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Encyclopedia > Official languages of India

The Constitution of India envisages Hindi as the primary official language advocated by the Union government, with English as the subsidiary official language. However, there are many languages that are accorded official language status at the state level. It envisages a situation where each state has its own official language(s), in addition to the official languages to be used by the Union government. The section of the Constitution of India dealing with official languages therefore includes detailed provisions[1] which deal not just with the languages used for the official purposes of the union,[2] but also with the languages that are to be used for the official purposes of each state and union territory in the country,[3] and the languages that are to be used for communication between the union and the states inter se.[4] The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... -1... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ...


At the time the constitution entered into force, English was used for most official purposes both at the federal level and in the various states. The constitution envisaged the gradual phasing in of local languages, principally Hindi, to replace English over a fifteen-year period, but gave Parliament the power to, by law, provide for the continued use of English even thereafter. Accordingly, English continues to be used today, in combination with Hindi (at the central level and in some states) and other languages (at the state level). The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... -1... The Parliament of India is bicameral. ...


The legal framework governing the use of languages for official purpose currently includes the Constitution, the Official Languages Act, 1963, Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, and various state laws, as well as rules and regulations made by the central government and the states. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Delegated legislation (sometimes referred to as secondary legislation or subordinate legislation) is law made by an executive authority under powers given to them by primary legislation in order to implement and administer the requirements of the acts. ...

Contents

Official languages at the Union level

Hindi and English

The Indian constitution, in 1950, declared Hindi in Devanagari script to be the official language of the union.[5] Unless Parliament decided otherwise, the use of English for official purposes was to cease 15 years after the constitution came into effect, i.e., on 26 January 1965.[6] The prospect of the changeover, however, led to much alarm in the non Hindi-speaking areas of India, as a result of which Parliament enacted the Official Languages Act, 1963[7][8][9][10][11][12], which provided for the continued use of English for official purposes along with Hindi, even after 1965. An attempt was made in late 1964 to expressly provide for an end to the use of English, but it was met with protests from across the country. Some of these protests also turned violent. Widespread protests occurred in states such as Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal, Karnataka, Pondicherry and Andhra Pradesh. As a result of these protests, the proposal was dropped,[13][14] and the Act itself was amended in 1967 to provide that the use of English would not be ended until a resolution to that effect was passed by the legislature of every state that had not adopted Hindi as its official language, and by each house of the Indian Parliament.[15] The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ... -1... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) DevanāgarÄ« (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... -1... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Andhra redirects here. ... A resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body. ...


The current position is thus that the Union government may continue to use English in addition to Hindi for its official purposes[16] as a "subsidiary official language,"[17] but is also required to prepare and execute a programme to progressively increase its use of Hindi.[18] The exact extent to which, and the areas in which, the Union government uses Hindi and English, respectively, is determined by the provisions of the Constitution, the Official Languages Act, 1963, the Official Languages Rules, 1976, and statutory instruments made by the Department of Official Language under these laws. Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ... A program or programme (in management) has at least two senses: A collection of projects that is directed toward a common goal. ... Statutory Instruments (SIs) are parts of United Kingdom law separate from Acts of Parliament which do not require full Parliamentary approval before becoming law. ...


The language of Parliamentary proceedings and laws

The Indian constitution draws a distinction between the language to be used in Parliamentary proceedings, and the language in which laws are to be made. Parliamentary business, according to the Constitution, may be conducted in either Hindi or English.[19] The use of English in parliamentary proceedings was to be phased out at the end of fifteen years unless Parliament chose to extend its use,[20] which Parliament did through the Official Languages Act, 1963.[21] In addition, the constitution permits a person who is unable to express himself in either Hindi or English to, with the permission of the Speaker of the relevant House, address the House in his mother tongue.[22] Parliamentary procedure is the name given to the set of rules governing the decision-making process used by a deliberative assembly. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... It has been suggested that Speakers of the House be merged into this article or section. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ...


In contrast, the constitution requires the authoritative text of all laws, including Parliamentary enactments and statutory instruments, to be in English, until Parliament decides otherwise.[23] Parliament has not exercised its power to so decide, instead merely requiring that all such laws and instruments, and all bills brought before it, also be translated into Hindi, though the English text remains authoritative.[24] Coming into force (also called enforcement or enactment) refers to the date and process by which legislation, or part of legislation, comes to have legal force and effect. ... As well as Acts of Parliament, United Kingdom law is also made through Statutory Instruments (SIs) (also referred to as delegated, or secondary legislation). ... A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ...


