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Encyclopedia > Odyssey
Beginning of the Odyssey in the original Greek.
Beginning of the Odyssey in the original Greek.

The Odyssey (Greek: Οδύσσεια or Odússeia) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. The poem was probably written near the end of the eighth century BC, somewhere along the Greek-controlled western Turkey seaside, Ionia.[1] The poem is, in part, a sequel to Homer's Iliad and mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus (or Ulysses, as he was known in Roman myths) and his long journey home to Ithaca following the fall of Troy. The Odyssey is an ancient Greek epic poem by Homer. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... For other meanings of epic, see Epic. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ...


It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War.[2] During this absence, his son Telemachus and wife Penelope must deal with a group of unruly suitors, called Proci, to compete for Penelope's hand in marriage, since most have assumed that Odysseus has died. For other places or objects named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Slaughter of the suitors by Odysseus and Telemachus, Campanian red-figure bell-krater, ca. ... The Vatican Penelope: a Roman marble copy of an Early Classical 6th-century Greek work (Vatican Museums) For other uses, see Penelope (disambiguation). ...


The poem is fundamental to the modern Western canon and is indeed the second—the Iliad is the first—extant work of Western literature. It continues to be read in Homeric Greek and translated into modern languages around the world. The original poem was composed in an oral tradition by an aoidos perhaps a rhapsode, and was intended more to be sung than read.[3] The details of the ancient oral performance, and the story's conversion to a written work inspire continual debate among scholars. The Odyssey was written in a regionless poetic dialect of Greek and comprises 12,110 lines of dactylic hexameter. Among the most impressive elements of the text are its strikingly modern non-linear plot, and the fact that events are shown to depend as much on the choices made by women and serfs as on the actions of fighting men. In the English language as well as many others, the word odyssey has come to refer to an epic voyage. The Western canon is a canon of books and art (and specifically one with very loose boundaries) that has allegedly been highly influential in shaping Western culture. ... Homeric Greek is the form of Ancient Greek that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey. ... Aoidos means singer in classical Greek. ... In classical antiquity, a rhapsode was a professional reciter of poetry, especially the epics of Homer, but also the wisdom-verse of Hesiod and the satires of Archilochus, among others. ... Dactyllic hexameter (also known as heroic hexameter) is a form of meter in poetry or a rhythmic scheme. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

Character of Odysseus

Main article: Odysseus

Odysseus' heroic trait is his mētis, or "cunning intelligence"; he is often described as the "Peer of Zeus in Counsel." This intelligence is most often manifested by his use of disguise and deceptive speech. His disguises take forms both physical (altering his appearance) and verbal, such as telling the Cyclops (Polyphemus) that his name is Ουτις, "Nobody", then escaping after blinding Polyphemus. When queried by other Cyclopes about why he is screaming, Polyphemus replies that "Nobody" is hurting him, and with that, it sounds as if nobody or rather no mortal is hurting him and therefore the other Cyclopes assume that he is suffering at the hand of immortal Zeus. "If alone as you are [Polyphemus] none uses violence on you, why, there is no avoiding the sickness sent by great Zeus; so you had better pray to you father, the lord Poseidon." From the Odyssey of Homer translated by Richmond Lattimore [Book 9, page 147/8, lines 410 - 412]. The most evident flaw that Odysseus sports is that of his arrogance and his pride, or hubris. As he sails away from the Cyclops's island, he shouts his name and boasts that no one can defeat the "Great Odysseus". The Cyclops then throws the top half of a mountain at him, and tells his father, Poseidon, that Odysseus blinded him, which enrages Poseidon and causes the god to thwart Odysseus' homecoming for a very long time. For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... Metis can refer to a number of things: Metis was a Titaness and the first wife of Zeus. ... This page is about the mythical creature. ... For the collection of short stories by Michael Shea, see Polyphemus (book). ... For the supervillain, see Barry Hubris. ...


Structure

The Odyssey begins in medias res, meaning that the action begins in the middle of the plot, and that prior events are described through flashbacks or storytelling. This device is imitated by later authors of literary epics, for example, Virgil in the Aeneid, as well as modern poets such as Alexander Pope in the mock-epic, or mock-heroic, "The Rape of the Lock". For other uses, see In Medias Res (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... Generally, mock-heroic is a satirical piece or parody that mocks common Romantic or modern stereotypes of heroes. ... The New Star, Illustration by Aubrey Beardsley for The Rape of the Lock The Rape of the Lock is a mock-heroic poem written by Alexander Pope, first published in 1712 in two cantos, and then reissued in 1714 in a much-expanded 5-canto version. ...


In the first episodes, we trace Telemachus' efforts to assert control of the household, and then, at Athena’s advice, to search for news of his long-lost father. Then the scene shifts: Odysseus has been a captive of the beautiful nymph Calypso, with whom he has spent seven of his ten lost years. Released by the intercession of his patroness Athena, he departs, but his raft is destroyed by his divine enemy Poseidon, who is angry because Odysseus blinded his son, Polyphemus. When Odysseus washes up on Scherie, home to the Phaeacians, he is assisted by the young Nausicaa and is treated hospitably. In return he satisfies the Phaeacians' curiosity, telling them, and the reader, of all his adventures since departing from Troy. This renowned, extended "flashback" leads Odysseus back to where he stands, his tale told. The shipbuilding Phaeacians finally loan him a ship to return to Ithaca, where he is aided by the swineherd Eumaeus, meets Telemachus, regains his household, kills the suitors, and is reunited with his faithful wife, Penelope. Slaughter of the suitors by Odysseus and Telemachus, Campanian red-figure bell-krater, ca. ... Now hes left to pine on an island, wracked with grief (Odyssey V): Calypso and Odysseus, by Arnold Böcklin, 1883 Calypso (Greek: Καλυψώ, I will conceal, also transliterated as Kalypsó or Kālypsō), was a naiad, daughter of Atlas who lived on the island of Gozo in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Neptune in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... For the collection of short stories by Michael Shea, see Polyphemus (book). ... Nausicaa takes Odysseus to the palace Σχερία (Scheria, Skhería) or Phaeacia was a phantom island mentioned in the Greek mythology and literature as the homeland of the Phaeacians and the last destination of Odysseus before coming back home to Ithaca. ... In Greek mythology, Scheria, Skhería, or Phaeacia, is an island, the land of the Phaeacians. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä — by Charles Gleyre In ancient Greek literature, Nausicaa (often rendered Nausicaä; Greek: Ναυσικάα[1]), burner of ships, a daughter of King Alcinous (Alkínoös) of the Phaeacians and Queen Arete, appears in Homers Odyssey (Odysseía). ... For other places or objects named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Eumaeus, or Eumaios, was Odysseus swineherd and friend before he left for the Trojan War. ... Slaughter of the suitors by Odysseus and Telemachus, Campanian red-figure bell-krater, ca. ... The Vatican Penelope: a Roman marble copy of an Early Classical 6th-century Greek work (Vatican Museums) For other uses, see Penelope (disambiguation). ...


