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Oedipus (pronounced /ˈɛdəpəs/ in American English or /ˈiːdəpəs/ in British English; Greek: Οἰδίπους Oidípous meaning "swollen-footed") was a mythical Greek king of Thebes. He fulfilled a prophecy that said he would kill his father and marry his mother, and thus brought disaster on his city and family. This legend has been retold in many versions, and was used by Sigmund Freud to name the Oedipus complex. Oedipus was the mythical king of Thebes. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... Alcides redirects here. ... Hercules and the Hydra by Antonio Pollaiuolo The Twelve Labours (Greek: dodekathlos) of Heracles (Latin: Hercules) are a series of archaic episodes connected by a later continuous narrative, concerning a penance carried out by Heracles, the greatest of the Greek heroes. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... Jason returns with the golden Fleece on an Apulian red-figure calyx krater, ca. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths... For other uses, see Medusa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek mythological monster. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... This article is about the mythological monster. ... Triptolemus (threefold warrior; also Buzyges), in Greek mythology always connected with Demeter of the Eleusinian Mysteries, might be accounted the son of King Celeus of Eleusis in Attica, or, according to Apollodorus (Library I.v. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... A mystery religion is any religion with an arcanum, or body of secret wisdom. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ... This article is about the mythological creatures. ... Dragons play a role in Greek mythology. ... Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, there for the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ...

Contents

The story

Oedipus was the son of Laius and Jocasta. At his birth it was prophesied that he would murder his father and marry his mother. To avoid this calamity, the child was given to a herdsman who was told to kill him. The herdsman, out of pity and yet fearing to disobey, instead abandoned the child, tying him by his feet and hanging him from a tree-branch (which caused him to permanently have swollen feet - hence Oedipus which translates to "swollen foot"). The child Oedipus was found by a peasant who took him to his master, the king of Corinth, Polybus, who adopted him as his own son. Laius abducting Chrysippus, who is reaching out to Pelops, his father (detail). ... For other uses, see Jocasta (disambiguation). ... In sociology and biology, infanticide is the practice of intentionally causing the death of an infant of a given species, by members of the same species - often by the mother. ... Child abandonment is the practice of abandoning offspring outside of legal adoption. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Polybus was a famous physician. ...


Many years later Oedipus heard of the oracle that he was going to kill his father and wed his mother. He was frightened and in his attempt to evade the dictates of the oracle he decided to flee from home to Thebes on the other side of the mountain.


It was as he was traveling by horse to Thebes at a crossroads he met a chariot, which in fact had his true father riding in it. A dispute arose between Oedipus and the driver, and the outcome was that Oedipus killed Laius. Continuing on the way to Thebes, Oedipus encountered the Sphinx, who stopped any traveler and asked him a riddle that no-one had yet been able to solve. If the traveler failed, he was eaten by the Sphinx. Oedipus solved the riddle, and the Sphinx instead perished. The gratitude of the Thebans led to them appointing Oedipus as their king. Oedipus was also given the widow Jocasta (who unbeknown to anyone was also his mother) as an extra token, whom he married and later had four children with - two sons Polynices and Eteocles, and daughters Antigone and Ismene. For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ... Riddle of the Sphinx most commonly refers to the mysteries surrounding the Great Sphinx of Giza. ...


Soon after, on account of these happenings, a plague struck the city of Thebes. No soothsayer could find the reason. Oedipus, with his typical hubris, asserted that he could and would. He ultimately asked the prophet Tiresias, who warned him not to try. Undaunted, Oedipus continued. He then found the very same herdsman who had left Oedipus to die as a baby. From that peasant Oedipus learned that his nominal father was not his true father, who was Laius. Thus, at the crossroads at which he had killed Laius, he had killed his own father; and then he had married his own mother Jocasta. Everes redirects here. ...


At this realization, Jocasta killed herself, and Oedipus blinded himself. The Thebans then drove Oedipus out of the city, and his daughter Antigone acted as his guide as he wandered blindly through the country, ultimately dying at Colonus, after being placed under the protection of Athens by Theseus, its king. For other uses, see Antigone (disambiguation). ... In classical Greece Colonus was a demus about a mile to the northwest of Athens, near Platos Academy. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ...


