FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Office of Film and Literature Classification (Australia)

The Office of Film and Literature Classification is a statutory censorship and classification body which provides day to day administrative support for the Classification Board which classified films, video games and publications in Australia, and the Classification Review Board which reviews films, computer games and publications when a valid application has been made. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... “Computer and video games” redirects here. ... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Classification Board and the Classification Review Board are established by the Classification (Publications, Films and Computer Games) Act 1995 (Cth). This Act also contains the National Classification Code.


Though the Office of Film and Literature Classification has taken 'censorship' out of its title it is able to censor media by refusing classification and making the media illegal for hire, exhibition and importation to Australia. This has attracted particular controversy in the case of computer and video games as no R18+ rating exists for them. Games that have been refused classification include Postal and Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (although GTA: San Andreas was re-released and received an MA15+ rating). Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is the fifth video game in the Grand Theft Auto series. ...

Contents

Organization

In February 2006 Attorney-General Philip Ruddock announced that the policy and administrative functions of the OFLC would become part of the Attorney-General’s Department, and, while the Classification Board and Classification Review Board would continue to make classification decisions, they would be serviced by a secretariat from the Attorney-General’s Department. Philip Maxwell Ruddock (born March 12, 1943), Australian politician, is the Attorney-General of Australia in the Coalition Government of Australian Prime Minister John Howard. ...


Members

Donald McDonald has been named as the new director but yet to be appointed by the Attorney-General’s Department. Critics are concerned the appointment facilitates the Government's ability to control or restrict material, in particular that which incites or instructs terrorism.[1]


The current members of the Classification Board:

  • Olya Booyar (deputy director)
  • Wendy Banfield (senior classifier)
  • Marie-Louise Carroll (senior classifier)
  • Jeremy Fenton
  • Alexandra Greene
  • Robert Sanderson
  • Rodney Smith
  • Lynn Townsend
  • Marlon Valbuena

The current members of the Classification Review Board:

  • Maureen Shelley (convenor)
  • Trevor Griffin (deputy convenor)
  • Rob Shilkin
  • Kathryn Smith
  • Gillian Groom
  • Anthony Hetrih

Film and Video Game Ratings

As of May 24, 2005, the Movie Ratings system has been colour-coded and the presentation updated, following changes in the code. However, the previous classification symbols can still be seen on DVD and video packaging released before the change. is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A color code is a system for displaying information by using different colors. ...


Some films and games (e.g. educational content) may be exempt from classification.


Image File history File links OFLC_small_E.svg Summary OFLC classification symbol for exempt films. ... Image File history File links Resource0001. ...


E (Exempt from Classification) - These films are granted permission to be sold without a proper rating depending on the content of the film. This classification is usually granted to (and not limited to) documentaries, educational content, exercise videos and non-violent sporting events. Currently there is no predetermined marking for exempt films and computer games [1], although it is advised that films and computer games that are exempt display “This film/computer game is exempt from classification”.


The content varies depending on the show / film. Any film or computer game which is to be rated E must not exceed the PG rating.


Image File history File links OFLC_small_G.svg Summary The OFLC G rating symbol. ... Image File history File links OFLC_large_G.svg Summary The OFLC G rating symbol. ...


G (General) - These films and computer games are for general viewing. However, G does not necessarily designate a children’s film or game as many of these productions contain content that would be of no interest to children.


The content is very mild in impact.


Image File history File links OFLC_small_PG.svg Summary The OFLC PG rating symbol. ... Image File history File links OFLC_large_PG.svg Summary The OFLC PG rating symbol. ...


PG (Parental Guidance) - These films and computer games contain material that may confuse or upset younger viewers.


The content is mild in impact.


Image File history File links OFLC_small_M.svg Summary The OFLC M rating symbol. ... Image File history File links OFLC_large_M.svg Summary The OFLC M rating symbol. ...


M (Mature) - These films and computer games contain material that requires a mature perspective. This classification was formerly known as M15+. There is no restriction on access.