Nearly all modern editions and translations of the Odyssey are divided into 24 books. This division is convenient but not original; it was developed by Alexandrian editors of the 3rd century BC. In the Classical period, moreover, several of the books (individually and in groups) were given their own titles: the first four books, focusing on Telemachus, are commonly known as the Telemachy; Odysseus' narrative, Book 9, featuring his encounter with the cyclops Polyphemus, is traditionally called the Cyclopeia; and Book 11, the section describing his meeting with the spirits of the dead is known as the Nekuia. Books 9 through 12, wherein Odysseus recalls his adventures for his Phaeacian hosts, are collectively referred to as the Apologoi: Odysseus' "stories". Book 22, wherein Odysseus kills all the suitors, has been given the title Mnesterophonia: "slaughter of the suitors". The Royal Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was once the largest library in the world. ... The Telemachy is a term traditionally applied to the first four books of Homers epic poem the Odyssey. ... In Ancient Greece, a nekuia was a visit to or summoning of the dead, usually as part of a katabasis. ...


The last 548 lines of the Odyssey, corresponding to Book 24, are believed by many scholars to have been added by a slightly later poet. Several passages in earlier books seem to be setting up the events of Book 24, so if it is indeed a later addition, the offending editor would seem to have changed earlier text as well. For more about varying views on the origin, authorship and unity of the poem see Homeric scholarship. Homeric scholarship is the study of Homeric epic, especially the two large surviving epics the Iliad and Odyssey. ...


Outline of the plot

Telemachus, Odysseus' son, was only one month old when Odysseus set out for Troy.[4] At the point where the Odyssey begins, ten further years after the end of the ten-year Trojan War, Telemachus is twenty and is sharing his missing father’s house on the island of Ithaca with his mother, Penelope, and with a crowd of 108 boisterous young men, "the Suitors," whose aim is to persuade Penelope to accept her husband’s disappearance as final and to marry one of them. Slaughter of the suitors by Odysseus and Telemachus, Campanian red-figure bell-krater, ca. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... The Vatican Penelope: a Roman marble copy of an Early Classical 6th-century Greek work (Vatican Museums) For other uses, see Penelope (disambiguation). ...


The goddess Athena (who is Odysseus’s protector) discusses his fate with Zeus, king of the gods, at a moment when Odysseus's enemy, the god of the Sea Poseidon, is absent from Mount Olympus. Then, disguised as a Taphian chieftain named Mentes, she visits Telemachus to urge him to search for news of his father. He offers her hospitality; they observe the Suitors dining rowdily, and the bard Phemius performing a narrative poem for them. Penelope objects to Phemius's theme, the "Return from Troy"[5] because it reminds her of her missing husband, but Telemachus rebuts her objections. For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Neptune in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... Mount Olympus (Greek: ; also transliterated as Mount Ólympos, and on modern maps, Óros Ólimbos) is the highest mountain in Greece at 2,919 meters high (9,576 feet)[1]. Since its base is located at sea level, it is one of the highest mountains in Europe, in real absolute altitude... In Greek mythology, Mentor (sometimes Mentes) was the son of Alcumus and, in his old age, a friend of Odysseus. ... In Greek mythology, Phemius, or Phêmios was an Ithacan singer who was forced to help the suitors against Penelope. ...


That night, Athena disguised as Telemachus finds a ship and crew for the true Telemachus. Next morning Telemachus calls an assembly of citizens of Ithaca to discuss what should be done to the suitors. Along this journey Telemachus will mature and become a man. Accompanied by Athena (now disguised as his friend Mentor) he departs for the Greek mainland and the household of Nestor, most venerable of the Greek warriors at Troy, now at home in Pylos. From there Telemachus rides overland, accompanied by Nestor's son, to Sparta, where he finds Menelaus and Helen, now reconciled. He is told that they returned to Greece after a long voyage by way of Egypt; there, on the magical island of Pharos, Menelaus encountered the old sea-god Proteus, who told him that Odysseus is a captive of the mysterious nymph Calypso. Incidentally Telemachus learns the fate of Menelaus’ brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and leader of the Greeks at Troy, murdered on his return home by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus. It has been suggested that Maître à penser be merged into this article or section. ... The word may have one of the following meanings. ... This article is about the Greek geographical feature and town. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, ca. ... Helen of Troy redirects here. ... PHAROS IPA: [feÉ™.rÊŒs] (Platform for Search of Audiovisual Resources Across Online Spaces) is the name given to a planned (and currently being developed) European Internet multimedia search engine led by the Italian system integrator Engineering Ingegneria Informatica SpA. // The PHAROS platform, co-financed by the European Commission and... This article is about Proteus in Greek mythology. ... Now hes left to pine on an island, wracked with grief (Odyssey V): Calypso and Odysseus, by Arnold Böcklin, 1883 Calypso (Greek: Καλυψώ, I will conceal, also transliterated as Kalypsó or Kālypsō), was a naiad, daughter of Atlas who lived on the island of Gozo in Greek mythology. ... This article is about a character in Greek mythology. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... Clytemnestra trying to awake the Erinyes while her son is being purified by Apollo, Apulian red-figure krater, 480–470 BC, Louvre (Cp 710) After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ... In Greek mythology, Aegisthus (goat strength, also transliterated as Aegisthos or Aigísthos) was the son of Thyestes and his daughter, Pelopia. ...