His two sons Eteocles and Polynices arranged to share the kingdom, each to take an alternating one-year reign. But Eteocles refused to give up his kingship after his year was up. Polynices then brought in an army, a battle ensued, and at the end of the battle the brothers killed each other. Jocasta's brother Creon then took the throne. He made the decision that Polynices was the "traitor," and should not be buried. Antigone did attempt to bury her brother, and Creon was ultimately forced to have her killed - leading to tragedy for all of Creon's family. There are variants on this story's ending. Eteocles and Polynices, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo In Greek mythology, Eteocles was a king of Thebes, the son of Oedipus and either Jocasta or Euryganeia. ... In Greek mythology, Polynices was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta. ... Fratricide (from the Latin word frater, meaning: brother and cide meaning to kill) is the act of a person killing his or her brother. ... There are two kings in Greek mythology named Creon, or Kreeon (ruler), and one historical person. ... For other uses, see Antigone (disambiguation). ...


Significant variations on the Oedipus legend are mentioned in fragments by several ancient Greek poets including Homer, Hesiod and Pindar. Most of what is known of Oedipus comes from a set of plays by Sophocles: Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, and Antigone. For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... The so-called three Theban plays, written by Greek dramatist Sophocles in the 5th century BC, follow the tragic downfall of the mythical king Oedipus of Thebes and his descendants. ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Oedipus the King Oedipus the King (Greek , Oedipus Tyrannus, or Oedipus the Tyrant), also known as Oedipus Rex, is a Greek tragedy, written by Sophocles and first performed ca. ... Oedipus at Colonus (also Oedipus Coloneus, and in Greek Οἰδίπους ἐπὶ Κολωνῷ) is one of the three Theban plays of the Athenian tragedian Sophocles. ... Antigone (play) redirects here. ...


Myths of Oedipus

Oedipus was almost certainly a story of oral tradition before being written down. It was a growing and changing story that merged several tales from several sources. The first written references to Oedipus appear in the 7th-8th century B.C. Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ...


Homer

Homer makes a passing reference to Oedipus in both the Odyssey and the Iliad. Without any mention of a Sphinx, Oedipus kills his father, marries his mother and becomes king. Oedipus later dies in exile. For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ...


I also saw angels Epicaste mother of god Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother- to his ruing bitterly thereafter.[1]


Macisteus went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus.[2]


Hesiod

The poet Hesiod wrote on the Sphinx in Thebes, but with no reference to Oedipus. Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ...


Echidna was subject in love to Orthus and brought forth the deadly Sphinx which destroyed the Cadmeans[3]


Unrelated to the Sphinx, Hesiod is the first to poetically call an old man "three-legged", which then becomes part of the Sphinx's riddle.[4]


Cinaethon

The poet Cinaethon of Sparta wrote an epic called the The Story of Oedipus (also called Oedipodea). Though it did not survive, a few scattered commentaries on the epic did. The story seems to tell of a merged Oedipus and Sphinx story, but details are unclear. Cinaethon of Sparta or Kinaithon of Lakedaimon is a legendary early Greek poet to whom different sources ascribe the lost epics Oedipodea, Little Iliad and Telegony. ...


The authors of the "Story of Oedipus" (say) of the Sphinx: But furthermore (she killed) noble Haemon, the dear son of blameless Creon, the comeliest and loveliest of boys.[5]


Judging by Homer, I do not believe that Oedipus had children by Iocasta: his sons were born of Euryganeia as the writer of the Epic called the "Story of Oedipus" clearly shows.[6]


Curse of warring sons

An unknown author wrote the Thebaid, of which only fragments exist. It first tells of a curse on Oedipus' sons and how they will kill each other. The Thebaid is the region of ancient Egypt containing the thirteen southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan. ...