The language of the judiciary

The constitution provides that all proceedings in the Supreme Court of India, the country's highest court, shall be in English.[25] Parliament has the power to alter this by law, but has not done so.[26] The Supreme Court of India is the highest court of the land as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ...


The language of administration

The Union government is required by law to progressively increase the use of Hindi in its official work,[27] which it has sought to do through "persuasion, incentive and goodwill."[28]


The Official Language Act provides that the Union government shall use both Hindi and English in most administrative documents that are intended for the public.[29] The Official Languages Rules, in contrast, provide for a higher degree of use of Hindi in communications between offices of the central government (other than offices in Tamil Nadu, to which the rules do not apply[30]). Communications between different departments within the central government may be in either Hindi or English, although a translation into the other language must be provided if required.[31] Communications within offices of the same department, however, must be in Hindi if the offices are in Hindi-speaking states,[32] and in either Hindi or English otherwise with Hindi being used in proportion to the percentage of staff in the receiving office who have a working knowledge of Hindi.[33] Notes and memos in files may be in either Hindi or English, with the Government having a duty to provide a translation into the other language if required.[34] Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... For other uses, see Office (disambiguation). ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... A ministry is a department of a government, led by a minister. ... A memorandum or memo is a written form of communication most often employed in business environments. ...


In addition, every person submitting a petition for the redress of a grievance to a government officer or authority has a constitutional right to submit it in any language used in India.[35] Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A constitutional right is a right granted by a governments constitution (on the national or sub-national level), and cannot be legally denied by that government. ...


The languages of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution

The Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution contains a list of 22 scheduled languages. At the time the constitution was enacted, inclusion in this list meant that the language was entitled to representation on the Official Languages Commission,[36] and that the language would be one of the bases that would be drawn upon to enrich Hindi, the official language of the Union.[37] The list has since, however, acquired further significance. The Government of India is now under an obligation to take measures for the development of these languages, such that "they grow rapidly in richness and become effective means of communicating modern knowledge."[38] In addition, a candidate appearing in an examination conducted for public service at a higher level is entitled to use any of these languages as the medium in which he answers the paper.[39] The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. ...


Via the 92nd Constitutional amendment 2003, 4 new languages – Bodo, Maithili, Dogri, and Santhali – were added to the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution.[40]


The following table lists the languages set out in the eighth schedule as of May 2007, together with the regions where they are used:

No. Language Place(s)/Community
1. Assamese/Asomiya Assam
2. Bengali/Bangla Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Tripura, West Bengal
3. Bodo Assam
4. Dogri Jammu and Kashmir
5. Gujarati Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Gujarat
6. Hindi Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, the national capital territory of Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
7. Kannada Karnataka
8. Kashmiri Jammu and Kashmir
9. Konkani Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala
10. Maithili Bihar
11. Malayalam Kerala, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep,Puducherry
12. Manipuri (also Meitei or Meithei) Manipur
13. Marathi Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka
14. Nepali Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam
15. Oriya Orissa
16. Punjabi Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab
17. Sanskrit Primary liturgical language of Hinduism. Also declared a "Classical Language of India"
18. Santhali Santhal tribals of the Chota Nagpur Plateau (comprising the states of Bihar, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa)
19. Sindhi Sindhi community
20. Tamil Tamil Nadu, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Puducherry (Also designated a classical language)
21. Telugu Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh,Karnataka, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Puducherry
22. Urdu Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Muslim community in Karnataka

Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a union territory of India. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal. ... , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... Areas in India and Pakistan where Dogri and related dialects are spoken Dogri (डोगरी or ڈوگرى) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about two million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir, but also in northern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir, and... This article is about the area administered by India. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Chandigarh,  (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) also called City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana, and is a union territory of India. ... , Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, IPA: )  , a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... National capital territories exists in many countries, such as Australia (Australian Capital Territory), Brazil (Federal District of Brazil), India (National Capital Territory of Delhi), Pakistan (Islamabad Capital Territory) and the United States (District of Columbia). ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झाड़खण्ड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखण्ड or उत्तराखंड), is a state located in the northern part of India. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... Kashmiri (कॉशुर, کٲشُر Koshur) is a Dardic language spoken primarily in the valley of Kashmir, a region situated in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (DevanāgarÄ«: कोंकणी; Roman: Konknni; Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ; Malayalam: കൊങ്കണി; IAST: ) is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages spoken in the Konkan coast of India. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Indian region. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... -1... Maithili (मैथिली MaithilÄ«) is a language of the family of Indo-Aryan languages, which are part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... -1... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Union Territory. ... Meitei-lon , also Meitei-lol, and Manipuri (and sometimes, the 19th century British term, Meithei, which is the name of the people, not of the language), is the predominant language and lingua-franca in the Southeastern Himalayan state of Manipur, in northeastern India. ... , Manipur   (Meiteilon: মনিপুর in Eastern Nagari script, mnipur in Meitei Mayek) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli is a Union Territory in western India. ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... , Chandigarh,  (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) also called City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana, and is a union territory of India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... This article details the Indian state of Punjab. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... A classical language, is a language with a literature that is classical—ie, it should be ancient, it should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on its own, not as an offshoot of another tradition, and it must have a large and extremely rich body of ancient literature. ... Santali is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austro-Asiatic, related to Ho and Mundari. ... The Santals are a tribal people of Bangladesh and India, residing mainly in Western Bangladesh and the Indian states of Jharkhand, Bihar and West Bengal. ... The Chota Nagpur Plateau (also Chhota Nagpur) is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Orissa, Bihar, and Chhattisgarh. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Chhattisgarh (छत्तीसगढ़), a state in central India, formed when the sixteen southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झाड़खण्ड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... SindhÄ« (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... Sindhis (सिन्धी, سنڌي) are an Indo-Aryan language speaking socio-ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a union territory of India. ... This article is about the Union Territory. ... Telugu redirects here. ... Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a union territory of India. ... Andhra redirects here. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... This article is about the Union Territory. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Andhra redirects here. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article is about the Indian region. ...

Official languages at the state level

The Indian constitution does not specify the official languages to be used by the states for the conduct of their official functions, and leaves each state free to, through its legislature, adopt Hindi or any language used in its territory as its official language or languages.[41] The language need not be one of those listed in the Eighth Schedule, and several states have adopted official languages which are not so listed. Examples include Kokborok in Tripura, Mizo in Mizoram, Khasi, Garo, and Jaintia in Meghalaya, and French in Pondicherry. Kokborok is the native language of the Tripuri community in the northeast Indian state of Tripura. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... Mizoram known as the Lushai Hills District till 1954 is now a state in the Indian Union. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... Khasi is an Austroasiatic language spoken in the four districts of Meghalaya state in India, namely East Khasi Hills district, West Khasi Hills district, Jaiñtia Hills district and Ri Bhoi district. ... Garo is the language of the majority of the people of the Hills which bear their name in the state of Meghalaya of India. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ...


The language of the legislature and administration

The constitutional provisions in relation to use of the official language in legislation at the State level largely mirror those relating to the official language at the central level, with minor variations. State legislatures may conduct their business in their official language, Hindi or (for a transitional period, which the legislature can extend if it so chooses) English, and members who cannot use any of these have the same rights to their mother tongue with the Speaker's permission.[42] The authoritative text of all laws must be in English, unless Parliament passes a law permitting a state to use another language, and if the original text of a law is in a different language, an authoritative English translation of all laws must be prepared.[43] India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ...


The state has the right to regulate the use of its official language in public administration, and in general, neither the constitution nor any central enactment imposes any restriction on this right. However, every person submitting a petition for the redress of a grievance to an officer or authority of the state government has a constitutional right to submit it in any language used in that state, regardless of its official status.[44] Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In addition, the constitution grants the central government, acting through the President, the power to issue certain directives to the government of a state in relation to the use of minority languages for official purposes. The President may direct a State to officially recognise a language spoken in its territory for specified purposes and in specified regions, if its speakers demand it and satisfy him that a substantial proportion of the State's population desire its use.[45] Similarly, States and local authorities are required to endeavour to provide primary education in the mother tongue for all linguistic minorities, regardless of whether or not their language is official in that State, and the President has the power to issue directions he deems necessary to ensure that they are provided these facilities.[46] The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... The term linguistic minorities obviously has different connotations in the contexts of different countries. ...


The language of the judiciary

States have significantly less freedom in relation to determine the language in which judicial proceedings in their respective High Courts will be conducted. The constitution gives the power to authorise the use of Hindi, or the state's official language in proceedings of the High Court to the Governor, rather than the state legislature, and requires the Governor to obtain the consent of the President of India,[47] who in these matters acts on the advice of the Government of India. The Official Languages Act gives the Governor a similar power, subject to similar conditions, in relation to the language in which the High Court's judgments will be delivered.[48] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Governors and Lieutenant-Governors of the states and territories of India have similar powers and functions at the state level as that of the President of India at Union level. ... The President of India (Hindi: Rashtrapati) is the head of state and first citizen of India and the Supreme Commander of the Indian armed forces. ... Judiciary Supreme Court of India Chief Justice of India High Courts District Courts Elections Political Parties Local & State Govt. ...


