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Encyclopedia > Oenothera
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Oenothera
Oenothera erythrosepala
Oenothera erythrosepala
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Myrtales
Family: Onagraceae
Genus: Oenothera
L.
Species

About 125, including:
Oenothera acaulis
Oenothera albicaulis
Oenothera argillicola
Oenothera biennis
Oenothera brachycarpa
Oenothera caespitosa
Oenothera californica
Oenothera coronopifolia
Oenothera coryi
Oenothera deltoides
Oenothera drummondii
Oenothera elata
Oenothera erythrosepala
Oenothera flava
Oenothera fruticosa
Oenothera glazioviana
Oenothera hookeri
Oenothera jamesii
Oenothera kunthiana
Oenothera laciniata
Oenothera longissima
Oenothera macrocarpa
Oenothera missouriensis
Oenothera nuttallii
Oenothera pallida
Oenothera perennis
Oenothera pilosella
Oenothera primiveris
Oenothera rhombipetala
Oenothera rosea
Oenothera speciosa
Oenothera stubbei
Oenothera taraxacoides
Oenothera tetraptera
Oenothera triloba Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1271x1194, 854 KB) Oenothera erythrosepala [1] or Oenothera biennis [2] Photographed on the bank of the DâmboviÅ£a river, Romania. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families See text. ... Genera Boisduvallia Calylophus Camissonia Chamerion Circaea Clarkia Epilobium Eucharidium Fuchsia Gaura Gayophytum Gongylocarpus Hauya Hemifuchsia Heterogaura Isnardia Jussiaea Lopezia Ludwigia Oenothera Stenosiphon Xylonagra Zauschneria The Onagraceae or Willowherb family (or Evening Primose family) is a family of flowering plants. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Binomial name Oenothera biennis L. Oenothera biennis (Common evening primrose or Evening star), is a biennial flowering plant growing to 1. ... Binomial name Oenothera speciosa Nutt. ...

Oenothera is a genus of about 125 species of annual, biennial and perennial herbaceous flowering plants, native to North and South America. It is the type genus of the family Onagraceae. Common names include evening primrose, suncups, and sundrops. Peas are an annual plant. ... Look up Biennial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Biennial is a term referring to a period of two years, much in the same way centennial refers to 100 years. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Type specimens When a new species is discovered, more important than creating a new and unique name for the species is developing a reasonably detailed description. ... Genera Boisduvallia Calylophus Camissonia Chamerion Circaea Clarkia Epilobium Eucharidium Fuchsia Gaura Gayophytum Gongylocarpus Hauya Hemifuchsia Heterogaura Isnardia Jussiaea Lopezia Ludwigia Oenothera Stenosiphon Xylonagra Zauschneria The Onagraceae or Willowherb family (or Evening Primose family) is a family of flowering plants. ...


The species vary in size from small alpine plants 10 cm tall (e.g. O. acaulis from Chile), to vigorous lowland species growing to 3 m (e.g. O. stubbei from Mexico). The leaves form a basal rosette at ground level and spiral up to the flowering stems; the leaves are dentate or deeply lobed (pinnatifid). The flowers open in the evening, hence the name "evening primrose", and are yellow in most species but white, purple, pink or red in a few; there are four petals. One of the most distinctive features of the flower is the stigma with four branches, forming an X shape.[1] Pollination is by Lepidoptera (moths) and bees; like many members of the Onagraceae, however, the pollen grains are loosely held together by viscin threads (see photo below), meaning that only bees that are morphologically specialized to gather this pollen can effectively pollinate the flowers (it cannot be held effectively in a typical bee scopa). Furthermore, the flowers are open at a time when most bee species are inactive, so the bees which visit Oenothera are also compelled to be vespertine temporal specialists. The seeds ripen from late summer to fall. “Foliage” redirects here. ... A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... A flower-fly pollinating a Common Daisy (Bellis perennis) Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... Superfamilies Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Acanthopteroctetoidea Alucitoidea Axioidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidea Choreutoidea Cossoidea Drepanoidea Epermenioidea Eriocranioidea Galacticoidea Gelechioidea Geometroidea Gracillarioidea Hedyloidea Hepialoidea Heterobathmioidea Hyblaeoidea Immoidea Incurvarioidea Lasiocampoidea Lophocoronoidea Micropterigoidea Mimallonoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Neopseustoidea Nepticuloidea Noctuoidea Palaephatoidea Pterophoroidea Pyraloidea Schreckensteinioidea Sesioidea Simaethistoidea Thyridoidea Tineoidea Tischerioidea Tortricoidea Urodoidea Whalleyanoidea Yponomeutoidea Zygaenoidea The order Lepidoptera... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Genera Boisduvallia Calylophus Camissonia Chamerion Circaea Clarkia Epilobium Eucharidium Fuchsia Gaura Gayophytum Gongylocarpus Hauya Hemifuchsia Heterogaura Isnardia Jussiaea Lopezia Ludwigia Oenothera Stenosiphon Xylonagra Zauschneria The Onagraceae or Willowherb family (or Evening Primose family) is a family of flowering plants. ... Abdominal scopa of a Megachilid bee The term scopa is used to refer to any of a number of different modifications on the body of a bee that form a pollen-carrying apparatus. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...