Then the hell-born hero, golden-haired Polyneices, first played beside Oedipus a rich table of silver which once belonged to Cadmus the divinely wise: next he filled a fine golden cup with sweet wine. But when Oedipus perceived these treasures of his father, great misery fell on his heart, and he straight-way called down bitter curses there in the presence of both his sons. And the avenging Fury of the gods failed not to hear him as he prayed that they might never divide their father's goods in loving brotherhood, but that war and fighting might be ever the portion of them both.[7]


And when Oedipus noticed the haunch he threw it on the ground and said: "Oh! Oh! my sons have sent this mocking me ..." So he prayed to Zeus the king and the other deathless gods that each might fall by his brother's hand and go down into the house of Hades.[8]

  • Roman poet Publius Papinius Statius later wrote his analogous Thebaid, which has been preserved in its entirety.

5th century B.C.

Most writing on Oedipus comes from the 5th century BC, though the stories deal mostly with Oedipus' downfall. Various details appeared on how Oedipus rose to power.


Laius hears a prophecy that his son will kill him.[9] Fearing the prophecy, Laius pierces Oedipus' feet and leaves him out to die, but a herdsman finds him and takes him away from Thebes.[10] Oedipus, not knowing he was adopted, leaves home in fear of the same prophecy that he would kill his father and marry his mother.[11] Laius, meanwhile, ventures out to find a solution to the Sphinx's riddle.[12] As prophesied, Oedipus crossed paths with Laius and this leads to a fight where Oedipus slays Laius.[13] Oedipus then defeats the Sphinx by solving a mysterious riddle to become king.[14] He marries the widow queen Jocasta not knowing it is his mother. A plague falls on the people of Thebes. Upon discovery of the truth, Oedipus blinds himself and Jocasta hangs herself.[15] After Oedipus is no longer king, Oedipus' sons kill each other.


Some differences with older stories emerge. The curse of the Oedipus' sons is expanded backward to include Oedipus and his father, Laius. Oedipus now steps down from the throne instead of dying in battle. Additionally, rather than his children being by a second wife, Oedipus' children are now by Jocasta.


Pindar's Second Olympian Ode

In the Second Olympian Ode Pindar wrote: Laios' tragic son, crossing his father's path, killed him and fulfilled the oracle spoken of old at Pytho. And sharp-eyed Erinys saw and slew his warlike children at each other's hands. Yet Thersandros survived fallen Polyneikes and won honor in youthful contests and the brunt of war, a scion of aid to the house of Adrastos..[16] For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ...


Aeschylus' Oedipus trilogy

In 467 BC the Athenian playwright, Aeschylus, is known to have presented an entire trilogy based upon the Oedipus myth, winning the first prize at the City Dionysia. The First play was Laius, the second was Oedipus, and the third was Seven against Thebes. Only the third play survives, in which Oedipus' sons Eteocles and Polynices kill each other warring over the throne. Much like his Oresteia, this trilogy would have detailed the tribulations of a House over three successive generations. The satyr play that followed the trilogy was called the Sphinx. This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... The Oresteia is a trilogy of tragedies about the end of the curse on the House of Atreus, written by Aeschylus. ... Papposilenus playing the crotals, theatrical type of the satyr play, Louvre Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of tragicomedy, similar to the modern-day burlesque style. ... For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ...


Sophocles' Oedipus the King

As Sophocles' Oedipus the King begins, the people of Thebes are begging the king for help, begging him to discover the cause of the plague. Oedipus stands before them and swears to find the root of their suffering and to end it. Just then, Creon returns to Thebes from a visit to the oracle. Apollo has made it known that Thebes is harboring a terrible abomination and that the plague will only be lifted when the true murderer of old King Laius is discovered and punished for his crime. Oedipus swears to do this, not realizing of course that he himself is the abomination that he has sworn to exorcise. The stark truth emerges slowly over the course of the play, as Oedipus clashes with the blind seer Tiresias, who senses the truth. Oedipus remains in strict denial, though, becoming convinced that Tiresias is somehow plotting with Creon to usurp the throne. This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Oedipus the King Oedipus the King (Greek , Oedipus Tyrannus, or Oedipus the Tyrant), also known as Oedipus Rex, is a Greek tragedy, written by Sophocles and first performed ca. ... There are two kings in Greek mythology named Creon, or Kreeon (ruler), and one historical person. ... Laius abducting Chrysippus, who is reaching out to Pelops, his father (detail). ... Everes redirects here. ...