Four states - Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan - have been granted the right to conduct proceedings in their High Courts in their official language, which, for all of them, was Hindi. However, the only non-Hindi state to seek a similar power - Tamil Nadu, which sought the right to conduct proceedings in Tamil in its High Court - had its application rejected by the central government earlier , which said it was advised to do so by the Supreme Court.[49] now in a new move the lawministry has said that it wont object to Tamil Nadu's claim to have Tamil as an official language to conduct proceedings in Tamil in its High Court [50][51][52][53][54][55] For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... The Madras High Court, one of the landmarks of the metropolis of Chennai, and believed to be the second largest judicial complex in the world, is located near the Parrys Corner, one of the important central business districts of Chennai. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... The Madras High Court, one of the landmarks of the metropolis of Chennai, and believed to be the second largest judicial complex in the world, is located near the Parrys Corner, one of the important central business districts of Chennai. ...


Languages currently used by Indian states and union territories

States

No. State Official Language Other officially recognised languages
1. Andhra Pradesh Telugu[56] Urdu[57]
2. Arunachal Pradesh English[58] None[59]
3. Assam Assamese[60] Bengali, Bodo[60]
4. Bihar Hindi[61] Urdu[62]
5. Chhattisgarh Hindi[63] None[63]
6. Goa Konkani[64] Marathi[64]
7. Gujarat Gujarati[65], Hindi[65]
8. Haryana Hindi[66] Punjabi[66]
9. Himachal Pradesh Hindi[67] Punjabi[67]
10. Jammu and Kashmir Urdu[68] None[69]
11. Jharkhand Hindi[70] None[70]
12. Karnataka Kannada [71][72]
13. Kerala Malayalam[73] English[73]
14. Madhya Pradesh Hindi[74]
15. Maharashtra Marathi[75][76]
16. Manipur Meitei[77] None[78]
17. Meghalaya English[79] Khasi, Garo[80]
18. Mizoram Mizo[81] None[81]
19. Nagaland English[82] None[82]
20. Orissa Oriya, [83] None[83]
21. Punjab Punjabi[84] None[84]
22. Rajasthan Hindi[85] None[85]
23. Sikkim English[86][87] None[88]
25. Tamil Nadu Tamil[89] None[89]
25. Tripura English, Bengali, Kokborok[90] None[90]
26. Uttarakhand English, Hindi [91] Urdu[91]
27. Uttar Pradesh Hindi[92] Urdu[92]
28. West Bengal Bengali[93] Nepali[93]

Andhra redirects here. ... Telugu redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... -1... Urdu ( , , trans. ... , Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, IPA: )  , a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... -1... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (DevanāgarÄ«: कोंकणी; Roman: Konknni; Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ; Malayalam: കൊങ്കണി; IAST: ) is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages spoken in the Konkan coast of India. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... -1... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... -1... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... -1... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झाड़खण्ड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... -1... This article is about the Indian region. ... “Kannada” redirects here. ... -1... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... -1... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... , Manipur   (Meiteilon: মনিপুর in Eastern Nagari script, mnipur in Meitei Mayek) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... Meitei-lon , also Meitei-lol, and Manipuri (and sometimes, the 19th century British term, Meithei, which is the name of the people, not of the language), is the predominant language and lingua-franca in the Southeastern Himalayan state of Manipur, in northeastern India. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Khasi is an Austroasiatic language spoken in the four districts of Meghalaya state in India, namely East Khasi Hills district, West Khasi Hills district, Jaiñtia Hills district and Ri Bhoi district. ... Garo is the language of the majority of the people of the Hills which bear their name in the state of Meghalaya of India. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... Mizoram known as the Lushai Hills District till 1954 is now a state in the Indian Union. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Kokborok (also spelled Kok Borok) also known as Tiprakok or Tripuri is the native language of the Tripuri people in the Indian state of Tripura and its neighbouring areas of Bangladesh. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखण्ड or उत्तराखंड), is a state located in the northern part of India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... -1... Urdu ( , , trans. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... -1... Urdu ( , , trans. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... Bangla redirects here. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ...

