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Encyclopedia > Ogasawara Islands
A map of the Ogasawara Islands south of Japan

The Ogasawara Islands (小笠原諸島) are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical islands some 1,000 km directly south of central Tokyo, Japan. Administratively, they are a part of Tokyo. The islands are also known as the Bonin Islands, and the southernmost (uninhabited) group is known as the Volcano Islands. Still 700 km further south is Okino Torishima, and 1,900 km further east is Minami Torishima. These two remote islands are not geographically part of Ogasawara but belong to it administratively. The total area of the islands is 84 km². Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1011x798, 260 KB) Map of Ogasawara Islands. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1011x798, 260 KB) Map of Ogasawara Islands. ... The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... Tokyo , literally Eastern capital)   is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, the home of the Japanese Imperial Family, and the de facto[1] capital of Japan. ... Tokyo , literally Eastern capital)   is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, the home of the Japanese Imperial Family, and the de facto[1] capital of Japan. ... Okino Torishima (沖ノ鳥島), formerly called Parece Vela (Spanish for it looks like a sail) is the southernmost island of Japan, at 22°49′ N 136°07′ E, 1 740 km south of Tokyo, or 534 km Southeast of Oki Daito, the closest Japanese island, or 567 km WSE of Minami I... Minami Torishima (南鳥島) or Marcus Island is an isolated island in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, located at 24°18′N 153°58′E. The Japanese meaning of the name is Southern Bird Island. It is 1. ...


The only inhabited islands are Chichi-jima (父島) and Haha-jima (母島). Chichi-jima (父島, lit. ... Haha-jima (母島, lit. ...

Contents

Island subgroups

The Ogasawara Islands consists of four subgroups, including the Volcano Islands, which are listed along with their main islands:

  • Mukojima Group (聟島列島 Mukojima Rettō) - formerly Parry Group
    • Mukojima (聟島, literally: Bridegroom Island)
    • Yomejima (嫁島, literally: Bride Island)
    • Nakoudo-jima or Nakadachijima (媒島, literally: Go-between Island)
    • Kitanojima (北ノ島, literally: Northern Island)
  • Chichijima Group (父島列島 Chichijima Rettō) - formerly Beechey Group
    • Chichijima (父島, literally: Father Island),
    • Anijima (兄島, literally: Elder Brother Island)
    • Otōtojima (弟島, literally: Younger Brother Island)
  • Hahajima Group (母島列島 Hahajima Rettō) - formerly Baily Group
    • Hahajima (母島, literally: Mother Island)
    • Anejima (姉島, literally: Elder Sister Island)
    • Imōtojima (妹島, literally: Younger Sister Island)
  • Volcano Group (火山列島 Kazan Rettō)
    • Kitaiōjima (北硫黄島 Kitaiōjima, literally: North Sulphur Island)
    • Iwojima (硫黄島 Iōjima, literally: Sulphur Island)
    • Minamiiōjima (南硫黄島 Minamiiōjima, literally: South Sulphur Island)
  • Single Isolated Island, west of Hahajima Group and North of Volcano Group:
    • Nishino shima (西之島, literally: Western Island, also: Rosario Island)
  • Isolated Remote Islands, not geographically but administratively part of Ogasawara Islands

Chichi-jima (父島, lit. ... Haha-jima (母島, lit. ... Landsat photo of Iwo Jima, circa 2006 Iwo Jima   (Japanese 硫黄島 Iōtō, or Iōjima, meaning sulfur island) is a volcanic island in Japan, part of the Volcano Islands (the southern part of the Ogasawara Islands), approximately 650 nautical miles (1200 km) south of Tokyo (24°472N, 141... Okino Torishima (沖ノ鳥島), formerly called Parece Vela (Spanish for it looks like a sail) is the southernmost island of Japan, at 22°49′ N 136°07′ E, 1 740 km south of Tokyo, or 534 km Southeast of Oki Daito, the closest Japanese island, or 567 km WSE of Minami I... Minami Torishima (南鳥島) or Marcus Island is an isolated island in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, located at 24°18′N 153°58′E. The Japanese meaning of the name is Southern Bird Island. It is 1. ...

Transportation

One can get from the main Japanese islands to Chichijima by way of the "Ogasawara Maru" liner, run by Ogasawara Marine Transportation. The boat leaves from Takeshiba port in Tokyo Bay, and the trip takes around 25.5 hours (in good weather). There are four or five crossings each month. The Ogasawara-maru is a 6700 ton vessel, 131m long, with a capacity of 1031 passengers.


