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Ogg
File extension: .ogg
MIME type: application/ogg
Magic: OggS
Developed by: Xiph.Org Foundation
Type of format: Container format
Container for: Vorbis, Theora, Speex, FLAC

Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. Ogg is maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation. Image File history File links Fish_xiph_org. ... A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to show its format. ... Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard that extends the format of e-mail to support: text in character sets other than US-ASCII; non-text attachments; multi-part message bodies; and header information in non-ASCII character sets. ... In computer programming, a magic number is a constant used to identify the file or data type employed. ... The Xiph. ... A container format is a computer file format that can contain various types of data, compressed by means of standardized codecs. ... Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Speex is a free software speech codec that claims to be unencumbered by patent restrictions. ... FLAC, an acronym for Free Lossless Audio Codec, is a popular file format for audio data compression. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... A free file format is a file format that is free of any patents or copyright. ... A container format is a computer file format that can contain various types of data, compressed by means of standardized codecs. ... Multimedia is the use of several different media to convey information (text, audio, graphics, animation, video, and interactivity). ... Software patent does not have a universally accepted definition. ... Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. ... The Xiph. ...


The name "Ogg" refers to the file format which can multiplex a number of separate independent free and open source codecs for audio, video and text (such as subtitles). Files ending in the .ogg extension may be of any Ogg media filetype. The term "ogg" is often used to refer to audio file format Ogg Vorbis, that is, Vorbis-encoded audio in the Ogg container. Other prominent Xiph codecs that are often encapsulated in Ogg are the video codec Theora, and the human speech audio compression format Speex. Because the format is free, Ogg's various codecs have been incorporated into a number of different free and proprietary media players, both commercial and non-commercial, as well as portable media players from different manufacturers. A file format is a particular way to encode information for storage in a computer file. ... Clockwise from top: The logo of the GNU Project (the GNU head), the Linux kernel mascot Tux the Penguin, and the FreeBSD daemon Free software is a term coined by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation[1] to refer to software that can be used, studied, and modified without... ... Codec is a portmanteau of coder/decoder, which describes a device or program capable of performing transformations on a data stream or signal. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a longitudinal wave, and therefore is a mechanical wave. ... Video (Latin for I see, first person singular present, indicative of videre, to see) is the technology of electronically capturing, recording, processing, storing, transmitting, and reconstructing a sequence of still images representing scenes in motion. ... An audio file format is a container format for storing audio data on a computer system. ... Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... Speex is a free software speech codec that claims to be unencumbered by patent restrictions. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... This article is about media players in general. ... A portable multimedia player (PMP) is a self-reliant electronic device that is capable of storing and playing files in one or more media formats. ...


It is often erroneously assumed that the name Ogg comes from the character of Nanny Ogg in Terry Pratchett's Discworld novels. Rather, it derives from ogging, jargon from the computer game Netrek which came to mean doing something forcefully, possibly without consideration of the drain on future resources.[1] At its inception, the Ogg project was thought to be somewhat ambitious given the power of the PC hardware of the time. Gytha Ogg (usually called Nanny Ogg) is a character from Terry Pratchetts Discworld series. ... Terence David John Pratchett OBE (born April 28, 1948, in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, England[1]) is an English fantasy author, best known for his Discworld series. ... Cover of an early edition of The Colour of Magic; art by Josh Kirby Discworld is a comedic fantasy book series by the British author Terry Pratchett set on the Discworld, a flat world balanced on the backs of four elephants which are in turn standing on the back of... Ogging is term for a strategy developed for an online multiplayer game called XPilot and the later version of the game called Netrek. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Netrek. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The current version of Xiph's reference implementation, released on 27 November 2005, is libogg 1.1.3.[2] Another version, libogg2, is also available from Xiph's SVN repositories. Both software libraries are free and open source software, released under the BSD License. November 27 is the 331st day (332nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In computer science, a library is a collection of subprograms used to develop software. ... Free and Open Source Software, also F/OSS or FOSS, is software which is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. ... The BSD license is a permissive license and is one of the most widely used free software licenses. ...