Union Territories

No. Union Territory Official Language Other officially recognised languages
1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands English, Hindi, Tamil [94]
2. Chandigarh Punjabi, Hindi
3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli Marathi, Gujarati
4. Daman and Diu Gujarati, English Marathi[64]
5. Delhi Hindi Urdu[95], Punjabi[95]
6. Lakshadweep Malayalam
7. Pondicherry Tamil, English, French[96]

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... -1... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... , Chandigarh,  (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) also called City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana, and is a union territory of India. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... -1... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... -1... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

The language of centre-state and interstate communication

The language in which communications between different states, or from the central government to a state or a person in a state, shall be sent is regulated by the Official Languages Act and, for states other than Tamil Nadu, by the Official Languages Rules. Communication between states who use Hindi as their official language is required to be in Hindi, whereas communication between a state whose official language is Hindi and one whose is not is required to be in English, or in Hindi with an accompanying English translation (unless the receiving state agrees to dispense with the translation).[97] Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


Communication between the centre and states which use Hindi as their official language (classified by the Official Language Rules as "the states in Region A"), and with persons who live in those states, is in Hindi, except in exceptional cases.[98] Communication with a second category of states, which do not use Hindi as their official language but are willing to communicate with the centre in Hindi (currently Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab and Chandigarh[99]) is usually in Hindi, whilst communications sent to an individual in those states may be in either Hindi or English.[100] Communication with all other states, and with persons living in them, is in English.[101] This article is for the Indian state. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Chandigarh,  (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) also called City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana, and is a union territory of India. ...


See also

languages redirects here. ... India is home to several hundred languages. ...