Realization begins to slowly dawn in Scene II of the play when Jocasta mentions out of hand that Laius was slain at a place where three roads meet. This stirs something in Oedipus' memory and he suddenly remembers the men that he fought and killed one day long ago at a place where three roads met. He realizes, horrified, that he might be the man he's seeking. One household servant survived the attack and now lives out his old age in a frontier district of Thebes. Oedipus sends immediately for the man to either confirm or deny his guilt. At the very worst, though, he expects to find himself to be the unsuspecting murder of a man unknown to him. The truth has not yet been made clear.


The moment of epiphany comes late in the play. At the beginning of Scene III, Oedipus is still waiting for the servant to be brought into the city, when a messenger arrives from Corinth to declare the King Polybos is dead. Oedipus, when he hears this news is overwhelmed with relief, because he believed that Polybos was the father whom the oracle had destined him to murder, and he momentarily believes himself to have escaped fate. He tells this all to the present company, including the messenger, but the messenger knows that it is not true. He is the man who found Oedipus as a baby in the pass of Kithairon and gave him to King Polybos to raise. He reveals, furthermore that the servant who is being brought to the city as they speak is the very same man who took Oedipus up into the mountains as a baby. Jocasta realizes now all that has happened. She begs Oedipus not to pursue the matter further. He refuses, and she withdraws into the palace as the servant is arriving. The old man arrives, and it is clear at once that he knows everything. At the behest of Oedipus, he tells it all. Polybus was a famous physician. ... Kithairon is a mountain range (No corner of Kithairon echoless, Oedipus Rex 440) about 10 mi (16 km) long, in central Greece, standing between Boeotia in the north and Attica in the south. ...


Overwhelmed with the knowledge of all his crimes, Oedipus rushes into the palace, where he finds his mother, his wife, dead by her own hand. Ripping a brooch from her dress, Oedipus blinds himself with it. Bleeding from the eyes, he begs Creon, who has just arrived on the the scene, to exile him forever from Thebes. Creon agrees to this request, but when Oedipus begs to have his two daughters Antigone and Ismene sent with him, Creon refuses, condemning him instead to wander alone and in darkness throughout the land for the rest of his life. For other uses, see Antigone (disambiguation). ... Tydeus and Ismene, Corinthian black-figure amphora, ca. ...


Sophocles' Oedipus at Colonus

In Sophocles' Oedipus at Colonus, Oedipus becomes a wanderer, pursued by Creon and his men. He finally finds refuge at the holy wilderness right outside of Athens, where it is said that Theseus took care of him and his daughter, Antigone. Creon eventually catches up to Oedipus. He asks Oedipus to come back from Colonus to bless his son, Eteocles. Angry that his son did not care for him enough to take care of him, he curses both Eteocles and brother, condemning to sudden deaths. He died a peaceful death and his grave is said to be sacred to the gods. Oedipus at Colonus (also Oedipus Coloneus, and in Greek Οἰδίπους ἐπὶ Κολωνῷ) is one of the three Theban plays of the Athenian tragedian Sophocles. ...


Sophocles' Antigone

In Sophocles' Antigone, when Oedipus stepped down as King of Thebes he gave the kingdom to his two sons, Eteocles and Polynices, who both agreed to alternate the throne every year. However, they showed no concern for their father, who cursed them for their negligence. After the first year, Eteocles refused to step down and Polynices attacked Thebes with his supporters (as portrayed in the Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus and the Phoenician Women by Euripides). Both brothers died in the battle. King Creon, who ascended to the throne of Thebes, decreed that Polynices was not to be buried. Antigone, his sister, defied the order, but was caught. Creon decreed that she was to be put into a stone box in the ground, this in spite of her betrothal to his son Haemon. Antigone's sister, Ismene, then declared she had aided Antigone and wanted the same fate. The gods, through the blind prophet Tiresias, expressed their disapproval of Creon's decision, which convinced him to rescind his order, and he went to bury Polynices himself. However, Antigone had already hanged herself rather than be buried alive. When Creon arrived at the tomb where she was to be interred, Haemon attacked him and then killed himself. When Creon's wife, Eurydice, was informed of their deaths, she too took her own life. For other uses, see Antigone (disambiguation). ... Eteocles and Polynices, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo In Greek mythology, Eteocles was a king of Thebes, the son of Oedipus and either Jocasta or Euryganeia. ... In Greek mythology, Polynices was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Επτά επί Θήβας The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... The Phoenician Women (Also known by the Greek title, Phoenissae) is a tragedy by Euripides based on the same story as Aeschylus play Seven Against Thebes. ... A statue of Euripides. ... There are two kings in Greek mythology named Creon, or Kreeon (ruler), and one historical person. ... For other uses, see Antigone (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Haemon (bloody) (or Haimon) was the son of Creon and Eurydice. ... Tydeus and Ismene, Corinthian black-figure amphora, ca. ... Everes redirects here. ... In Greek Mythology, Eurydice was the wife of Creon, a king of Thebes. ...


