland of the Oghuz, like other Turks, was the Ural-Altay region of Central Asia known as Turkestan or Turan, which has been the domain of Turkic peoples since antiquity. Although their mass-migrations from Central Asia occurred from the 9th century onwards, they were present in areas west of the Caspian Sea centuries prior, although smaller in numbers and perhaps living with other Turks.[citation needed] For example, the Book of Dede Korkut, the historical epic of the Oghuz Turks, was written in Central Asia at least from the ninth and tenth centuries.[2] Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Turan (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The Book of Dede Korkut is one of the most famous epics of the Turkmens or the Oghuz Turks. ...


According to many historians, the usage of the word "Oghuz" is dated back to the advent of the Huns (220 BC). The title of "Oghuz" (Oguz Khan) was given to Mau-Tun[citation needed], the founder of the Hun Empire, which is often considered the first Turkic political entity in Central Asia. Advent (from the Latin Adventus, implicitly coupled with Redemptoris, the coming of the Saviour) is a holy season of the Christian church, the period of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Christ, also known as the season of Christmas. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC 221 BC - 220 BC - 219 BC 218 BC... Modu Shanyu (born in BC) was a military leader Shanyu and emperor of Khunnu Empire located in modern-day Mongolia. ... The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns. ... An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Also in the 2nd century BC, a Turkic tribe called O-kut or Wuqi 呼揭, 呼得, 乌揭, 乌护 who were described as a western hostility of Huns (referred to in Chinese sources, Shiji, 110 and Suishu, 84) were mentioned in the area of Irtysh River, in present-day Lake Zaysan. It must be noted that the Greek sources used the name Oufi (or Ouvvi) to describe the Oghuz Turks, a name they had also used to describe the Huns centuries earlier.[citation needed] (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... The Book of Sui (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was the official history of the Chinese dynasty Sui Dynasty, and it ranks among the official Twenty-Four Histories of imperial China. ... Irtysh (Russian:  ; Kazakh: Ertis / Эртiс ; Tatar: Ä°rteÅŸ / Иртеш ; Chinese: Erqisi / 额尔齐斯河) a river in Siberia, the chief tributary of the river Ob. ... Lake Zaysan (Russian: озеро Зайсан) is a freshwater lake, ca. ...


A number of tribal groupings bearing the name Oghuz, often with a numeral representing the number of united tribes in the union are noted.


The mention of the "six Oghuz tribal union" in the Turkic Orhun inscriptions (6th century) pertains to the unification of the six Turkic tribes which became known as the Oghuz. This was the first written reference to Oghuz, and was dated to the period of the Göktürk empire. The Oghuz community gradually grew larger, uniting more Turkic tribes prior and during the Göktürk establishment.[3] Orhon (or Orkhon) inscriptions are the oldest known Turkic writings, which were erected near the Orhon River between 732 and 735 in honour of two Kokturk princes named Kul and Bilge. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


Prior to the Göktürk state, there are references to the Sekiz-Oghuz ("eight-Oghuz") and the Dokuz-Oghuz ("nine-Oghuz") union. The Oghuz Turks under Sekiz-Oghuz and the Dokuz-Oghuz state formations ruled different areas in the vicinity of the Altay mountains. During the establishment of the Göktürk state, Oghuz tribes inhabited the Altay mountain region and also lived in northeastern areas of the Altay mountains along the Tula River. They were also present as a community near the Barlik River in present-day northern Mongolia. Rio Tula is a river in Hidalgo state in central Mexico. ...


Their main homeland and domain in the ensuing centuries was the area of Transoxiana, in western Turkestan. Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


This land became known as the "Oghuz steppe" which is an area between the Caspian and Aral Seas. Ibn al-Athir, an Arab historian, declared that the Oghuz Turks had come to Transoxiana in the period of the caliph Al-Mahdi in the years between 775 and 785. In the period of the Abbasid caliph Al-Ma'mun (813833), the name Oghuz starts to appear in the works of Islamic writers. By 780, the eastern parts of the Syr Darya were ruled by the Karluk Turks and the western region (Oghuz steppe) was ruled by the Oghuz Turks. For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Izz ad-DÄ«n Hassan Karam pour AthÄ«r (1160–1233), was a 13th century Iranian/Persian historian born in Cizre in Northern Kurdistan province. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi (ruled 775–785), was the third Abbasid Caliph. ... Estimation: Baghdad, capital of the Abbasid Empire, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Changan, capital of China. ... Events Widukind and many other Saxons are baptized. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... Events Constantine VI becomes Byzantine Emperor with Irene as guardian. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... The Qarluq (Karluk) were originally a nomadic Turkic tribe based in the Transoxiana steppes (roughly east and south of the Aral Sea) in Central Asia. ...