Meanwhile, Odysseus, after wanderings about which we are still to learn, has spent seven years in captivity on the nymph Calypso's distant island. She is now persuaded by the messenger god Hermes, sent by Zeus to release him. Odysseus builds a raft and is given clothing, food and drink by Calypso. It is wrecked (the sea-god Poseidon is his enemy) but he swims ashore on the island of Scherie, where, naked and exhausted, he falls asleep. Next morning, awakened by the laughter of girls, he sees the young Nausicaa, who has gone to the seashore with her maids to wash clothes. He appeals to her for help. She encourages him to seek the hospitality of her parents Arete and Alcinous. Odysseus is welcomed and is not at first asked for his name. He remains several days with Alcinous, takes part in an athletic competition, and hears the blind singer Demodocus perform two narrative poems. The first is an otherwise obscure incident of the Trojan War, the "Quarrel of Odysseus and Achilles"; the second is the amusing tale of a love affair between two Olympian gods, Ares and Aphrodite. Finally Odysseus asks Demodocus to return to the Trojan War theme and tell of the Trojan Horse, a stratagem in which Odysseus had played a leading role. Unable to hide his emotion as he relives this episode, Odysseus at last reveals his identity. He then begins to tell the amazing story of his return from Troy. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x781, 181 KB)Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre - from Project Gutenberg eText 13725 - http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x781, 181 KB)Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre - from Project Gutenberg eText 13725 - http://www. ... Categories: Stub | 1806 births | 1874 deaths | Swiss painters | Natives of Vaud ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... Odysseus and Nausicaä - by Charles Gleyre In Greek mythology, Nausicaa, (also Náusikaa or Nausicaä) was a daughter of King Alcinous of the Phaeaceans. ... Now hes left to pine on an island, wracked with grief (Odyssey V): Calypso and Odysseus, by Arnold Böcklin, 1883 Calypso (Greek: Καλυψώ, I will conceal, also transliterated as Kalypsó or Kālypsō), was a naiad, daughter of Atlas who lived on the island of Gozo in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Neptune in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... Nausicaa takes Odysseus to the palace Σχερία (Scheria, Skhería) or Phaeacia was a phantom island mentioned in the Greek mythology and literature as the homeland of the Phaeacians and the last destination of Odysseus before coming back home to Ithaca. ... Odysseus and Nausicaä — by Charles Gleyre In ancient Greek literature, Nausicaa (often rendered Nausicaä; Greek: Ναυσικάα[1]), burner of ships, a daughter of King Alcinous (Alkínoös) of the Phaeacians and Queen Arete, appears in Homers Odyssey (Odysseía). ... In Greek mythology, Queen Arete of Scheria was a queen of the Phaeacians, wife of Alcinous and mother of Nausicaa and Laodamas. ... In Greek mythology, Alcinous (sometimes with the diacritical mark Alcinoüs; also transliterated as Alkínoös) was a son of Nausithous and father of Nausicaa and Laodamas with Arete. ... In the Odyssey, Demodocus (Greek Δημοδόκος, Demodokos) is a poet who often visits the court of Alcinous, king of the Phaeacians on the island of Scherie. ... For other uses, see Achilles (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Greek god. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Trojan Horse (disambiguation). ...

Odysseus Overcome by Demodocus' Song, by Francesco Hayez, 1813-15
Odysseus Overcome by Demodocus' Song, by Francesco Hayez, 1813-15

After a piratical raid on Ismarus in the land of the Cicones, he and his twelve ships were driven off course by storms. They visited the lazy Lotus-Eaters and were captured by the Cyclops Polyphemus, escaping by blinding him with a wooden stake. They stayed with Aeolus the master of the winds; he gave Odysseus a leather bag containing all the winds, except the west wind, a gift that should have ensured a safe return home, had not the sailors foolishly opened the bag while Odysseus slept. All the winds flew out and the resulting storm drove the ships back the way they had come just as Ithaca came into sight. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1444 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Odyssey Alcinous Scheria ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 571 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 1444 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Odyssey Alcinous Scheria ... The Kiss by Francesco Hayez Francesco Hayez (1791-1882) was the leading homosexual artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan, renowned for his great historical paintings, political allegories and exceptionally fine portraits External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Francesco Hayez More information Categories: ‪Artist stubs‬ | ‪1791 births... Ismara (or Ismaros) is an ancient Ciconian town on the Aegean coast of Thrace and supposedly was the city mentioned in the Odyssey. ... The Cicones or Ciconians (Greek Κίκονες) were a Thracian tribe, whose stronghold in the time of Odysseus was the city of Ismara (or Ismarus), located at the foot of mount Ismara, on the south coast of Thrace. ... Lotus-eaters beckon Odysseus and his men In Greek mythology, the Lotophagi (lotus-eaters) were a race of people from an island near Northern Africa dominated by lotus plants. ... This page is about the mythical creature. ... For the collection of short stories by Michael Shea, see Polyphemus (book). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