Oenothera species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Schinia felicitata and Schinia florida, both of which feed exclusively on the genus, the former exclusively on O. deltoides. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Superfamilies Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Acanthopteroctetoidea Alucitoidea Axioidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidea Choreutoidea Cossoidea Drepanoidea Epermenioidea Eriocranioidea Galacticoidea Gelechioidea Geometroidea Gracillarioidea Hedyloidea Hepialoidea Heterobathmioidea Hyblaeoidea Immoidea Incurvarioidea Lasiocampoidea Lophocoronoidea Micropterigoidea Mimallonoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Neopseustoidea Nepticuloidea Noctuoidea Palaephatoidea Pterophoroidea Pyraloidea Schreckensteinioidea Sesioidea Simaethistoidea Thyridoidea Tineoidea Tischerioidea Tortricoidea Urodoidea Whalleyanoidea Yponomeutoidea Zygaenoidea The order Lepidoptera... Species See text Schinia is a large genus of moths belonging to the family Noctuidae. ... Species See text Schinia is a large genus of moths belonging to the family Noctuidae. ...


In the wild, evening primroses acts as primary colonizers, springing up wherever a patch of bare, undisturbed ground may be found. This means that they tend to be found in poorer environments such as dunes, roadsides, railway embankments and wasteland. It often occurs as a casual, eventually being out-competed by other species. For the Frank Herbert novel, see Dune (novel) Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian processes. ...

An evening primrose cultivated in England
An evening primrose blossom opening in Pennsylvania
An evening primrose blossom opening in Pennsylvania
Pollen of Oenothera fruticosa (scanning electron microscope image)

The genus Oenothera may have originated in Mexico and Central America. During the Pleistocene era a succession of ice ages swept down across North America, with intervening warm periods. This was repeated for four ice ages, with four separate waves of colonization, each hybridizing with the remnants of the previous waves. This generated a present-day population that is very rich in genetic diversity, spread right across the North American continent. Download high resolution version (856x1092, 145 KB)Photo of an evening primrose, showing the flower, leaves and seed pods in the background. ... Download high resolution version (856x1092, 145 KB)Photo of an evening primrose, showing the flower, leaves and seed pods in the background. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Primrose-brighter. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Primrose-brighter. ... Download high resolution version (1228x960, 307 KB)Scanning electron microscope image of pollen from Oenothera fruticosa (primrose). ... Download high resolution version (1228x960, 307 KB)Scanning electron microscope image of pollen from Oenothera fruticosa (primrose). ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ...


It was originally assigned to the genus Onagra, which gave the family Onagraceae its name. Onagra (meaning "(food of) onager") was first used in botany in 1587, and in English in Philip Miller's 1754 Gardeners Dictionary: Abridged. Its modern name Oenothera was published by Carolus Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae. William Baird suggests that since oeno means "wine" in Greek it refers to the fact that the root of the edible Oenothera biennis was used as a wine flavor additive.[citation needed] Binomial name Equus hemionus Pallas, 1775 The onager (Equus hemionus) is a large mammal belonging to the horse family and native to the deserts of Syria, Iran, Pakistan, India, Israel, and Tibet (China). ... Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... Philip Miller (1691 - December 18, 1771) was a botanist of Scottish descent. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ...