Anthropology

The land that now forms the nation of Turkey (Anatolia) has seen many different civilizations. The Turkic speaking people arrived there from Central Asia and successfully spread throughout the land. Turkish eventually became the dominant language, replacing the Indo-European languages which were present earlier. Turks are, as the authors state, "the only major group in the region that speak a language which originated from a great geographic distance (probably in the Altaic region)." The pre-existing people in Anatolia, however, did not physically disappear. Genetic studies show that the majority became part of the new Turkish population. The genetic constitution of modern-day Turks is much closer to their nearest geographic neighbors like Iranians, Caucasians, as well as Russians (who are non-Turkic speaking), than to the Turkic-speaking populations that still dwell in Central Asia. The authors interpret this to mean that "the Turkish language was imposed on a predominantly non-Turkic-speaking population.[citation needed] The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The word dominant has several possible meanings: In music theory, the dominant or dominant note (second most important) of a key is that which is a perfect fifth above the tonic; in just intonation the note whose pitch is 1. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...


Social unit

The militarism that their empires were very well known for was rooted in their centuries-long nomadic lifestyle. In general they were a herding society which possessed certain military advantages that other societies did not have, particularly mobility. Alliances by marriage and kinship, and systems of "social distance" based on family relationships were the connective tissues of their society. Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ...


In Oghuz traditions, "society was simply the result of the growth of individual families". But such a society also grew by alliances and the expansion of different groups normally through marriages. The shelter of the Oghuz tribes was a tent-like dwelling, erected on wooden poles and covered with skin, felt, or hand-woven textiles, which is called a yurt. A Yurt is a portable felt dwelling structure used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. ...


Their cuisine included yahni (stew), kebabs, Toyga çorbası (lit. wedding soup; a soup made from wheat flour and yogurt), Kımız (traditional drink of the Turks, made from horse milk), Pekmez (a syrup made of boiled of grape juice and helva made with cornflour), tutmac (noodle soup), yufka (flattened bread), katmer (layered pastry), chorek (ring-shaped bun), bread, clotted cream, cheese, milk and ayran, as well as wine. Kımız, is a traditional alchoholic drink of the Turks, made from horse milk. ... Pekmez is the Turkish name for the syrup-like liquid obtained after condensing juices of (especially) grape, fig or mulberry by boiling with coagulant agents. ...


Social order was maintained by emphasizing "correctness in conduct as well as ritual and ceremony". Ceremonies brought together the scattered members of the society to celebrate birth, puberty, marriage, and death. Such ceremonies had the effect of minimizing social dangers and also of adjusting persons to each other under controlled emotional conditions.


Patrilineally related men and their families were regarded as a group with rights over a particular territory and were distinguished from neighbours on a territorial basis. Marriages were often arranged among territorial groups so that neighbouring groups could become related, but this was the only organizing principle that extended territorial unity. Each community of the Oghuz Turks was thought of as part of a larger society composed of distant as well as close relatives. This signified "tribal allegiance". Wealth and materialistic objects were not commonly emphasized in Oghuz society and most remained herders, and when settled they would be active in agriculture. Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ...


Status within the family was based on age, gender, relationships by blood, or marriageability. Males as well as females were active in society, yet men were the backbones of leadership and organization. According to the Book of Dede Korkut which demonstrates the culture of the Oghuz Turks, women were "expert horse riders, archers, and athletes". The elders were respected as repositories of both "secular and spiritual wisdom".