After pleading in vain with Aeolus to help them again, they re-embarked and encountered the cannibal Laestrygones. Odysseus’s own ship was the only one to escape. He sailed on and visited the witch-goddess Circe. She turned half of his men into swine after feeding them cheese and wine. Hermes met with Odysseus and gave him a drug called moly, a resistance to Circe’s magic. Circe, being attracted to Odysseus' resistance, fell in love with him. Circe released his men. Odysseus and his crew remained with her on the island for one year, while they feasted and drank. Finally, Odysseus' men convinced Odysseus that it was time to leave for Ithaca. Guided by Circe's instructions, Odysseus and his crew crossed the ocean and reached a harbor at the western edge of the world, where Odysseus sacrificed to the dead and summoned the spirit of the old prophet Tiresias to advise him. Next Odysseus met the spirit of his own mother, who had died of grief at his long absence; from her he learned for the first time news of his own household, threatened by the greed of the suitors. Here, too, he met the spirits of famous women and famous men; notably he encountered the spirit of Agamemnon, of whose murder he now learned, who also warned him about the dangers of women (for Odysseus' encounter with the dead see also Nekuia). The Laestrygonians (or Laestrygones, Laistrygones, Laistrygonians) were a mythological tribe of gigantic cannibals. ... Circe, a painting by John William Waterhouse. ... 1. ... Everes redirects here. ... In Ancient Greece, a nekuia was a visit to or summoning of the dead, usually as part of a katabasis. ...


Returning to Circe’s island, they were advised by her on the remaining stages of the journey. They skirted the land of the Sirens, passed between the many-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis, and landed on the island of Thrinacia. There Odysseus’ men, ignoring the warnings of Tiresias and Circe, hunted down the sacred cattle of the sun god Helios. This sacrilege was punished by a shipwreck in which all but Odysseus himself were drowned. He was washed ashore on the island of Calypso, where she compelled him to remain as her lover for seven years, and he had only now escaped. In Greek mythology, the Sirens or Seirenes (Greek Σειρῆνας) were sea nymphs who lived on an island called Sirenum scopuli which was surrounded by cliffs and rocks. ... Three of Scyllas heads as portrayed in The Odyssey (1997) TV miniseries; the film depicts each head striking with snake-like speed and accuracy and devouring men whole. ... In Greek mythology, Charybdis, or Kharybdis (sucker down, Greek Χάρυβδις), is a sea monster, daughter of Poseidon and Gaia, who swallows huge amounts of water three times a day and then belches it back out again. ... Thrinicia, mentioned in Homers Odyssey, is the island home of Helios cattle, is said to have been Sicily since the name Thrinicia implies an island connected to the number 3 and Sicily has three corners. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ...


Having listened with rapt attention to his story, the Phaeacians, who are skilled mariners, agree to help Odysseus on his way home. They deliver him at night, while he is fast asleep, to a hidden harbor on Ithaca. He finds his way to the hut of one of his own former slaves, the swineherd Eumaeus. Odysseus now plays the part of a wandering beggar in order to learn how things stand in his household. After dinner he tells the farm laborers a fictitious tale of himself: he was born in Crete, had led a party of Cretans to fight alongside other Greeks in the Trojan War, and had then spent seven years at the court of the king of Egypt; finally he had been shipwrecked in Thesprotia and crossed from there to Ithaca. In Greek mythology, Scheria, Skhería, or Phaeacia, is an island, the land of the Phaeacians. ... In Greek mythology, Eumaeus, or Eumaios, was Odysseus swineherd and friend before he left for the Trojan War. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Thesprotia (Greek: Θεσπρωτία) is one of the prefectures of Greece. ...


Meanwhile Telemachus, whom we left at Sparta, sails home, evading an ambush set by the suitors. He disembarks on the coast of Ithaca and makes for Eumaeus’s hut. Father and son meet; Odysseus identifies himself to Telemachus (but still not to Eumaeus) and they determine that the suitors must be killed. Telemachus gets home first. Accompanied by Eumaeus, Odysseus now returns to his own house, still disguised as a beggar. He experiences the suitors’ rowdy behavior and plans their death. He meets Penelope: he tests her intentions with an invented story of his birth in Crete, where, he says, he once met Odysseus. Closely questioned, he adds that he had recently been in Thesprotia and had learned something there of Odysseus’s recent wanderings.


Odysseus’s identity is discovered by the housekeeper, Eurycleia, as she is washing his feet and discovers an old scar Odysseus got during a boar hunt; he swears her to secrecy. Next day, at Athena’s prompting, Penelope maneuvers the suitors into competing for her hand with an archery competition using Odysseus' bow. Odysseus takes part in the competition himself; he alone is strong enough to string the bow and therefore wins. He turns his arrows on the suitors and with the help of Athena, Telemachus and Eumaeus, all the suitors are killed. Odysseus and Telemachus kill (by hanging) twelve of their household maids, who had slept with the suitors; they mutilate and kill the goatherd Melanthius, who had mocked and abused Odysseus. Now at last Odysseus identifies himself to Penelope. She is hesitant, but accepts him when he correctly describes to her the bed he built for her when they married. Odysseus and Euryclea, by Christian Gottlob Heyne In Greek mythology, Euryclea, or Eurýkleia was the wet-nurse of Odysseus. ... Melanthius was a noted Greek painter of the 4th century BC. He belonged to the school of Sicyon, which was noted for fine drawing. ...


The next day he and Telemachus visit the country farm of his old father Laertes, who likewise accepts his identity only when Odysseus correctly describes the orchard that Laertes once gave him. For the Shakespearean character, see Laertes (Hamlet). ...