References

  1. ^ Part XVII of the Constitution of India.
  2. ^ Article 343 of the Constitution of India.
  3. ^ Article 345 of the Constitution of India.
  4. ^ Article 346 of the Constitution of India.
  5. ^ Article 343(1).
  6. ^ Articles 343(2) and (3).
  7. ^ http://www.rajbhasha.nic.in/dolacteng.htm
  8. ^ http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm
  9. ^ http://www.languageinindia.com/april2002/officiallanguagesact.html
  10. ^ http://www.indianrailways.gov.in/RPF/Files/law/BareActs/officiallang1963act.htm
  11. ^ http://india.gov.in/knowindia/official_language.php
  12. ^ http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:-yTtE4_A8JUJ:www.rajbhasha.gov.in/khand8-eng7.pdf+Official+Languages+Act,+1963&hl=ru&ct=clnk&cd=8&gl=ru&client=firefox-a
  13. ^ The force of words. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  14. ^ Forrester, Duncan B. (Spring — Summer 1966), “The Madras Anti-Hindi Agitation, 1965: Political Protest and its Effects on Language Policy in India”, Pacific Affairs 39 (1/2): 19-36, DOI 10.2307/2755179 .
  15. ^ Official Languages Act, 1963, S. 3(5).
  16. ^ Official Languages Act, 1963, S. 3(1).
  17. ^ Notification No. 2/8/60-O.L. (Ministry of Home Affairs), dated 27th April, 1960.
  18. ^ Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 1.
  19. ^ Article 120(1).
  20. ^ Article 120(2).
  21. ^ Official Languages Act, 1963, S. 3(1)(b).
  22. ^ Article 120(1) first proviso.
  23. ^ Article 348(1).
  24. ^ Official Languages Act, 1963, Ss. 5(1) and (2).
  25. ^ Article 348(1)(a).
  26. ^ Article 348(1), leading text.
  27. ^ Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 1.
  28. ^ "Official language policy of the Union."
  29. ^ S. 3(3) names, amongst others, resolutions, general orders, rules, notifications, administrative or other reports or press communiques issued by a government department, agency or corporation; administrative and other reports and official papers laid before a House or the Houses of Parliament; and contracts and agreements executed, and licences, permits, notices and forms of tender issued by or on behalf of the government (including government companies).
  30. ^ Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraph 1(ii)
  31. ^ Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraph 4(a)
  32. ^ Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraphs 4(b) and (c)
  33. ^ Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraph 4(d)
  34. ^ Official Languages (Use for Official Purpose of the Union) Rules, 1976, paragraph 8
  35. ^ Constitution of India, Article 350.
  36. ^ Constitution of India, Article 344(1).
  37. ^ Constitution of India, Article 351.
  38. ^ Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 2.
  39. ^ Official Languages Resolution, 1968, para. 4.
  40. ^ http://india.gov.in/govt/constitutions_india_bak.php#amd
  41. ^ Constitution of India, Article 345
  42. ^ Constitution of India, Article 210.
  43. ^ Articles 348(1) and (3).
  44. ^ Constitution of India, Article 350.
  45. ^ Constitution of India, Article 347.
  46. ^ Constitution of India, Article 350A.
  47. ^ Constitution of India, Article 348(2).
  48. ^ S. 7
  49. ^ Special Correspondent (12 March), “Karunanidhi stands firm on Tamil in High Court”, The Hindu: 1, <http://www.hindu.com/2007/03/12/stories/2007031205180100.htm> .
  50. ^ http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:SObQUESnNx0J:www.tn.gov.in/pressrelease/archives/pr2007/pr110307/pr110307_45.pdf+Making+Tamil+official+language+of+High+Court&hl=ru&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=ru&client=firefox-a
  51. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2006/12/03/stories/2006120306220800.htm
  52. ^ http://www.silobreaker.com/DocumentReader.aspx?Item=5_848171789
  53. ^ http://www.hindu.com/2008/04/21/stories/2008042159970800.htm
  54. ^ http://www.indianexpress.com/iep/sunday/story/299161.html
  55. ^ http://64.233.183.104/search?q=cache:SObQUESnNx0J:www.tn.gov.in/pressrelease/archives/pr2007/pr110307/pr110307_45.pdf+official+language+of+Tamil+in+High+Court&hl=ru&ct=clnk&cd=4&gl=ru&client=firefox-a
  56. ^ The Andhra Pradesh Official Language Act, 1966, declares Telugu to be the official language. This enactment was implemented by GO Ms No 420 in 2005. Rao, M. Malleswara (September 18, 2005), “Telugu declared official language”, The Hindu (Online edition), <http://www.hindu.com/2005/09/18/stories/2005091803740600.htm>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 
  57. ^ Urdu is used as a second official language in certain districts for certain specific purposes. Fatihi, A.R. (April 2003). "Urdu in Andhra Pradesh" (html). Language in India 3 (4). ISSN: 1930-2940. 
  58. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 2.4, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  59. ^ Five languages spoken by the principal tribes in Arunachal Pradesh - Adi, Apatani, Bhoti, Khampti and Nishi are offered to students in state schools, however English is the language of administration and recruitment. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 2.3 - 2.4, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  60. ^ a b Assamese is the official language of the State. Bodo is used as an associate official language for specific purposes in the districts of Kokrajhar and Nalbari and in the Udalguri sub division. Bengali is used for administrative and other official purposes in the districts of the Barak valley.Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 3.5, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm>. Retrieved on 6 June 2007 . See also Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 3.4, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  61. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 20.5, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  62. ^ Urdu is recognised as an additional official language for seven specific purposes, namely, receiving and replying to representations from the public; receiving documents in government offices; publishing rules, regulations and notices; issuing important letters and orders; publishing important advertisements; publishing government gazettes; and signboards at important places and offices.Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 20.5, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  63. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 39th report: July 2000 - June 2001, p. section 6, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/4.zip>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 
  64. ^ a b c The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani the sole official language, but provides that Marathi may also be used for "for all or any of the official purposes". The Government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 11.3, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm>. Retrieved on 6 June 2007  However, whilst there have been demands for making Marathi an official language, as of May 2007, Konkani remained the sole official language. UNI (May 30, 2007), Marathi vs Konkani debate continues in Goa, <http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/may/30goa.htm>. Retrieved on 6 June 2007 
  65. ^ a b Fatihi, A.R. (September 9, 2003). "Urdu in Gujarat" (html). Language in India 3. 
  66. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 28.3, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 
  67. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 29.7, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 
  68. ^ Article 145 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir makes Urdu the official language of the state, but provides for the continued use of English for all official purposes.
  69. ^ Article 146 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, read together with the sixth schedule thereto, requires the government of the state to establish an academy to develop eight regional languages, namely Kashmiri, Dogri, Balti, Dardi, Punjabi, Pahari, Ladakhi and Gojri. None of these, however, are official.