Contents

File format

The Ogg bitstream format, spearheaded by the Xiph.Org Foundation, has been created as the framework of a larger initiative aimed at developing a set of components for the coding and decoding of multimedia content which are available free of charge and are freely re-implementable in software. A bitstream format is the format of the data found in some stream of bits used in a digital communication or storage application. ...


The format consists of chunks of data each called an Ogg Page. Each page begins with the "OggS" string to identify the file as Ogg format. An Ogg Page is a variable sized unit of data within an Ogg bitstream. ...


A serial number and page number in the page header identifies each page as part of a series of pages making up a bitstream. Multiple bitstreams may be multiplexed in the file where pages from each bitstream are ordered by the seek time of the contained data. Bitstreams may also be appended to existing files, a process known as chaining, to cause the bitstreams to be decoded in sequence. A bitstream or bit stream is a time series of bits. ... In telecommunications, multiplexing (also muxing or MUXing) is the combining of two or more information channels onto a common transmission medium using hardware called a multiplexer or (MUX). ...


A BSD-licensed library, called libogg, is available to encode and decode data from Ogg streams. Independent Ogg implementations are used in several projects such as RealPlayer and a set of DirectShow filters. The BSD license is the license agreement that the BSD software (largely, a version of UNIX) is distributed under. ... RealPlayer is a cross-platform media player by RealNetworks that plays a number of multimedia formats including MP3, MPEG-4, QuickTime, Windows Media and multiple versions of proprietary RealAudio and RealVideo codecs. ... Logo of the DirectX Media SDK - the first time DirectShow was distributed under its current name. ...


Page structure

The following is the field layout of an Ogg page header:

 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1| Byte +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | capture_pattern: Magic number for page start "OggS" | 0-3 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | version | header_type | granule_position | 4-7 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | 8-11 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | bitstream_serial_number | 12-15 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | page_sequence_number | 16-19 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | CRC_checksum | 20-23 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | page_segments | segment_table | 24-27 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | ... | 28- +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
Capture Pattern - 32 bits
The capture pattern or sync code is a magic number used to ensure synchronisation when parsing ogg files. Every page starts with the four byte sequence 'OggS'. This assists in resynchronising a parser in cases where data has been lost or is corrupted, and is a sanity check before commencing parsing the page structure.
Version - 8 bits
This field indicates the version of the ogg bitstream format, to allow for future expansion. It is currently mandated to be 0.
Header Type - 8 bits
This is an 8 bit field of flags, which indicates the type of page which follows. The rightmost or least significant bit is considered bit 0, with value 0x01, the next least significant digit is bit 1, with value 0x02. The third is bit 2, with value 0x04, and so on.
Bit Value Flag Page type
0 0x01 Continuation The first packet on this page is a continuation of the previous packet in the logical bitstream.
1 0x02 BOS Beginning Of Stream. This page is the first page in the logical bitstream. The BOS flag must be set on the first page of every logical bitstream, and must not be set on any other page.
2 0x04 EOS End Of Stream. This page is the last page in the logical bitstream. The EOS flag must be set on the final page of every logical bitstream, and must not be set on any other page.
Granule Position - 64 bits
A granule position is the time marker in ogg files. It is an abstract value, whose meaning is determined by the codec. It may for example be a count of the number of samples, the number of frames or a more complex scheme.
Bitstream Serial Number - 32 bits
This field is a serial number which identifies a page as belonging to a particular logical bitstream. Each logical bitstream in a file has a unique value, and this field allows implementations to deliver the pages to the appropriate decoder. In a typical vorbis+theora file, one stream will be the audio (vorbis), and the other will be the video (theora)
Page Sequence Number - 32 bits
This field is a monotonically increasing field for each logical bitstream. The first page is 0, the second 1, etc. This allows implementations to detect when data has been lost.
Checksum - 32 bits
This field provides a checksum of the data in the entire page, performed with the checksum field set to 0. This allows verification that the data has not been corrupted since it was created. Pages which fail the checksum should be discarded.
Page Segments - 8 bits
This field indicates the number of segments that exist in this page. It also indicates how many bytes are in the segment table which follows this field. There can be a maximum of 255 segments in any one page.
Segment Table
The segment table is an 8 bit vector of values indicating the length of each segment within the page body. The number of segments is determined from the preceding Page Segments field. Each segment is between 0 and 255 bytes in length.