Euripides' Phoenissae and Chrysippus

In the beginning of Euripides' Phoenissae, Jocasta recalls the story of Oedipus. Generally, the play weaves together the plots of the Seven Against Thebes and Antigone. The play differs from the other tales in two major respects. First, it describes in detail why Laius and Oedipus had a feud: Laius ordered Oedipus out of the road so his chariot could pass, but proud Oedipus refused to move. Second, in the play Jocasta has not killed herself at the discovery of her incest - otherwise she could not play the prologue, for fathomable reasons - nor has Oedipus fled into exile, but they have stayed in Thebes only to delay their doom until the fatal duel of their sons/brothers/nephews Eteocles and Polynices: Jocasta commits suicide over the two men's dead bodies, and Antigone follows Oedipus into exile. A statue of Euripides. ... The Phoenician Women (Also known by the Greek title, Phoenissae) is a tragedy by Euripides based on the same story as Aeschylus play Seven Against Thebes. ... Eteocles and Polynices, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo In Greek mythology, Eteocles was a king of Thebes, the son of Oedipus and either Jocasta or Euryganeia. ... In Greek mythology, Polynices was the son of Oedipus and Jocasta. ...


In Chrysippus, Euripides develops backstory on the curse: Laius' "sin" was to have kidnapped Chrysippus, Pelops' son, in order to violate him, and this caused the gods' revenge on all his family - boy-loving having been so far an exclusive of the gods themselves, unknown to mortals. Laius abducting Chrysippus, who is reaching out to Pelops, his father (detail). ... In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek Πέλοψ, from pelios: dark; and ops: face, eye) was venerated at Olympia, where his cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games, the most important expression of unity, not only for the Peloponnesus, land of Pelops, but for all Hellenes. ...


Euripides wrote also an "Oedipus", of which only a few fragments survive.[17] The first line of the prologue recalled Laius' hybristic action of conceiving a son against Apollo's command. At some point in the action of the play, a character engaged in a lengthy and detailed description of the Sphinx and her riddle - preserved in five fragments from Oxyrhynchus, P.Oxy. 2459 (published by Eric Gardner Turner in 1962)[18]. The tragedy featured also many moral maxims on the theme of marriage, preserved in the Anthologion of Stobaeus. The most striking lines, however, state that in this play Oedipus was blinded by Laius' attendants, and that this happened before his identity as Laius' son had been discovered, therefore marking important differences with the Sophoclean treatment of the myth, which is now regarded as the 'standard' version. Many attempts have been made to reconstruct the plot of the play, but none of them is more than hypothetical, because of the scanty remains that survive from its text and of the total absence of ancient descriptions or resumés - though it has been suggested that a part of Hyginus' narration of the Oedipus myth might in fact derive from Euripides' play. Some echoes of the Euripidean Oedipus have been traced also in a scene of Seneca's Oedipus (see below), in which Oedipus himself describes to Jocasta his adventure with the Sphinx.[19] Oxyrhynchus (Greek: Οξύρυγχος; sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian Per-Medjed; modern Egyptian Arabic el-Bahnasa) is an archaeological site in Egypt, considered one of the most important ever discovered. ... Sir Eric Gardner Turner CBE (26 February 1911–20 April 1983) was an English papyrologist and classicist. ... Joannes Stobaeus, so called from his native place Stobi in Macedonia, was the compiler of a valuable series of extracts from Greek authors. ... Hyginus can refer to: Gaius Julius Hyginus (c. ...