The world first TSL, the "SUPER LINER OGASAWARA" (which was to be commissioned in 2006), with a maximum speed of 70 km/h, 14,500 tons gross tonnage, was expected to shorten the voyage to Ogasawara to about 17 hours carrying up to 740 passengers. However, the Ogasawara Marine Transport which receives some form of Tokyo-related financial assistance for an estimated annual deficit of up to 10 hundred million Yen, announced the cancellation of the TSL's development in August 2005. 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


There are no commercial passenger flights to the islands.


To get to Hahajima, one has to get to Chichijima, and then cross via the liner "Hahajima Maru".


Because a trip from the main Japanese islands to the Ogasawara Islands is very difficult, when people get severely ill or otherwise have an emergency situation, word is conveyed to Iwo Jima Japan Maritime Self Defense Force post, and a helicopter is sent to the islands. Emergencies can also be handled from the main Japanese islands by airplanes of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, or the Maritime Self Defense Force base in Iwakuni can convey evacuees to the main islands by a seaplane, the ShinMaywa US-1. This seaplane is also used for the transportation of VIPs such as the Governor of Tokyo. Landsat photo of Iwo Jima, circa 2006 Iwo Jima   (Japanese 硫黄島 Iōtō, or Iōjima, meaning sulfur island) is a volcanic island in Japan, part of the Volcano Islands (the southern part of the Ogasawara Islands), approximately 650 nautical miles (1200 km) south of Tokyo (24°472N, 141... The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force ), or JMSDF, is the maritime branch of the Japanese Self-Defense Forces, tasked with the naval defense of Japan and formed following the dissolution of the Imperial Japanese Navy after World War II.[1] The force is based strictly on defensive armament, largely lacking... Robinson Helicopter Company (USA) R44, a four seat development of the R22 A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors, each having two or more rotor blades. ... The Japan Air Self-Defense Force ), or JASDF, is the aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and other aerospace operations. ... Iwakuni, including the Kintai Bridge Iwakuni (岩国市; -shi) is a city located in Yamaguchi, Japan. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... The ShinMaywa PS-1 and US-1 (Japanese: 新明和 PS-1, US-1) are large STOL aircraft designed for anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and air-sea rescue (SAR) work respectively. ...


Even today, the emergency service takes several hours, and help does not necessarily arrive in time.


Ogasawara village operates a bus service on Chichijima and elderly passengers may use a "silver pass". There is also a sightseeing taxi service, a rental car company, motorized scooter rental services and a bike rental service, as well as other amenities. Bringing one's own automobile onto the island is an extremely difficult and costly task.


Ogasawara Airport construction problem

The Ogasawara Islands have no airport and there is, at present, no prospect for one being constructed. However, there was talk for several decades of building one[citation needed]. Anjima and Chichijima was both once designated possible construction sites, but because there are numerous valuable, rare or endangered plant species forming a unique ecosystem in the vicinity of the proposed sites, issues of nature conservation were raised. Although construction of an airport was desired by some, a desire to keep the natural beauty of the islands untouched created a movement to block any such construction. The airport issue was quite controversial on the islands[citation needed].


The island of Iwo Jima (硫黄島 Iōjima), is a part of the Volcano Islands. It is occupied by a Japanese military base and access requires special permission.


Geology

The Ogasawara islands are a part of an island arc known geologically as a 'fore arc'. They lie above a subduction zone between the Pacific Plate and the Philippine Plate. The Pacific Plate is subducting under the Philippine Plate, which creates an oceanic trench to the east of the islands. The crust of the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands was formed by volcanic activity when subduction began about 45-50 million years ago, and is composed mostly of an andesitic volcanic rock called boninite, which is rich in magnesium oxide, chromium, and silicon dioxide. The Ogasawara Islands may represent the exposed parts of an ophiolite that has not yet been emplaced on oceanic crust. The rocks of the Volcano Islands are much younger; Iwo Jima is a dormant volcano characerized by rapid uplift and several hot springs. An island arc is a type of archipelago formed by plate tectonics as one oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another and produces magma. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ...  The Philippine plate, shown in dull red The Philippine Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean to the east of the Philippines. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ... The oceanic trenches are hemispheric-scale long but narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor. ... A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. ... Boninite is a high magnesium mafic extrusive rock formed in back-arc environments, typically in seafloor spreading centres but also in terrestrial back-arc spreading centres. ... Magnesium oxide Magnesium oxide is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass 51. ... R-phrases R42 R43 R49 S-phrases S22 S36 S37 S45 S53 Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Ophiolites are sections of oceanic lithosphere that have been uplifted or emplaced to be exposed within continental crustal rocks. ... Landsat photo of Iwo Jima, circa 2006 Iwo Jima   (Japanese 硫黄島 Iōtō, or Iōjima, meaning sulfur island) is a volcanic island in Japan, part of the Volcano Islands (the southern part of the Ogasawara Islands), approximately 650 nautical miles (1200 km) south of Tokyo (24°472N, 141... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57°F or...