  70. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 41st report: July 2002 - June 2003, p. para 15.3, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/23.htm>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  71. ^ The Karnataka Official Language Act, 1963. Official website of Government of Karnataka. Government of Karnataka. Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  72. ^ The Karnataka Local Authorities (Official Language) Act, 1981. Official website of Government of Karnataka. Government of Karnataka. Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  73. ^ a b Malayalam, How to Arrest it's Withering Away?. M. K. Chand Raj, Ph.D. on Language in India. Central Institute of Indian Languages,Mysore. Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  74. ^ Language and Literature. Official website of Government of Madhya Pradesh. Government of Madhya Pradesh. Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  75. ^ Maharashtra Tourism: Trivia. Official website of Maharashtra Tourism. Government of Maharashtra. Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  76. ^ Palkar, A.B (2007), [http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/VOLUME-I.pdf Report of One Man Commission Justice A.B.Palkar: Shri Bhaurao Dagadu Paralkar & Others V/s State of Maharashtra], vol. I, pp. 41, <http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/pdf/VOLUME-I.pdf>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 
  77. ^ Section 2(f) of the Manipur Official Language Act, 1979 states that the official language of Manipur is the Manipuri language (an older English name for the Meiti language) written in the Bengali script. The Sangai Express, Mayek body threatens to stall proceeding, <http://www.e-pao.net/epRelatedNews.asp?heading=9&src=290703>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  78. ^ Nine tribal languages are recognised for the purpose of education, but have no other official status. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, p. para 22.4, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  79. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 25.5, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 
  80. ^ The 43rd report of the National Commission of Linguistic Minorities reports that, from a date to be determined, Khasi will have the status of an associate official language in the districts of the East Khasi Hills, West Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills and Ri Bhoi. Garo will have a similar status in the districts of the East Garo Hills, West Garo Hills and South Garo Hills. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, p. para 25.1, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 . On the 21st of March 2006, the Chief Minister of Meghalaya stated in the State Assembly that a notification to this effect had been issued. Meghalaya Legislative Assembly, Budget session: Starred Questions and Answers - Tuesday, the 21st March 2006., <http://megassembly.gov.in/questions/2006/21-03-2006s.htm>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  81. ^ a b Mizo is the sole official language under the Official Languages Act. However, this statute does not apply to autonomous regions of Mizoram.Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 41st report: July 2002 - June 2003, p. paras 28.4, 28.9, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/23.htm>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  82. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, p. para 17.4, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  83. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 5.4, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  84. ^ a b Punjabi is the official language of the state. Section 8 of Punjab's Official Language Act requires the state Government to "take suitable steps to develop the Hindi language in the State" but does not give Hindi any official status. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 19.6, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm>. Retrieved on 6 June 2007 .
  85. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 26.4, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  86. ^ Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 27.3, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  87. ^ Government of Sikkim, Introduction to Sikkim, <http://sikkim.nic.in/sws/home_int.htm>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  88. ^ Eleven other languages — Bhutia, Lepcha, Limboo, Nepali, Newari, Gurung, Mangar, Mukhia, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang - are termed "official", but only for the purposes of the preservation of culture and tradition. Nepali is widely used for official purposes, but has no formal legal status as the official language.Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. paras 27.3 - 27.4, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 . See also Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 41st report: July 2002 - June 2003, p. paras 28.4, 28.9, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/23.htm>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  89. ^ a b Whilst Tamil is the only official language, important communications are published in minority languages, and electoral rolls are published in Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam in areas where they are widely used. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 42nd report: July 2003 - June 2004, p. para 15.4, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/35.htm>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  90. ^ a b Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 41st report: July 2002 - June 2003, p. para 17.3, <http://nclm.nic.in/shared/linkimages/23.htm>. Retrieved on 16 June 2007 .
  91. ^ a b English, Hindi and Urdu are the official languages of the state, although the purposes for which Urdu is used have not been fully described. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 7.3, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  92. ^ a b Hindi is the official language, and Urdu is used for seven specific purposes, similar to those for which it is used in Bihar. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. paras 6.1-6.2, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  93. ^ a b Bengali is the official language of West Bengal. Nepali is recognised as an additional official language in Darjeeling district. In addition, the government has a policy of replying to representations received in minority languages in those languages. Commissioner Linguistic Minorities, 43rd report: July 2004 - June 2005, pp. para 18.4, <http://nclm.nic.in/index1.asp?linkid=203>. Retrieved on 16 July 2007 .
  94. ^ "Most of Indian languages are spoken in Andaman and Nicobar Islands because of its cosmopolitan nature. The common language is Hindi whereas English and Hindi are used in official correspondence." Andaman District Administration, Profile, <http://andamandt.nic.in/profile.htm>. Retrieved on 6 June 2007 
  95. ^ a b Urdu and Punjabi are the second official languages of Delhi under the Delhi Official Language Bill, 2000 Punjabi, Urdu made official languages in Delhi. The Times of India (2003-06-25). Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  96. ^ Office of the Chief Electoral Officer, Pondicherry, General Information on Pondicherry, <http://www.ceopondicherry.nic.in/Bkground/GeneralInfo.htm>. Retrieved on 6 June 2007 
  97. ^ Official Languages Act, 1963, S. 3(1).
  98. ^ Official Languages Rules, 1976, para. 3(1).
  99. ^ Official Languages Rules, 1976, para. 2(g).
  100. ^ Official Languages Rules, 1976, para. 3(2).
  101. ^ Official Languages Rules, 1976, para. 3(3).