The segments provide a way to group segments into packets, which are meaningful units of data for the decoder. When the segments length is indicated to be 255, this indicates that the following segment is to be concatenated to this one and is part of the same packet. When the segments length is 0-254, this indicates that this segment is the final segment in this packet. Where a packets length is a multiple of 255, the final segment will be of length 0.


Where the final packet continues on the next page, the final segment value will be 255, and the continuation flag will be set on the following page to indicate that the start of the new page is a continuation of last page.


History

The “Play OGG” web button
The “Play OGG” web button

In May 2003, two Internet RFCs were published relating to the format. The Ogg bitstream was defined in RFC 3533 (which is classified as 'informative') and its Internet content type (application/ogg) in RFC 3534 (which is, as of 2006, a proposed standard protocol). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard that extends the format of e-mail to support: text in character sets other than US-ASCII; non-text attachments; multi-part message bodies; and header information in non-ASCII character sets. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although Ogg hasn't reached anywhere near the ubiquity of the MPEG standards (e.g.: MP3 / MP4), as of 2006, it is commonly used to encode free content (such as free music, multimedia on Wikimedia projects and Creative Commons files) and has started to be supported by a significant minority of digital audio players. Many popular game engines also support the Ogg format, not the least of which have been the Doom 3, Unreal Tournament 2004, and Serious Sam: The Second Encounter engines. The more popular Ogg Vorbis codec has built-in support on many software players and extensions are available for nearly all the rest. Other codecs are less well supported although extensions are often available. The Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. ... MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a popular digital audio encoding format. ... MP4 can refer to: MPEG-4 Part 14 file format Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of the fourth order This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Free content is any kind of functional work, artwork, or other creative content upon which no legal restriction has been placed that significantly interferes with peoples freedom to use, understand, redistribute, improve, and share the content. ... The Wikimedia Foundation Inc. ... The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ... Apple iPod, the most popular hard drive-based digital audio player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative Zen Vision:M), one of the many alternatives for the iPod An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) Some mobile phones can be used as digital audio players, such as the Nokia 6233. ... Doom 3 is a science fiction horror first-person shooter computer game developed by id Software and published by id Software on August 3, 2004. ... Unreal Tournament 2004, also known as UT2004 or UT2K4, is a futuristic first-person shooter computer game designed mainly for multiplayer gaming, although the game has a built in single-player mode that mimics multiplayer gaming by featuring AI-bots. ... Serious Sam is the title of a series of first-person shooters created by the Croatian company Croteam. ...



On May 16, 2007, the Free Software Foundation started a campaign to widespread the use of Ogg Vorbis “as an ethically, legally and technically superior audio alternative to the proprietary MP3 format.”[3] People are also encouraged to support the campaign by adding a web button to their website or blog. The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Potential patent problems

According to a CNET news story[4], the vice president of Thomson which holds patents to the MP3 format, says "I would say we continue to have some thoughts that it is very likely that they are using some of the Thomson/Fraunhofer solutions in the project…But it's not part of our daily concern." Xiph.org Foundation responded with an open letter[5]. No action has been taken to this point, although the information about the implementation of Ogg is freely available. Chris Montgomery, creator of Ogg, has later been cited on "To this day, we still have lawyers tell us they won't support Ogg because Thomson would come after them"[6]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article concerns the media and entertainment company. ... The Xiph. ... An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience. ... ...


Ogg codecs

Ogg is only a container format. The actual audio or video encoded by a codec will be stored inside an Ogg container. Ogg containers may contain streams encoded with multiple codecs, for example, an audio video file may contain data encoded by both an audio codec and a video codec.


Being a Container format, Ogg can embed audio and video in various formats (such as MPEG-4, Dirac, MP3 and others) but usually Ogg is used with the following: MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... Dirac is a prototype algorithm for the encoding and decoding (see codec) of raw video. ...