Most of the islands have steep shorelines, often with sea cliffs ranging from 50 to 100 meters in height, but the islands are also fringed with coral reefs and have many beaches. Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ...


History

The first European discovery of the islands took place in 1543, by Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos. The islands were then explored by Japanese samurai Ogasawara Sadayori in 1593, whence comes the name "Ogasawara Islands," though he too did not establish any settlement there. Ruy López de Villalobos (b. ...


Outside of American and British shipyards set up for whaling in 1820-30, the first recorded settlement of the islands was by a number of Hawaiians in 1830, and the descendants of these settlers live on the island today. Ogasawara was claimed by Japan from the British in 1875 and became part of Tokyo prefecture in 1880. The name "Bonin Islands" arose around this time, deriving from their uninhabited status and the Japanese word mu-jin (無人), literally meaning "no people". Royal Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Hawaii The Kingdom of HawaiÊ»i was established during 1795 - 1810 with the subjugation of the smaller independent chiefdoms of OÊ»ahu, Maui, MolokaÊ»i, LānaÊ»i and KauaÊ»i by the chiefdom of HawaiÊ»i (or the Big Island) into... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Tokyo (東京; Tōkyō, lit. ...


In World War II, most of the inhabitants were evacuated to the mainland. There was a Japanese military base on Chichijima, whose officer in charge, Major Matoba, was known for performing sadistic acts (including cannibalism) on prisoners of war, and was executed for his crimes after the war. However, other officers on the island disagreed with his methods. Former President George H. W. Bush's plane crashed in the ocean near Chichijima, but he was rescued by Americans. The Battle of Iwo Jima, one of the fiercest battles of World War II, was fought here in 1945. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Cannibalism in Brazil in 1557 as alleged by Hans Staden. ... George Herbert Walker Bush GCB (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States of America serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi † Strength 110,000 marines 22,000 infantry Casualties 6,825 dead 20,000 wounded 21,000 dead 1,083 survived The Battle of Iwo Jima (Operation Detachment) was fought between the United States of America and the Empire of... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


The islands were occupied by the U.S. Navy from 1945, at which point the inhabitants who were western in descent were allowed back on the island. The islands were returned to Japan in 1968, when the Japanese evacuees were finally allowed to return. The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...


Now, nearly all of the inhabitants, including those of Western ancestry, are Japanese citizens and the Japanese language is used. During the nineteenth century, research points to the existence of an English-lexified pidgin/creole on the islands. During the twentieth century, islanders of Western descent increasingly mixed Japanese with island English, resulting in a "Mixed Language" which can still be heard among these islanders today. Younger speakers are monolingual in variety of Japanese closely resembling the Tokyo standard. A bilingual dictionary, Talking Dictionary of the Bonin Islands Language (with CD-ROM), edited by Daniel Long and Naoyuki Hashimoto, was published in 2005. Japanese (,  ) is a language spoken by over 130 million people, mainly in Japan, but also by Japanese emigrant communities around the world. ... A pidgin, or contact language, is the name given to any language created, usually spontaneously, out of a mixture of other languages as a means of communication between speakers of different tongues. ... The word Creole (and its cognates in other languages, such as crioulo, criollo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kriulo, kriol, krio, etc. ...


The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists [1] suggests that Iwo Jima and Chichijima may have been used as rearming ports for Regulus missile submarines. This weapon was a turbojet-powered nuclear cruise missile (bear in mind that the buzz bomb--the German V1 missile--was also a cruise missile) with a very short range (around 500 miles) and small payload in the beginning of the nuclear standoff between the US and the USSR. The strategy may have been to protect the Japanese Islands from attack by the Soviet Union. Most of the submarines involved were diesel-electric and so required refueling bases close to their patrol area.