The content is moderate in impact.


Note that the classifications above this point are advisory in nature only--they are not legally binding. By contrast, the classifications below are legally restricted--i.e., it is illegal to sell or exhibit materials so classified to a person younger than the respective age limit.


Image File history File links OFLC_small_MA15+.svg Summary The OFLC MA15+ rating symbol. ... Image File history File links OFLC_large_MA15+.svg Summary The OFLC MA15+ rating symbol. ...


MA15+ (Mature Accompanied) – People under 15 must be accompanied by a parent or adult guardian for the duration of the film - parental permission to see an MA15+ film is not sufficient.


People under 15 are not permitted to buy or rent films or computer games classified MA15+ unless they are accompanied by a parent or adult guardian.


The content is strong in impact.


Note: Video games which exceed the impact of what the MA15+ rating allows are refused classification (RC). Games refused classification may be edited and resubmitted by their developers to garner an MA15+ classification.


Image File history File links OFLC_small_R18+.svg Summary The OFLC R18+ rating symbol. ... Image File history File links OFLC_large_R18+.svg Summary The OFLC R18+ rating symbol. ...


R18+ (Restricted) - People under 18 cannot buy, rent or exhibit these films.


The content is high in impact.


Image File history File links OFLC_small_X18+.svg Summary The OFLC X18+ rating symbol. ... Image File history File links OFLC_large_X18+.svg Summary The OFLC X18+ rating symbol. ...


X18+ (Pornographic) - People under 18 cannot exhibit, buy or rent films that have been issued this classification.


This rating applies to pornographic content.


Films rated X18+ are currently legally available for purchase in only the ACT and the Northern Territory. However these films maybe legally purchased from interstate via mail-order. Enforcement is relaxed and most adult shops carry extensive stock of X18+ material. Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $10,418 (8th)  - Product...


Refused Classification (RC)


Films which are very high in impact and/or contain any type of violence in conjunction with real sexual intercourse are Refused Classification by the OFLC. The reasons why a film may be refused classification that:

  • Depict, express or otherwise deals with matters of sex, drug misuse or addiction, crime, cruelty, violence or revolting or abhorrent phenomena in such a way that they offend against the standards of morality, decency and propriety generally accepted by reasonable adults to the extent that they should not be classified.
  • Depict in a way that is likely to cause offense to a reasonable adult a minor who is, or who appears to be, under 16 (whether or not engaged in sexual activity).
  • Promote, incite or instruct in matters of crime or violence.

Classification is mandatory, and movies that are refused classification by the OFLC are banned for sale, hire, public exhibition or importation into Australia. It is illegal to possess content that has been Refused Classification. For nearly the entire history of film production, certain films have been either boycotted by political and religious groups or literally banned by a regime for political or moral reasons. ...


Previous Video Game Ratings

These ratings are still shown on some older video games that are still on sale in Australia

OFLC Rating: G GGeneral : The G classification is for a general audience.
OFLC Rating: G8+ G8+General for children over 8 years of age: Material classified G8+ may contain material which some children find confusing or upsetting, and may require the guidance of parents or guardians. It is not recommended for viewing by people under 8 without guidance from parents or guardians. This rating has since been changed to PG.
OFLC Rating: M15+ M15+Mature: Material classified M15+ is not recommended for people under 15 years of age. However, there are no legal restrictions on access. This rating has since been changed to M to prevent confusion with the stronger MA15+ classification.
OFLC Rating: MA15+ (Mature Restricted) MA15+Mature Restricted: Material classified MA15+ is considered unsuitable for people under 15 years of age. It is a legally restricted category. People under the age of 15 are not allowed to purchase or hire unless accompanied by a parent or adult guardian.