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In writing, a report or document characterized by information or other content reflective of inquiry or investigation, tailored to the context of a given situation and audience. ... A news release or press release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... An agency is a department of a local or national government responsible for the oversight and administration of a specific function, such as a customs agency or a space agency. ... A Public Sector Undertaking is a corporation in the public sector in India, where management control of the company rests with the Government, it can be Central Government or the State Governments. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... For followers of Hinduism, see Hindu. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Khamti, whose name is also spelt as as Hkamti by the Burmese and Khampti by the Assamese, is a sub-group of the Shan people found in the Sagaing Division, Hkamti District in northwestern Myanmar as well as Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh in India. ... A Nishi tribesman wearing the traditional head-dress having a hornbill beak The Nishi tribe principally inhabit the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. ... Delegated legislation (sometimes referred to as secondary legislation or subordinate legislation) is law made by an executive authority under powers given to them by primary legislation in order to implement and administer the requirements of the acts. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kashmiri (कॉशुर, کٲشُر Koshur) is a Dardic language spoken primarily in the valley of Kashmir, a region situated in the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Areas in India and Pakistan where Dogri and related dialects are spoken Dogri (डोगरी or ڈوگرى) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about two million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir, but also in northern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir, and... Balti (بلتی) is a language spoken in Baltistan, in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Punjabi redirects here. ... Selected ethnic groups of Nepal; Bhotia, Sherpa, Thakali Gurung Kiranti, Rai, Limbu Newari Pahari Tamang Pahari (or Pahaari) is a general terms for a range of dialects spoken across the Himalayan range, not limited to a single country in the subcontinent. ... The Ladakhi language is the predominant language in the Ladakh region of the Jammu and Kashmir state of India. ... Gojri also known as Gujari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Gujjars of Northern Pakistan and India. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Robert B. Wray be merged into this article or section. ... Khasi is an Austroasiatic language spoken in the four districts of Meghalaya state in India, namely East Khasi Hills district, West Khasi Hills district, Jaiñtia Hills district and Ri Bhoi district. ... Garo is the language of the majority of the people of the Hills which bear their name in the state of Meghalaya of India. ... Darjeeling is a district of West Bengal whose headquarters are at the hill station of Darjeeling. ... The Times of India (TOI) is a leading English-language broadsheet daily newspaper in India. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Department of Official Language (DOL) – Official webpage explains the chronological events related to Official Languages Act and amendments
  • Central Institute of Indian Languages – A comprehensive federal government site that offers complete info on Indian Languages
  • Ethnologue – Ethnologue report on the languages of India
  • TDIL-MCIT,GoI – Technology Development for Indian Languages, Government of India
  • India at a Glance  – The Official Portal of the Indian Government
  • The force of words - A TIME magazine article about India's language controversy
  • Multi-lingualism and language policy in India
  • Marathi Language Informative Web Portal
India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... Andhra redirects here. ... , Arunachal Pradesh   (Hindi:   ) is the easternmost state of India. ... , Assam  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm [É”xÉ”m]) is a northeastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarhi/Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, IPA: )  , a state in central India, formed when the sixteen Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh gained statehood on November 1, 2000. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... This article is for the Indian state. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ... , Himachal Pradesh (Hindi: हिमाचल प्रदेश, IPA:  ) is a state in the north-west of India. ... This article is about the area administered by India. ... , Jharkhand   (Hindi: झाड़खण्ड, Bengali: ঝাড়খণ্ড,IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... -1... , Madhya Pradesh (abbreviated as MP)   (HindÄ«: मध्य प्रदेश, English: , IPA: ), often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... , Manipur   (Meiteilon: মনিপুর in Eastern Nagari script, mnipur in Meitei Mayek) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... , Meghalaya   is a small state in north-eastern India. ... , Mizoram   is one of the Seven Sister States in northeastern India on the border with Myanmar. ... , Nagaland   is a hill state located in the far north-eastern part of India. ... , Orissa   (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶା), is a state situated on the east coast of India. ... , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... , Sikkim (Nepali:  , also Sikhim) is a landlocked Indian state nestled in the Himalayas. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... , Uttarakhand (Hindi: उत्तराखण्ड or उत्तराखंड), is a state located in the northern part of India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... , Chandigarh,  (Punjabi: , Hindi: ) also called City Beautiful, is a city in India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana, and is a union territory of India. ... Dadra and Nagar Haveli (Gujarati: દાદરા અને નગર હવેલી, Hindi: दादरा और नगर हवेली, Urdu: دادرہ اور نگر حویلی, Portuguese: Dadrá e Nagar-Aveli) is a Union Territory in western India. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Daman and Diu (Portuguese: Gujarati is the main language; use of Portuguese is declining because it is not official or taught at school (but still spoken by 10% in Daman). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Union Territory. ...

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