Later additions

In the 2nd century B.C.E., Apollodorus writes down an actual riddle for the Sphinx while borrowing the poetry of Hesiod: Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived...


What is that which has one voice and yet becomes four-footed and two-footed and three-footed?[20]


Later Addition to Aeschylus' Seven against Thebes

Due to the popularity of Sophocles's Antigone (ca. 442 BC), the ending (lines 1005-78) of Seven against Thebes was added some fifty years after Aeschylus' death.[21] Whereas the play (and the trilogy of which it is the last play) was meant to end with somber mourning for the dead brothers, the spurious ending features a herald announcing the prohibition against burying Polyneices, and Antigone's declaration that she will defy that edict.


Oedipus in classical Latin literature

Oedipus was a figure who was also used in the Latin literature of ancient Rome. Julius Caesar wrote a play on Oedipus, but it has not survived into modern times.[22] Ovid included Oedipus in Metamorphoses, but only as the person who defeated the Sphynx. He makes no mention of Oedipus' troubled experiences with his father and mother. Seneca the Younger wrote his own play on the story of Oedipus in the first century CE. It differs in significant ways from the work of Sophocles. The play was intended to be recited at private gatherings and not actually performed. It has however been successfully staged since the Renaissance. It was adapted by John Dryden in his very successful heroic drama Oedipus, licensed in 1678. Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the poem Metamorphoses written by the poet Ovid. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Oedipus is a tragic play that was written by Lucius Annaeus Seneca at some time during the 1st century CE. It is a retelling of the story of Oedipus, which is better known through the play Oedipus Rex by the Athenian playwright, Sophocles. ... Oedipus is a tragic play that was written by Lucius Annaeus Seneca at some time during the 1st century CE. It is a retelling of the story of Oedipus, which is better known through the play Oedipus Rex by the Athenian playwright, Sophocles. ... Oedipus is a tragic play that was written by Lucius Annaeus Seneca at some time during the 1st century CE. It is a retelling of the story of Oedipus, which is better known through the play Oedipus Rex by the Athenian playwright, Sophocles. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... John Dryden, who formulated and wrote the heroic drama in the 1670s. ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ...


Oedipus in modern Opera

There is also a modern opera by Jean Cocteau and Igor Stravinsky Oedipus Rex. Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (July 5, 1889 – October 11, 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, and filmmaker. ... Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky () (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a composer of modern classical music. ...


Oedipus or Oedipais?

It has been suggested by some that in the earliest Ur-myth of the hero, he was called Oedipais: "child of the swollen sea."[23] He was so named because of the method by which his birth parents tried to abandon him -- by placing him in a chest and tossing it into the ocean. The mythic topos of foresaking a child to the sea or a river is well attested, found (e.g.) in the myths of Perseus, Telephus, Dionysus, Moses, and Romulus and Remus.[24] Over the centuries, however, Oedipais seems to have been corrupted into the familiar Oedipus: "swollen foot." And it was this new name that might have inspired the addition of a bizarre element to the story of Oedipus' abandonment on Mt. Cithaeron. Exposure on a mountain was in fact a common method of child abandonment in Ancient Greece. The binding of baby Oedipus' ankles, however, is unique; it can thus be argued that the ankle-binding was inelegantly grafted onto the Oedipus myth simply to explain his new name. Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths... A Greek mythological figure, Telephus referred to two different people. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ...


The Oedipus complex

Main article: Oedipus complex
See also: Electra complex

Sigmund Freud used the name The Oedipus complex to explain the origin of certain neuroses in childhood. It is defined as a male child's unconscious desire for the exclusive love of his mother. This desire includes jealousy towards the father and the unconscious wish for that parent's death. The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... The Electra complex is an ambiguous psychiatric concept which attempts to explain the maturation of the human female. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... In psychology a complex is generally an important group of unconscious associations, or a strong unconscious impulse lying behind an individuals otherwise mysterious condition: the detail varies widely from theory to theory. ... In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but (unlike a psychosis or personality disorder) does not prevent rational thought or an individuals ability to function in daily life. ...