  • Text codecs
    • Writ: a text codec designed to embed subtitles or captions
  • Video codecs
    • Theora: based upon On2's VP3, it is targeted at competing with MPEG-4 video (for example, encoded with DivX or Xvid), RealVideo, or Windows Media Video.
    • Tarkin: an experimental codec utilizing discrete wavelet transforms in the three dimensions of width, height, and time. It has been put on hold since February 2000, with Theora becoming the main focus for video encoding.
    • Dirac: an experimental codec developed by the BBC as the basis of a new codec for the transmission of video over the Internet. The Schrödinger project aims to provide portable libraries, written in C, that implement the Dirac codec. It also allows to embed Dirac inside the Ogg container format.
    • OggUVS
  • Subtitle structures
    • Annodex: A free and open source set of standards developed by CSIRO to annotate and index networked media.

An audio codec is a computer program that compresses/decompresses digital audio data according to a given audio file format or streaming audio format. ... A lossy data compression method is one where compressing data and then decompressing it retrieves data that may well be different from the original, but is close enough to be useful in some way. ... Speex is a free software speech codec that claims to be unencumbered by patent restrictions. ... Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ... Variable bitrate (VBR), or less commonly variable bit rate, is a term used in telecommunications and computing that relates to the bitrate used in sound or video encoding. ... Lossless data compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the exact original data to be reconstructed from the compressed data. ... FLAC, an acronym for Free Lossless Audio Codec, is a popular file format for audio data compression. ... Ogg Writ is a text-phrase codec used with the Ogg encapsulation format. ... A video codec is a device or software module that enables video compression or decompression for digital video. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... NatusRoma 00:49, 12 Jun 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... VP3 was originally a proprietary video codec developed by On2 Technologies. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ... DivX is a brand name of products created by DivX, Inc. ... Xvid (formerly XviD) is a video codec library following the MPEG-4 standard. ... In numerical analysis and functional analysis, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is any wavelet transform for which the wavelets are discretely sampled. ... 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ... Dirac is a prototype algorithm for the encoding and decoding (see codec) of raw video. ... OggUVS is an uncompressed video codec for Ogg, developed by Xiph. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Closed captioning. ... Annodex logo Annodex is a digital media format developed by CSIRO to provide annotation and indexing of continuous media, such as audio and video. ... The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is the national government body for scientific research in Australia. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A6556511
  2. ^ http://lists.xiph.org/pipermail/vorbis-dev/2005-November/018295.html
  3. ^ 'Play Ogg': FSF launches free audio format campaign
  4. ^ John Borland (2001-02-27). MP3 rival attempts to shield developers. News.com. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  5. ^ Emmett Plant (2002-08-27). An open Thank-You Letter. Xiph.org Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  6. ^ Evan Hansen, Eliot Van Buskirk (2007-02-23). MP3's Loss, Open Source's Gain. Wired. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.

Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... CNET Networks Inc. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wired can refer to: Wired magazine, a monthly technology magazine. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Free software Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This table compares features of container formats. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

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Ogg files
Look up Ogg in
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Ogg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1357 words)
Files ending in the.ogg extension may be of any Ogg media filetype, and because the format is free, Ogg's various codecs have been incorporated into a number of different free and commercial media players.
The Ogg bitstream format, spearheaded by the Xiph.org Foundation, has been created as the framework of a larger initiative aimed at developing a set of components for the coding and decoding of multimedia content which are both freely available and freely re-implementable in software.
At its inception, the Ogg project was thought to be somewhat ambitious given the power of the PC hardware of the time.
Vorbis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2301 words)
Although the Vorbis format is often simply referred to as Ogg, this is technically incorrect as Ogg, like AVI or Matroska, is a container format while Vorbis is an audio codec.
Another indication of Ogg Vorbis's increasing popularity is the number of websites using it, such as Jamendo or Mindawn, as well as several national radio stations such as Radio France, CBC Radio and Virgin Radio providing additional Vorbis streams.
Ogg Vorbis is supported by several large digital audio player manufacturers such as Samsung, Rio, Neuros, Cowon and iRiver.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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