The citizens of Ithaca have followed Odysseus on the road, planning to avenge the killing of the Suitors, their sons. Their leader points out that Odysseus has now caused the deaths of two generations of the men of Ithaca—his sailors, not one of whom survived, and the suitors, whom he has now executed. The goddess Athena intervenes and persuades both sides to give up the vendetta. After this, Ithaca is at peace once more, concluding The Odyssey.[6]


The geography of the Odyssey

Reconstitution of the world described by the Odyssey

Events in the main sequence of the Odyssey (excluding the narrative of Odysseus) take place in the Peloponnese and in what are now called the Ionian Islands. There are difficulties in the identification of Ithaca, the homeland of Odysseus, which may or may not be the same island that is now called Ithake. The wanderings of Odysseus as told to the Phaeacians, and the location of the Phaeacians' own island of Scherie, pose more fundamental geographical problems: scholars both ancient and modern are divided as to whether or not any of the places visited by Odysseus (after Ismarus and before his return to Ithaca) are real. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Homer Where was Homers Ithaca? There have been many suggestions as to where, exactly, the Ithaca of the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer was geographically located: as many, perhaps, as the theories which once fought among themselves over whether Troy ever really existed, and if so where it was. ... Events in the main sequence of the Odyssey (excluding the narrative of Odysseuss adventures) take place in the Peloponnese and in what are now called the Ionian Islands (Ithaca and its neighbours). ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek: , Ionioi Nēsoi) are a group of islands in Greece. ... For other places or objects named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... Nausicaa takes Odysseus to the palace Σχερία (Scheria, Skhería) or Phaeacia was a phantom island mentioned in the Greek mythology and literature as the homeland of the Phaeacians and the last destination of Odysseus before coming back home to Ithaca. ... Ismara (or Ismaros) is an ancient Ciconian town on the Aegean coast of Thrace and supposedly was the city mentioned in the Odyssey. ... For other places or objects named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ...


Near Eastern influences

Scholars have seen strong influences from Near Eastern mythology and literature in the Odyssey. Martin West has noted substantial parallels between the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Odyssey.[7] Both Odysseus and Gilgamesh are known for traveling to the ends of the earth, and on their journeys go to the land of the dead. On his voyage to the underworld Odysseus follows instructions given to him by Circe, a goddess who is the daughter of the sun-god Helios. Her island, Aeaea, is located at the edges of the world, and seems to have close associations with the sun. Like Odysseus, Gilgamesh gets directions on how to reach the land of the dead from a divine helper: in this case she is the goddess Siduri, who, like Circe, dwells by the sea at the ends of the earth. Her home is also associated with the sun: Gilgamesh reaches Siduri's house by passing through a tunnel underneath Mt. Mashu, the high mountain from which the sun comes into the sky. West argues that the similarity of Odysseus's and Gilgamesh's journeys to the edges of the earth are the result of the influence of the Gilgamesh epic upon the Odyssey. Martin Litchfield West (born 23 September 1937, London, England) is an internationally recognised scholar in classics, classical antiquity and philology. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... Circe, a painting by John William Waterhouse. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Aeaea (sometimes Aiaia) was the home of the sorcerer Joesph. ... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... Siduri is a character in the Epic of Gilgamesh. ... The Mashu is a great mountain which Gilgamesh passes through (via a tunnel) on his journey after leaving the cedar land, a forest of ten thousand leagues. ...


Derivative works

Written works

  • True Story by Lucian of Samosata in the 2nd century AD. A parody of the Odyssey describing a journey beyond the Pillars of Hercules and to the moon.
  • A modern novel inspired by the Odyssey is James Joyce's Ulysses (1922).
  • Some of the tales of Sinbad the Sailor from The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights) were taken from Homer's Odyssey.
  • Nikos Kazantzakis wrote The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel, a 33,333 line epic poem which continues Odysseus's journeys past the point of his arrival in Ithaca.
  • Andrew Lang and H. Rider Haggard collaborated on The World's Desire in which Odysseus and Helen meet in Egypt at the time of the Exodus.
  • The 1997 novel Cold Mountain by Charles Frazier, about a confederate war deserter returning home, is based on The Odyssey.
  • The Penelopiad by Margaret Atwood retells the story from the point of view of Penelope.
  • The short story The Ulyssey by Uruguayan writer Rodrigo Tisnés, tells in a humorous way, the frustrated attempt of two friends both named Ulysses in Eastern Holidays, to travel from Montevideo in Uruguay to Florianopolis in Brazil.
  • The novel, The Lost Kings, includes several sequences parallel in nature to the events surrounding the Lotus Eaters, while the protagonist nearly becomes consumed in the gluttonous circle of Hell.
  • The third part of Thomas Wolfe's novel Of Time and the River is entitled Telemachus.
  • R.A. Lafferty retold the story in a science fiction setting in his novel Space Chantey. Another science fiction retelling of the Odyssey is R L Fanthorpe's novel Negative Minus, in which all the names are spelled backwards (for example "Suessydo", "Ecric" and "Acahti").
  • The first half of Virgil's Aeneid parallels the Odyssey in structure.
  • Alfred Lord Tennyson alludes to the epic in two of his poems, Ulysses and The Lotus-Eaters.
  • In Dante's Divine Comedy ("Inferno XXVI"), Odysseus is punished as a fraudulent advisor in Hell, talking about the Hubris of his last voyage (over the edge). (Yet this story is not taken from Homer's Odyssey.)
  • Ilium and Olympos, by author Dan Simmons, are a sci-fi adaptation of the events of the Iliad and Odyssey, complete with robots and posthumans.