Homeland in Transoxiana

In the 8th century, the Oghuz Turks made a new home and domain for themselves in the area between the Caspian and Aral seas, a region that is often referred to as Transoxiana, the western portion of Turkestan. They had moved westward from the Altay mountains through the Siberian steppes and settled in this region, and also penetrated into southern Russia and the Volga. Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia (Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting all of northern Asia. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ...


In his accredited work titled Diwan Lughat al-Turk, Mahmud of Kashgar, a Turkic scholar of the 11th century, described the Karachuk Mountains which are located just east of the Aral Sea as the original homeland of the Oghuz Turks. The Karachuk mountains are now known as the Tengri Tagh (Tian Shan in Chinese) Mountains, and they are adjacent to Syr Darya. Map from Kashgaris Diwan, showing the distribution of Turkic tribes. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ...


The extension from the Karachuk Mountains towards the Caspian Sea (Transoxiana) was called the "Oghuz Steppe Lands" from where the Oghuz Turks established trading, religious and cultural contacts with the Abbasid Arab caliphate who ruled to the south. This is around the same time that they first converted to Islam and renounced their shamanist belief system. The Arab historians mentioned that the Oghuz Turks in their domain in Transoxiana were ruled by a number of kings and chieftains. The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means...


It was in this area that they later founded the Seljuk Empire, and it was from this area that they spread west into western Asia and eastern Europe during Turkic migrations from the 9th until the 12th century. The founders of the Ottoman Empire were also Oghuz Turks. The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Oghuz and Yörüks

According to Ottoman archives Kayılar Yörüks were an Oghuz tribe. E.g., Kozlu Köy (or locally Kuzlu Küy) which in Kayılar Kaza of Rumelia Vilayet was a village that officially written as "Oguzlu Karye" in Ottoman archives. Those populations were also Yörüks of Rumelia.[4] Ptolemaida (Greek Πτολεμαΐδα (modern) or Πτολεμαΐς (ancient)) is a city in Northern Greece. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... Ptolemaida (Greek Πτολεμαΐδα (modern) or Πτολεμαΐς (ancient)) is a city in Northern Greece. ... KAZA (Channel 54) is a Azteca America television station affiliate in the Los Angeles area. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Oghuz Turk dynasties

The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Ağqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Flag of the Kara Koyunlu For the district in Turkey, see Karakoyunlu. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Caravanserai built by the Turkish beylik of Artuklu in 1275 in Mardin (a luxury hotel today). ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ...

Traditional tribal organization

Bozoklar (Grey Arrows)

Üçoklar (Three Arrows) Also kayi (tr: singular) is used for Kayılar. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... The surname Bayat is derived from clans in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Dodurga is a district of Çorum Province, Turkey. ... Afshar may refer to: Afshar language, a Turkic language spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Iran Afshar tribe, a Turkic tribe Afshar District, a district in West Kabul, Afghanistan Afshar may also refer to the following people: Afshar Ganjali, Iranian Computer Scientist Ebrahim Afshar (d. ...

  • Bayındır (founders of the Ak Koyunlu dynasty)
  • Peçene
  • Çavuldur
  • Çepni
  • Salur (founders of the Karamanoğlu dynasty)
  • Eymür
  • Alayuntlu
  • Yüregir
  • İgdir
  • Büğdüz
  • Yıva
  • Kınık (founders of the Seljuk Empire) [5]

Bayındır is a district of Ä°zmir Province of Turkey. ... Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative) The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: AÄŸqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... Salur (Telugu - సాలూరు) or Saluru is a Municipality and Mandal headquarters in Vizianagaram district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ... Statue depicting Karamanogullu Mehmet Bey declaring Turkish as the official language of the state and all its institutions Beylik of Karaman or of KaramanoÄŸlu (KaramanoÄŸulları in plural), also called Karamanids was the first Turkic kingdom to accept Turkish as its official language. ... Kınık is a district of Ä°zmir Province of Turkey. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of...

Turcoman & Turkmen

The terms "Turkmen" and "Turcoman" were often used as a designation for the Muslim-Oghuz Turks (Azerbaijanis, Turks of Turkey, Central Asian Turks) in periods of history although other Turkic factions described as Turks (Kumans, Khazars, Uyghurs, etc), and the ethnic name that the modern Turkmens of Central Asia use to designate their nationality was formed later. The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ...