Oedipus himself, as portrayed in the myth, did in no way suffer from this neurosis – at least, not towards Jocasta, whom he only met as an adult. (If anything, such feelings would have been directed at Merope – but there is no hint of that.) However, Freud reasoned that the ancient Greek audience, which heard the story told or saw the plays based on it, did know that Oedipus was actually killing his father and marrying his mother; the story being continually told and played therefore reflected a preoccupation with the theme.


Modern tellings

  • Jean Cocteau retold the Oedipus myth in the 1934 surrealist play La Machine infernale (The Infernal Machine).
  • Tom Lehrer's 1959 song "Oedipus Rex" is a humorous retelling of the story of Oedipus.
  • Steven Berkoff's 1980 play Greek is based on Sophocles' story of Oedipus.
  • Peter Schickele, in his alias as P. D. Q. Bach, created the 1990 humorous oratorio Oedipus Tex.
  • Jason Wishnow created a 2004 movie Oedipus, performed by vegetables, which has been screened at a number of film festivals, including the Sundance Film Festival.
  • Salley Vickers revisited the Oedipus myth as part of the Canongate Myth Series in her 2007 novel Where Three Roads Meet.
  • Regina Spektor created a song based on her version of the myth. Song- Oedipus
  • Keiichi Sato created an anime OVA called KARAS in where Otoha, the new Karas finds and confronts his father, who had Otoha through a love between him and his own mother, "when you were born between me and my mother, I should've flushed you down the toilet!" were the words he said, effectively proving the Oedipus complex he had that had born fruit.
  • Gun Sword the anime about a mad man who angered a soon-to-be wed Van, one of his subordinates named List_of_Gun_Sword_characters#Woo exhibits a strong Oedipus complex, speaks of killing his father as well as an undying love for his own mother, of course in his desperation to win, he tried abandoning this love, but still failed against Van and died just after calling out to his mother.
  • Frank O'Connor's short story My Oedipus Complex
  • In The Doors 1967 song "The End" lead singer Jim Morrison does a short re-telling of the Oedipus story

Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... Max Ernst. ... Thomas Andrew Tom Lehrer (born April 9, 1928) is an American singer-songwriter, satirist, pianist, and mathematician. ... An Evening Wasted With Tom Lehrer is an album recorded by Tom Lehrer, the well-known satirist and Harvard lecturer. ... Steven Berkoff (born August 3, 1937) is an English actor, writer and director. ... Johann Peter Schickele (b. ... P. D. Q. Bach is a fictional composer invented by musical satirist Professor Peter Schickele. ... Oedipus Tex is an Western-themed oratorio by P. D. Q. Bach that follows the adventures of Oedipus Tex (you may have heard of my brother Rex) in Thebes Gulch. ... Jason Wishnow started the online video site The New Venue in 1996 to showcase and teach online video publishing. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... The Sundance Film Festival is a film festival in the state of Utah in the United States. ... Canongate Myth Series is a series of short novels in which ancient myths from myriad cultures are reimagined and rewritten by contemporary authors. ... Regina Spektor (Russian: ; born February 18, 1980) is a Soviet-born American singer-songwriter and pianist. ... Keiichi Sato ) is a mecha and character designer born in the Kagawa Prefecture of Japan in 1965. ... A human ovum An ovum (loosely, egg or egg cell) is a female sex cell or gamete. ... Karas ) is a six-part OVA that takes place in a futuristic setting. ... Gun X Sword , the “×” is silent, but a part of the title[1]), known by some fans as GXS, is a 26-episode anime television series directed by Goro Taniguchi and produced by AIC A.S.T.A, which premiered in July 2005. ... // Van Van is the primary protagonist of Gun X Sword. ... This is a list of the fictional characters, with biographical details, in the Japanese anime Gun Sword (full name Gun x Sword, the x is silent, the story of which takes place on the fictional Planet of Endless Illusion. // Van Main article: Van (Gun X Sword) Van is the primary... // Van Van is the primary protagonist of Gun X Sword. ... The Doors were an American rock band formed in 1965 in Los Angeles by vocalist Jim Morrison, keyboardist Ray Manzarek, drummer John Densmore, and guitarist Robby Krieger. ...