By Lucian of Samosata-a tale of a group of adventurers who, while sailing through the Pillars of Hercules (the Strait of Gibraltar), are lifted up by a giant waterspout and deposited on the Moon. ... For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... Sinbad redirects here. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Nikos Kazantzakis (Greek: Νίκος Καζαντζάκης) (February 18, 1883, Heraklion, Crete, Greece - October 26, 1957, Freiburg, Germany), author of poems, novels, essays, plays, and travel books, was arguably the most important and most translated Greek writer and philosopher of the 20th century. ... Odyssey, poem of Greek writer, poet and philosopher Nikos Kazantzakis, the largest of his works. ... For the former National Basketball Association player, see Andrew Lang (basketball). ... H. Rider Haggard, author Sir Henry Rider Haggard (June 22, 1856 – May 14, 1925), born in Norfolk, England, was a Victorian writer of adventure novels set in locations considered exotic by readers in his native England. ... The Worlds Desire, written by H. Rider Haggard and Andrew Lang, is the story of the hero, Odysseus after his return from his untold second journey. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Penelopiad is a fiction novel by Margaret Atwood in which Penelope (the wife of Odysseus and cousin to Helen of Troy) tells about the time her husband was away, how she kept suitors at bay and about his return after 20 years of absence. ... Margaret Eleanor Atwood, OC (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian writer. ... The Vatican Penelope: a Roman marble copy of an Early Classical 6th-century Greek work (Vatican Museums) For other uses, see Penelope (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... Photo by Carl Van Vechten For the contemporary author and journalist, see Tom Wolfe Thomas Clayton Wolfe (October 3, 1900 – September 15, 1938) was an important American novelist of the 20th century. ... Raphael Aloysius Lafferty (November 7, 1914 - March 18, 2002) was a noted science fiction and fantasy writer. ... The Reverend Robert Lionel Fanthorpe is, inter alia, a priest and entertainer. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... Ulysses is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, written in 1833 but not published until 1842. ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... For the supervillain, see Barry Hubris. ... For other uses, see Ilium. ... Dan Simmons novel Olympos, published in 2005, is the sequel to Ilium and final part of Ilium/Olympus duology. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Robots may refer to: Robot, an dogs-mechanical or bio-mechanical device Robots (film), a computer-animated film Robots (video game), based on the movie Robots (novel), a science fiction novel by Isaac Asimov Robots (J-Pop) Robot (disambiguation) Category: ... Posthuman can have the following meanings: Posthuman (critical theory), a postmodern critique of human as a concept. ...

Stage and film

  • The contemporary play Highway Ulysses by Rinde Eckert tells the story of the journey of a Vietnam veteran traveling to his son, meeting modern day characters akin to characters or monsters in the Odyssey (including the Sirens and Cyclops).
  • "Telemachus Clay" by Lewis John Martin is a contemporary play about the movies that an old man watches that rekindles his childhood, and his son, Telemachus, watches the father he never knew grow up in the big city as he meets many strange characters along the way.
  • The 1954 Broadway musical The Golden Apple by librettist John Treville Latouche and composer Jerome Moross was freely adapted from the Iliad and the Odyssey, re-setting the action to the American state of Washington in the years after the Spanish-American War, with events inspired by the Iliad in Act Four and events inspired by the Odyssey in Act Three.
  • 2001: A Space Odyssey, a 1968 science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick. Besides the title, there are also other influences of the Homeric Odyssey on the film.
  • in 1969 RAI produced a series strongly based on the original Homer's epic.
  • "The Odyssey", a made for TV movie from 1997 made by Hallmark Entertainment and directed by Andrei Konchalovsky is a slightly abbreviated version of the tale which encompasses Homer's epic. It stars Armand Assante, Greta Scacchi, Isabella Rossellini and Vanessa L. Williams.
  • The movie O Brother, Where Art Thou? has the basic plot of The Odyssey; Joel and Ethan Coen admit to basing the movie loosely on the Odyssey (and explicitly reference it in the opening credits) but insist that they haven't read it.
  • Odyssey: A Stage Version, 1993 play, divided into two acts (respectively broken up into 14 and 6 scenes) written by Derek Walcott and originally performed by the Royal Shakespeare Company.
  • The film Paris-Texas (1984) by Wim Wenders has broad allusions to the Odyssey. Wim Wenders explained on Australian SBS television that he wanted to make a film about a man coming out of hell to reunite his family and reread the epic prior to commencing the film.
  • The anime Ulysses 31 featured a science-fiction tale of a hero trying to get back to his wife Penelope.
  • The Desmond Hume storyline on Lost may be based partly on The Odyssey; Desmond goes on a "race around the world" in order to win back his honor and marry his girlfriend Penelope. In addition, Desmond discovers an underground Hatch in which he must type a computer code every 108 minutes, echoing Penelope's 108 suitors.
  • The main character of Hayao Miyazaki's movie Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind is named after the princess in the Odyssey.
  • The film To Vlemma tou Odyssea (Ulysses' Gaze) (1995) by Theo Angelopoulos strongly relies on thematic parallels with the epic.
  • On the television series Stargate SG-1, the BC-304 Odyssey is the flagship of Earth's interstellar war fleet.
  • The Spongebob Squarepants Movie has several points based on the Odyssey, including a bag of winds, and a diver akin to a cyclops.
  • In the documentary Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse, it is stated that the film Apocalypse Now takes some inspiration from the Odyssey.
  • Naomi Iizuka's play Anon(ymous) resets the Odyssey in modern America.

This article is about veterans of the Vietnam War. ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theater combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... The Golden Apple is a musical adaptation of both the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer, produced both off-Broadway and on- in 1954. ... John Treville Latouche (November 13, 1914 – August 7, 1956) was a musician and writer. ... Jerome Moross (August 1, 1913 - July 27, 1983) was an American stage and film composer and conductor. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Belligerents United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Manuel Macías y Casado Ramón Blanco y Erenas Casualties and losses 385 KIA USA 5,000... Kubrick redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Odyssey was a 1997 miniseries on NBC with Armand Assante as the main character, Odysseus. ... Andron Sergeyevich Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky (Russian: ) (born August 20, 1937 in Moscow) is an acclaimed Russian film writer and director. ... Armand Anthony Assante, Jr. ... Greta Scacchi (born February 18, 1960 in Milan, Italy) is an Emmy Award-winning film actress. ... Isabella Fiorella Elettra Giovanna Rossellini (born June 18, 1952) is an Italian actress, filmmaker, author, philanthropist, and model. ... Vanessa Lynn Williams (born March 18, 1963) is an American singer-songwriter and actress. ... For the film soundtrack, see O Brother, Where Art Thou? (soundtrack). ... Joel and Ethan Coen at Cannes 2001 Joel and Ethan Coen, commonly known as The Coen Brothers have written and directed numerous successful films, such as comedies O Brother Where Art Thou, Raising Arizona and The Big Lebowski, as well as darker film noir dramas such as Fargo, Millers... Animé redirects here. ... Ulysses 31 (Japanese: , French: ) is a Franco-Japanese anime series (1981) which updates the Greek and Roman mythology of Odysseus (known as Ulysses in Roman Mythology and Ulysse in French, hence the name) to the 31st century. ... Desmond David Hume is a fictional character on the ABC television series Lost portrayed by Henry Ian Cusick. ... LOST redirects here. ... Hayao Miyazaki , born January 5, 1941 in Tokyo, Japan) is the prominent director of many popular animated feature films. ... This article is about the film. ... Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a science fiction television series, part of the Stargate franchise. ... The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie is a feature film based on Nickelodeons hit TV show SpongeBob SquarePants. ... Apocalypse Now is a 1979 Academy Award and Golden Globe winning American film set during the Vietnam War. ...