Image File history File links OFCL_Australia_Rating_-_G.png Summary G rating, OFCL Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links OFCL_Australia_Rating_-_G8-.png Summary G8+ rating, OFCL Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links OFCL_Australia_Rating_-_M15-.png Summary M15 rating, OFCL Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links OFCL_Australia_Rating_-_MA15-.png Summary MA15+ rating, OFCL Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Literature Ratings

Unrestricted

Unrestricted – Mature- Not recommended for readers under 15.

Restricted Category 1 – Not available to persons under 18 years.

Restricted Category 2Pornographic in nature; restricted as above.

Any literature that does not fall into any of the above catergories is Refused Classification. Image File history File links OFCL_Australia_Lit_Rating-_U.gif Summary OFCL Literature classification Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links OFCL_Australia_Lit_Rating_-_UM.gif Summary OFCL Literature classification Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links OFCL_Australia_Lit_Rating_-_R1. ... Image File history File links OFCL_Australia_Lit_Rating_-_R2. ... Pornography (from Greek πορνογραφια pornographia — literally writing about or drawings of harlots) is the representation of the human body or human sexual behaviour with the goal of sexual arousal, similar to, but (according to some) distinct from, erotica. ...


See also

Australia is a federal nation[1], and responsibility for censorship rests neither wholly with the states, nor wholly with the federal government. ... For nearly the entire history of film production, certain films have been either boycotted by political and religious groups or literally banned by a regime for political or moral reasons. ... Computer and video games have been the subject of controversy and censorship, due to the depiction of graphic violence, sex themes, consumption of illegal drugs, consumption of alcohol or tobacco, or profanity in some games. ... Internet censorship in Australia is largely the province of the Federal Government and its laws on Internet censorship are, theoretically, amongst the most restrictive in the Western world. ... Pornography laws differ widely from region to region. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) is a self-regulatory organization that applies and enforces ratings, advertising guidelines, and online privacy principles for computer and video games and other entertainment software in the United States and Canada (officially adopted by individual provinces 2004-2005). ... The Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association (or ELSPA) is an organisation set up in 1989 by British software publishers. ... The MPAA film rating system is a system used in the United States and territories and instituted by the Motion Picture Association of America to rate a movie based on its content. ... PEGIs logo Pan European Game Information, or more commonly PEGI, is a European system for rating the content of computer and video games, and other entertainment software. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The USKs official logo. ... The Office of Film and Literature Classification (OFLC) is the government agency in New Zealand that is responsible for classification of all films, videos, publications, and some video games in New Zealand. ... 1965 envelope sent to local office of 20th Century Fox with certifying cachet of IFCO The Irish Film Censors Office (IFCO) is the name given to the censor of films in Ireland. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Censure as PM's pal turns censor

External links

  • The Office of Film & Literature Classification Website
  • Inside Film Magazine's Phillip Cenere reports on the OFLC International Ratings Conference
  • Libertus Australia a website maintained by Irene Graham, the executive director of EFA.
  • The Chopping List Database of films that have had censorship problems in Australia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Office of Film and Literature Classification (Australia) — StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki (871 words)
The Office of Film and Literature Classification is a statutory classification body which provides day to day administrative support for the Classification Board which classified films, video games and publications in Australia, and the Classification Review Board which reviews films, computer games and publications when a valid application has been made.
Currently there is no predetermined marking for exempt films and computer games [1], although it is advised that films and computer games that are exempt may display “This film /computer game is exempt from classification”.
Film classification is mandatory, and movies that are refused classification by the OFLC are banned for sale, hire, public exhibition or importation into Australia.
Office of Film and Literature Classification: Information from Answers.com (1097 words)
The Office of Film and Literature Classification is a statutory classification body which provides day to day administrative support for the Classification Board which classified films, video games and publications in Australia, and the Classification Review Board which reviews films, computer games and publications when a valid application has been made.
Films rated X18+ are currently only legally available for purchase in the ACT and the Northern Territory.
Film classification is mandatory, and movies that are refused classification by the OFLC are banned for sale, hire, public exhibition or importation into Australia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m