Although a term most commonly used for the Oghuz of Central Asia, the name "Turkmen" or "Turcoman" once applied to Azerbaijanis and the Turks of Turkey as well, distinguishing between other Turks and non-Muslim Turks. Some western books which were written prior to the modern age use the terms "Turcoman" for the descendants of the Oghuz Turks who were not from the Turkmen nationality of Central Asia, which is one of the branches of the Oghuz.


For example, it is written in many sources prior to the modern age that the largest component of the population of Azerbaijan is composed of "Turcoman tribes". The "Turkmen" reference in history books which is often used for Azerbaijanis and Turks of Turkey simply means "Muslim Turk" or "Muslim western Turk" which means Oghuz Turk.


In Turkey the word Turkmen refers to nomadic Turkish tribes (all Muslims) some of whom still continue this lifestyle.


According to the Encyclopædia Britannica the name Turkmen is a synonym of Oghuz which includes all the Turkish (Turkic) population who live to the southwest of Central Asia: The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

  • Turkey
  • Azerbaijan
  • Iran
  • Turkmenistan
  • in other countries:
    • Afghanistan
    • Iraq, Syria and other Arab countries
    • Greece, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Serbia, Moldova and the (Former Yugoslav) Republic of Macedonia.

The Turkish historian Yılmaz Öztuna presents almost the same definition to the name Turkmen. He labels the Turkmen Oghuz or western Turkish populations as:

  • Ottomans
  • Azerbaijan
  • Turkmen (Turkmenistan)

Literature

Oghuz Turkish literature includes the famous Book of Dede Korkut which was UNESCO's 2000 literacy work of the year, as well as the Oguznama and Köroğlu epics which are part of the literacy history of Azerbaijanis, Turks of Turkey and Turkmens. The modern and classical literatures of Azerbaijan, Turkey and Central Asia are also considered the Oghuz literature, since it has been produced by their descendants. The Book of Dede Korkut is one of the most famous epics of the Turkmens or the Oghuz Turks. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Epic of KöroÄŸlu (Turkish: KöroÄŸlu destanı) is a legend prominent in the oral traditions of the Turkic peoples. ...


The Book of Dede Korkut is an invaluable collection of epics and stories, bearing witness to the language, the way of life, religions, traditions and social norms of the Oghuz Turks in Azerbaijan, Turkey and Central Asia.


Notes

  1. ^ Olson, James Stuart. "An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires, pg. 647: "... the medieval Oghuz tribes were the direct ancestors of the Turkmen, the Seljuks, the Ottoman Turks and the Ottomans' descendants, the Anatolian Turks."
  2. ^ Lewis, Geoffrey (Ed.) (1974). The Book of Dede Korkut. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  3. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Oguz
  4. ^ 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica - Macedonia
  5. ^ Kafesoğlu, İbrahim. Türk Milli Kültürü. Türk Kültürünü Araştırma Enstitüsü, 1977. page 134

References

  • Minahan, James B. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups. Greenwood Press, 2000. page 692
  • Aydın, Mehmet. Bayat-Bayat boyu ve Oğuzların tarihi. Hatiboğlu Yayınevi, 1984. web page

External links

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Turks. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (901 words)
Although Islam is the religion of the majority of Turks, its importance came relatively late.
In succeeding centuries control of the area passed from the Oghuz Turks to the Uigurs and to the Kyrgyz, who were the last Turkic peoples to reside in Mongolia.
The Turks embraced the Sunni Muslim faith and began to migrate to the Middle East.
Oghuz Turks (2178 words)
The depiction of an archer shooting an arrow was the flag of the Seljuk Empire, founded by the Oghuz Turks in the 10th century.
In the 8th century, the Oghuz Turks made a new home and domain for themselves in the area between the Caspian and Aral seas, a region that is often referred to as Transoxiana, the western portion of Turkistan.
Oghuz Turkish literature includes the famous Book of Dede Korkut which was UNESCO's 2000 literacy work of the year, as well as the Oguznama and Köroğlu epics which are part of the literacy history of Azerbaijanis, Turks of Turkey and Turkmens.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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