Music

  • Progressive metal band Symphony X pays tribute to the poem with an epic "Beast" song The Odyssey clocking in at 24:14 minutes.
  • Cream's Tales of Brave Ulysses recounts Odysseus's encounter with the Sirens.
  • Tank Girl: Odyssey borrows freely and irreverently from Homer and from James Joyce's Ulysses, casting targets in the contemporary media as the trials the heroine must overcome to get back to her mutant kangaroo boyfriend.
  • "An Odyssey of Homecoming", was a 2007 piano adaptation by composer and author Maia McCormick.
  • The Steely Dan song Home at Last is inspired by Odysseus' encounter with the Sirens.
  • Marco Grieco (lyrics and musics), Massimo Grieco (lyrics): Odissea, the Musical. Musical completely sung in 3 acts on the Humerus Odyssey written by the brothers Marco and Grieco Maximum between 2003 and 2004. First musical of history represented also in Second Life.
  • Suzanne Vega's song "Calypso".
  • Colossus Magazine and Musea Records have recorded a 3 CD album called "Odyssey, The Greatest Tale", which contains 9 different 25+ minute Epic songs, by 9 different Progressive Rock bands from around the world, that represent the 24 chapters of the true story.

Progressive metal is a sub-genre of heavy metal music which blends the powerful, guitar-driven sound of metal with the complex compositional structures, odd time signatures, and intricate instrumental playing of progressive rock. ... Symphony X is an American progressive metal band from New Jersey founded in 1994 by guitarist Michael Romeo. ... The Odyssey is the sixth studio effort of progressive metal band Symphony X. The fourth track, Accolade II, is a sequel to the famous The Accolade from The Divine Wings of Tragedy. ... Cream were a 1960s British rock band comprising guitarist Eric Clapton, bassist Jack Bruce and drummer Ginger Baker. ... Disraeli Gears is the second LP release by British blues-rock group Cream. ... cover art to Tank Girl: The Odyssey Tank Girl is a British comic character written by Alan Martin and originally drawn by Jamie Hewlett; currently by Ashley Wood. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... Steely Dan is a Grammy-Award winning American jazz rock band centered on core members Walter Becker and Donald Fagen. ... Home at Last is a song by Steely Dan. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ...

Other

  • The Peabody Award-winning The Odyssey of Homer (1981), written, produced and directed by Yuri Rasovsky, dramatized the epic for radio in eight one-hour episodes. Syndicated in the U.S. and broadcast by the CBC, the program was later published as an audiobook.
  • In Jean-Luc Godard's film Le Mépris (Contempt) (1963) German film director Fritz Lang plays himself trying to direct a film adaptation of Homer's Odyssey.
  • Odds Bodkin has published a retelling of the Odyssey, featuring vocal storytelling and musical accompaniment, entitled "The Odyssey". This work includes most of the plot of Homer's "Odyssey," and is narrated from Odysseus's point of view.
  • Odysseus: The Greatest Hero Of Them All was a spin-off of children's programme Jackanory in which Tony Robinson tells a version of the Odyssey re-written for children by himself and Richard Curtis. The narration and characters were all performed by Robinson in real locations. Their version of the story was also published as 2 print books and an audio book.
  • Il ritorno d'Ulisse in Patria is an opera by Monteverdi based on the final part of Homer's Odyssey.

The George Foster Peabody Awards, more commonly referred to as the Peabody Awards, are annual international awards given for excellence in radio and television broadcasting. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Jean-Luc Godard (French IPA: ) (born 3 December 1930) is a French filmmaker and one of the most influential members of the Nouvelle Vague, or French New Wave. Born to Franco-Swiss parents in Paris, he was educated in Nyon, Switzerland, later studying at the Lycée Rohmer, and the... Contempt (original French title Le Mépris, Italian title Il Disprezzo) is a film released in 1963, directed by Jean-Luc Godard. ... Friedrich Christian Anton Fritz Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was an Austrian-German-American film director, screenwriter and occasional film producer, one of the best known émigrés from Germanys school of Expressionism. ... Odds Bodkin is a storyteller who has published a number of spoken and/or musical interpretations of tradidional tales, as well as a number of tales that he, himself, has created. ... Jackanory is a long-running BBC childrens television series that was designed to stimulate an interest in reading. ... Tony Robinson (born 15 August 1946) is an English actor, broadcaster and political campaigner, known for playing the part of Baldrick in the BBC TV series Blackadder and for hosting a number of shows on Channel 4, the most noteworthy being Time Team. ... Richard Curtis in London, 1999 Richard Curtis CBE, (born 8 November 1956), is a New Zealand-born British screenwriter, best known for the TV programmes Blackadder and The Vicar of Dibley as well as movies such as Four Weddings and a Funeral, Notting Hill, and Love Actually. ... Il ritorno dUlisse in patria (The Return of Ulysses to His Country) is an opera (dramma per musica) in a prologue and three acts by Claudio Monteverdi to an Italian libretto by Giacomo Badoaro, based on the final portion of Homers Odyssey. ... Monteverdi redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ D.C.H. Rieu's introduction to The Odyssey (Penguin, 2003), p. xi.
  2. ^ The dog Argos dies autik' idont' Odusea eeikosto eniauto ("seeing Odysseus again in the twentieth year"), Odyssey 17.327; cf. also 2.174-6, 23.102, 23.170.
  3. ^ D.C.H. Rieu's introduction to The Odyssey (Penguin, 2003), p. xi.
  4. ^ The Odyssey, Book XIV.
  5. ^ This theme once existed in the form of a written epic, Nostoi, now lost.
  6. ^ Outline originally based on Dalby, Andrew (2006), written at New York, London, Rediscovering Homer, Norton, ISBN 0393057887 pp. xx-xxiv.
  7. ^ West, Martin. The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth. (Oxford 1997) 402-417.