Ogasawara subtropical moist forests

The Ogasawara Islands form a distinct subtropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion, with a high degree of biodiversity and endemism. The islands are home to about 500 plant species, of which 43% are endemic. The forests are of three main types: Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests and tropical rainforests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity or biological diversity is the diversity of life. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ...

  • Type I: Elaeocarpus-Ardisia mesic forest is found in the moist lowland areas with deep soils. The forests have a closed canopy with a height of about 15 meters, dominated by Ardisia sieboldii. Elaeocarpus photiniaefolius, Pisonia umbellifera, and Pouteria obovata are other important canopy species. These forests were almost completely destroyed by clearing for agriculture before 1945.
  • Type II: Distylium-Raphiolepis-Schima dry forest is found in drier lowland and upland sites with shallower soils. It is also a closed-canopy forest, with a 4 to 8 meter canopy comprised mostly of Distylium lepidotum, Rhaphiolepis integerrima, Schima mertensiana, Pouteria obovata, and Syzygium buxifolium. The Type II forests can be further subdivided into:
    • Type IIa: Distylium-Schima dry forest occurs in cloudy upland areas with fine-textured soils. These forests contain many rare and endemic species, with Pandanus boninensis and Syzygium buxifolium as the predominant trees.
    • Type IIb: Raphiolepsis-Livistona dry forest is found in upland areas with few clouds and rocky soils. Rhaphiolepis integerrima is the dominant tree species, along with the fan palm Livistona chinensis var. bonensis, Pandanus boninensis and Ochrosia nakaiana.
  • Type III: Distylium-Pouteria scrub forest is found on windy and dry mountain ridges and exposed sea cliffs. These forests have the highest species diversity on the islands. Distylium lepidotum and Pouteria obovata are the dominant species, growing from 0.5 to 1.5 meters tall. Other common shrubs are Myrsine okabeana, Symplocos kawakamii, and Pittosporum parvifolium.

Several bird species are endemic to the islands, including the Japanese Woodpigeon (Columba janthina) and the Vulnerable Bonin White-eye (Apalopteron familiare); formerly known as the Bonin honeyeater. Species see text Elaeocarpus is a genus of tropical and subtropical evergreen trees and shrubs. ... Type Species Ardisia tinifolia Sw - Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae 48. ... Species Pisonia grandis Pisonia umbellifera and others Pisonia is a genus of plants. ... Species Species include: Pouteria campechiana Pouteria is a genus of plant, belonging to the family Sapotaceae. ... Species See text Distylium (Winter-hazel) is a genus of about 18 species of evergreen shrubs and trees in the witch hazel family Hamamelidaceae, native to eastern and southeastern Asia. ... Species About 15 species, including: Rhaphiolepis ferruginea Rhaphiolepis fragrans Rhaphiolepis indica Rhaphiolepis integerrima Rhaphiolepis kerrii Rhaphiolepis lanceolata Rhaphiolepis major Rhaphiolepis salicifolia Rhaphiolepis umbellata Rhaphiolepis (syn. ... Species See text. ... Species About 500; see text Syzygium is a genus of flowering plants, belonging to the myrtle family Myrtaceae. ... Species See text The genus Livistona is a genus of 28 species of palms (family Arecaceae), native to southern Asia and Australasia. ... Fan palm as a descriptive term can refer to any of several different kinds of palms in various genera with leaves that are palmately (rather than pinnately) compound. ... Species See text The genus Livistona is a genus of 28 species of palms (family Arecaceae), native to southern Asia and Australasia. ... Species = Matipo (or Māpou in Māori) are New Zealand native members of the Myrsine genus. ... Genera Symplocos Symplocaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Ericales, including only one genus, Symplocos, with about 250 species native to Asia, Australia and the Americas. ... Species Many species, including Pittosporum angustifolium Pittosporum bicolor Pittosporum bracteolatum Pittosporum coriaceum Pittosporum crassifolium Pittosporum erioloma Pittosporum ferrugineum Pittosporum lancifolium Pittosporum ligustrifolium Pittosporum moluccanum Pittosporum multiflorum Pittosporum oreillyanum Pittosporum nativitatis Pittosporum phillyreoides Pittosporum resiniferum Pittosporum revolutum Pittosporum rhombifolium Pittosporum rubiginosum Pittosporum spinescens Pittosporum tenuifolium Pittosporum tobira Pittosporum trilobum Pittosporum undulatum... Binomial name Apalopteron familiare (Kittlitz, 1830) The Bonin White-eye Apalopteron familiare is a small yellow and grey bird endemic to the Ogasawara Islands (formerly Bonin Islands) of Japan. ...