An evening primrose flower, showing the cross-shaped stigma
An evening primrose flower, showing the cross-shaped stigma

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Cultivation and uses

Young roots can be eaten like a vegetable (with a peppery flavour), or the shoots can be eaten as a salad. The whole plant was used to prepare an infusion with astringent and sedative properties. It was considered to be effective in healing asthmatic coughs, gastro-intestinal disorders, whooping cough and as a sedative pain-killer. Poultices containing O. biennis were at one time used to ease bruises and speed wound healing. One of the common names for Oenothera, "Kings cureall", reflects the wide range of healing powers ascribed to this plant, although it should be noted that its efficacy for these purposes has not been demonstrated in clinical trials. Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... A shoot is the fresh young growth of a plant stem. ... Salad Platter Salad is a term applied broadly to many food preparations that are a mixture of chopped or sliced ingredients. ... An infusion is a beverage made by steeping a flavoring substance in hot or boiling water. ... An astringent substance is a chemical substance that tends to shrink or constrict body tissues, usually locally after topical medicinal application. ... A sedative is a substance which depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Asthma is an immunological disease which causes difficulty in breathing. ... Digestion is the process whereby a biological entity processes a substance, in order to chemically convert the substance into nutrients. ... A bruise or contusion or ecchymosis is a kind of injury, usually caused by blunt impact, in which the capillaries are damaged, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding tissue. ... Superficial bullet wounds In medicine, a wound is a type of physical trauma wherein the skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). ...


The mature seeds contain approximately 7-10% gamma-linolenic acid, a rare essential fatty acid. The O. biennis seed oil is used to reduce the pains of premenstrual stress syndrome. Gamma-linolenic acid also shows promise against breast cancer.[2] A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion or a fraction as a whole number. ... gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA) is an omega-6 essential fatty acid found primarily in vegetable oils. ... Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components (generally all references are to humans) as there are no known biochemical pathways capable of producing them. ... PMS redirects here. ...


Evening Primroses are very popular ornamental plants in gardens. For propagation, the seeds can be sown in situ from late spring to early summer. The plant will grow successfully in fertile soils if competing species are kept at bay. Evening primrose species can be planted in any ordinary, dry, well-drained garden soil (preferly sandy loam) in an open site that is sunny to partly shady. They are fairly drought-resistant. An ornamental plant is a plant that is grown for its ornamental qualities, rather than for its commercial or other value. ... Sowing is the process of planting seeds. ... suck my shlong dick cause soil is my life pedosphere is positioned at the interface of the lithosphere and biosphere with the atmosphere and hydrosphere. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... Loam is soil composed of a relatively even mixture of three mineral particle size groups: sand, silt, and clay. ... A drought is a period of time when there is not enough water to support agricultural, urban, human, or environmental water needs. ...


The first plants to arrive in Europe reached Padua from Virginia in 1614 and were described by the English botanist John Goodyer in 1621. Some species are now also naturalized in parts of Europe and Asia, and can be grown as far north as 65° N in Finland. The UK National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens, based at Wisley, maintains an Oenothera collection as part of its National Collections scheme. Tronco Maestro Riviera: a pedestrian walk along a section of the inland waterway or naviglio interno of Padua. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... In biology, naturalisation is the process when foreign or cultivated plants have spread into the wild, where they multiply by natural regeneration. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Wisley, England is a small village in Surrey, between Cobham and Ripley. ...


References

  1. ^ Roger Tory Peterson and Margaret McKenny (1968). A Field Guide to Wildflowers of Northeastern and North-central North America. ISBN 0-395-91172-9. 
  2. ^ Plant oil 'acts like cancer drug' (2005-11-02). (describing work by Dr Javier Menendez and colleagues at Northwestern University and published in Journal of the National Cancer Institute).

Roger Tory Peterson (August 28, 1908 – July 28, 1996), a naturalist, ornithologist, artist, and educator, is held to be one of the founding inspirations for the 20th century environmental movement. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Oenothera

  Results from FactBites:
 
CPC Plant Profile - National Collection of Endangered Plants (1861 words)
Oenothera glazioviana is an out-breeder and is able to accept pollen from O. wolfii, thus producing viable hybrid offspring.
Oenothera wolfii is an inbreeding species and apparently cannot accept pollen from other species.
Oenothera wolfii can be found on sandy soil in grasslands, coastal strand, roadsides, and coastal bluffs, which are well drained but with adequate moisture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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