The Nostoi (Greek: Νόστοι; also known as Nosti in Latin; English: Returns;) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... Andrew Dalby (born Liverpool, 1947) is an English linguist, translator and historian who most often writes about food history. ... Rediscovering Homer is a 2006 book by Andrew Dalby. ... [Sir] Martin West (1804 - 1849)was born in England, the son of a civil servant in the Treasury. ...

External links

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Look up Odyssey in
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  • Odyssey in Ancient Greek and translation from Perseus Project, with hyperlinks to grammatical and mythological commentary
  • Greek Myth: the Odyssey
  • The Meaning of Tradition in Homer's Odyssey by Marcel Bas. Views The Odyssey from the perspective of Indo-European tradition and religion.
  • Homer's Odyssey resources on the Web by Jorn Barger. Provides links to the original and various public domain translations.
  • Detailed synopsis with analysis
  • Odyssey Audio with English Text
  • Dindorf's edition of Scholia to the Odyssey, 1855

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of humanities resources. ...

Partial list of English translations

This is a partial list of translations into English of Homer's Odyssey. For a more complete list see English translations of Homer. This is a list of the translations into English of Homers Iliad and Odyssey, listed alphabetically by the translators name, and with the date of first publication. ...

This article is about George Chapman the English literary figure; see George Chapman (murderer) for the Victorian poisoner of the same name. ... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Portrait of William Cowper attributed to Romney. ... For the former National Basketball Association player, see Andrew Lang (basketball). ... William Cullen Bryant William Cullen Bryant (November 3, 1794 - June 12, 1878) an American romantic poet, journalist, political adviser, and homeopath. ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ... Samuel Butler Samuel Butler (December 4, 1835 - June 18, 1902) was a British writer best known for his satire Erewhon. ... Padraic Colum, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1959. ... The Loeb Classical Library is a series of books, today published by the Harvard University Press, which present important works of ancient Greek and Latin Literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ... W. H. D. Rouse (1863-1950) was a pioneering British teacher who advocated the use of the Direct Method of teaching Latin and Greek. ... Dr. E.V. Rieu— in full Emile Victor Rieu (1887–1972)— is best known for his lucid translations of Homer, as editor of Penguin Classics, and for a modern translation of the Gospels, which evolved from his role as editor of a projected Penguin translation of the Bible. ... For other persons named Robert Fitzgerald, see Robert Fitzgerald (disambiguation). ... Richmond Alexander Lattimore (May 6, 1906 - February 26, 1984) was an American poet and translator known for his translations of the Greek classics, especially his versions of the Iliad and Odyssey, still considered superior despite their age. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Robert Fagles is a Professor of Comparative Literature at Princeton University. ... Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CH, CBE (born 25 May 1939) is an English stage and screen actor, the recipient of the Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ... Stanley Lombardo is a professor of Classics at the University of Kansas. ... Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. ... The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of humanities resources. ... The Epic Cycle (Greek: Επικός Κύκλος) was a collection of Ancient Greek epic poems that related the story of the Trojan War, which includes the Kypria, the Aithiopis, the Little Iliad, the Iliou persis (The Sack of Troy), the Nostoi (Returns), and the Telegony. ... The Cypria is one of the lost sections of the eight volume cycle that told the full story of the Trojan War. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... The Aithiopis (Greek: Αἰθιοπίς; Latin: Aethiopis) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Little Iliad (Greek: Ἰλιὰς μικρά, Ilias mikra; Latin: Ilias parva) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Iliou persis (Greek: ; also known as Iliupersis, esp. ... The Nostoi (Greek: Νόστοι; also known as Nosti in Latin; English: Returns;) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... The Telegony (Greek: Τηλεγόνεια, Telegoneia; Latin: Telegonia) is a lost epic of ancient Greek literature. ... Ismara (Greek ) also Ismaros or Ismarus is an ancient Ciconian town on the Aegean coast of Thrace and supposedly was the city mentioned in the Odyssey. ... In Greek mythology, the Lotophagi (Greek , lotus-eaters) were a race of people from an island near Northern Africa dominated by lotus plants. ... For the collection of short stories by Michael Shea, see Polyphemus (book). ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Telepylos (or Telepylus) is the mythological city of the Laestrygonians. ... In Greek mythology, Aeaea (sometimes Aiaia) was the home of the sorcerer Joesph. ... Hermes Psykhopompos: sitting on a rock, the god is preparing to lead a dead soul to the Underworld, Attic white-ground lekythos, ca. ... This article is about the bird-women of Greek myth. ... Fusslis Romance painting of Odysseus facing the choice between Scylla and Charybdis. ... Thrinicia, mentioned in Homers Odyssey, is the island home of Helios cattle, is said to have been Sicily since the name Thrinicia implies an island connected to the number 3 and Sicily has three corners. ... Ogygia was believed to have been an island in the Mediterranean that sank following a huge and powerful earthquake, which shook the area before the bronze age. ... Nausicaa takes Odysseus to the palace Σχερία (Scheria, Skhería) or Phaeacia was a phantom island mentioned in the Greek mythology and literature as the homeland of the Phaeacians and the last destination of Odysseus before coming back home to Ithaca. ... Homer Where was Homers Ithaca? There have been many suggestions as to where, exactly, the Ithaca of the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer was geographically located: as many, perhaps, as the theories which once fought among themselves over whether Troy ever really existed, and if so where it was. ...


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