Trivia

  • The giant squid (genus Architeuthis) was filmed off the Ogasawara Islands for the first time in the wild on September 27, 2005.
  • Sevii Islands from Pokémon Fire Red and Leaf Green are based on Bonin Islands
  • A fictional island in the chain, South Ataria Island (which would have laid at the southernmost position in the chain, surpassing Minami Iwo Jima) is the landing site of the SDF-1 Macross in the TV series Superdimension Fortress Macross.

Godzilla, as portrayed during his latest film from the Millennium series . Godzilla ) is a fictional monster featured in Japanese films and has become one of the worlds most recognized movie characters of all time. ... // Monsterland Monsterland (Destroy All Monsters, 1968) Monsterland was introduced in the 1968 film Destroy All Monsters. ... Species Architeuthis dux Steenstrup, 1857 ?Architeuthis hartingii Verrill, 1875 ?Architeuthis japonica Pfeffer, 1912 ?Architeuthis kirkii Robson, 1887 ?Architeuthis martensi (Hilgendorf, 1880) ?Architeuthis physeteris (Joubin, 1900) ?Architeuthis sanctipauli (Velain, 1877) ?Architeuthis stockii (Kirk, 1882) Synonyms Architeuthus Steenstrup, 1857 Dinoteuthis More, 1875 Dubioteuthis Joubin, 1900 Megaloteuthis Kent, 1874 Megateuthis Hilgendorf, 1880 Mouchezis... The SDF-1 Macross , is a fictional interstellar spacecraft from The Super Dimension Fortress Macross, an anime series that aired in Japan in 1982-1983, and its American adaptation Robotech (1985). ...

See also

Chichi-jima (父島, lit. ... Haha-jima (母島, lit. ...

External links



Shadow picture of Tokyo region Tokyo Metropolis
Wards: Adachi | Arakawa | Bunkyō | Chiyoda | Chūō | Edogawa | Itabashi | Katsushika | Kita | Kōtō | Meguro | Minato | Nakano | Nerima | Ōta | Setagaya | Shibuya | Shinagawa | Shinjuku | Suginami | Sumida | Toshima | Taitō
Cities: Akiruno | Akishima | Chōfu | Fuchū | Fussa | Hachiōji | Hamura | Higashikurume | Higashimurayama | Higashiyamato | Hino | Inagi | Kiyose | Kodaira | Koganei | Kokubunji | Komae | Kunitachi | Machida | Mitaka | Musashimurayama | Musashino | Nishi-Tōkyō | Ōme | Tachikawa | Tama
Districts and Subprefectures: Nishitama District | Hachijō Subprefecture | Miyake Subprefecture | Ogasawara Subprefecture | Ōshima Subprefecture

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ogasawara Islands - UNESCO World Heritage Centre (1148 words)
The Ogasawara Islands refer to a group of islands, which stretch for 400 km from north to south, lying in the Northwest Pacific south of the Japanese archipelago.
The Ogasawara Islands located roughly 1000 km from the Japanese archipelago and about 550 km from the Mariana Islands, and they are all oceanic islands that have never been connected to a continent since their formation.
The Ogasawara Islands are the only place where we can see boninite and transitional volcanic products that record the entire growth process of an oceanic island arc from its birth to its present young stage as well as the type locality of boninite.
Bonin Islands - LoveToKnow 1911 (742 words)
BONIN ISLANDS, called by the Japanese Ogasawara-Jima, a chain of small islands belonging to Japan, stretching nearly due north and south, a little east of 142 E., and from 26° 35' to 2 7° 45' N., about 500 m.
European geographers have been accustomed to divide the islands into three groups for purposes of nomenclature, calling the northern group the Parry Islands, the central the Beechey Islands and the southern the Coffin or Bailey Islands.
The second largest of all, Chichi-jima, in Japanese cartography was called Peel Island in 1827 by Captain Beechey, and the same officer gave the name of Stapleton Island to the Ototo-jima of the Japanese, and that of Buckland Island to their Ani-jima.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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