References

  • Brown, A.L. "The End of the Seven against Thebes" The Classical Quarterly 26.2 (1976) 206-19.
  • Carloni, Glauco and Nobili, Daniela. La Mamma Cattiva: fenomenologia, antropologia e clinica del figlicidio (Rimini, 2004).
  • Dallas, Ian, Oedipus and Dionysus, Freiburg Press, Granada 1991. ISBN 1-874216-02-9.
  • Graves, Robert, The Greek Myths
  • Lowry, Malcolm. Sursum Corda!: The Collected Letters of Malcolm Lowry (Toronto, 1995).

The Greek Myths (1955) is a comprehensive anthology of Greek mythology, published in two volumes. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Homer, Odyssey XI
  2. ^ Homer, Iliad XXIII
  3. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 326
  4. ^ Hesiod, Works and Days
  5. ^ Euripides, Phoenissae
  6. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 9.26
  7. ^ The Thebaid Fragment 2
  8. ^ The Thebaid Fragment 3
  9. ^ Euripides, Phoenissae
  10. ^ Sophocles, Oedipus the King 1220-1226; Euripides, Phoenissae
  11. ^ Sophocles, Oedipus the King 1026-1030; Euripides, Phoenissae
  12. ^ Sophocles, Oedipus the King 132-137
  13. ^ Pindar, Second Olympian Ode; Sophocles, Oedipus the King 473-488; Euripides, Phoenissae
  14. ^ Sophocles, Oedipus the King 136, 1578; Euripides, Phoenissae
  15. ^ Sophocles, Oedipus the King 1316
  16. ^ Pindar, Second Olympian Ode
  17. ^ R. Kannicht, Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta (TrGF) vol. 5.1, Göttingen 2004; see also F. Jouan - H. Van Looy, "Euripide. tome 8.2 - Fragments", Paris 2000
  18. ^ Reviewed by Hugh Lloyd-Jones in "Gnomon" 35 (1963), pp. 446-447
  19. ^ Joachim Dingel, in "Museum Helveticum" 27 (1970), 90-96
  20. ^ Apollodorus, House of Oedipus III.5.7
  21. ^ See (e.g.) Brown 1976, 206-19.
  22. ^ E.F. Watling's Introduction to Seneca: Four Tragedies and Octavia
  23. ^ See (e.g.) Lowry 1995, 879; Carloni/Nobili 2004, 147 n.1.
  24. ^ This version of the Oedipus myth is in fact attested in some scholia (at lines 13 and 26) to Euripides' Phoenician Women.

Scholium (tr~bXtoe), the name given to a grammatical, critical and explanatory note, extracted from existing commentaries and inserted on the margin of the manuscript of an ancient author. ... A statue of Euripides. ... The Phoenician Women (Also known by the Greek title, Phoenissae) is a tragedy by Euripides based on the same story as Aeschylus play Seven Against Thebes. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Oedipus
Preceded by
Laius
Mythical King of Thebes Succeeded by
Creon
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... For other uses, see Antigone (disambiguation). ... This is an article about the Greek myth. ... Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: Oedipus the King Oedipus the King (Greek , Oedipus Tyrannus, or Oedipus the Tyrant), also known as Oedipus Rex, is a Greek tragedy, written by Sophocles and first performed ca. ... Oedipus at Colonus (also Oedipus Coloneus, and in Greek Οἰδίπους ἐπὶ Κολωνῷ) is one of the three Theban plays of the Athenian tragedian Sophocles. ... Watu Gunung was a king in the mythology of the Indonesian island of Java, who married his own mother, echoing the story of Oedipus in Greek mythology with obvious correlations. ... Laius abducting Chrysippus, who is reaching out to Pelops, his father (detail). ... The dynastic history of Thebes in Greek mythology is crowded with a bewildering number of kings between the citys new foundation (by Cadmus) and the Trojan War (see Ogyges). ... Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... There are two kings in Greek mythology named Creon, or Kreeon (ruler), and one historical person. ...

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