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Encyclopedia > Odet de Coligny
Odet de Coligny
Denomination   Roman Catholic, later Calvinist
Senior posting
See   Beauvais
Title   Cardinal, Bishop of Beauvais
Period in office   1535 - 1563
Religious career
Previous post   Bishop and Cardinal
Personal
Date of birth   10 July 1517
Place of birth   Chatillon
Date of death   14 February 1571
Place of death   Canterbury

Odet de Coligny (10 July 1517 - 14 February 1571), cardinal of Châtillon, bishop of Beauvais, son of Gaspard I de Coligny and Louise de Montmorency, and brother of Gaspard and François, Seigneur d'Andelot. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Beauvais is a town and commune of northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Oise département. ... The Bishop of Beauvais-Noyons-Senlis is a suffragan of the Archbishop of Reims. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... There are communes that have the name Châtillon: In France Châtillon, in the Allier département Châtillon, in the Jura département Châtillon, in the Rhône département Châtillon, in the Vienne département Châtillon, in the Hauts-de-Seine département Related... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... Statistics Population: 42,258 (2001) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TR145575 Administration District: City of Canterbury Shire county: Kent Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Kent Historic county: Kent Services Police force: Kent Police Ambulance service: South East Coast Post office and... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh: The Turkish forces of Selim I defeat the main Mamluk army in Egypt under Touman Bey. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals, ranking below the Pope and appointed by him during a consistory of the College. ... Châtillon is the name or part of the name of several places: In France Châtillon, in the Allier département Châtillon, in the Jura département Châtillon, in the Rhône département Châtillon, in the Vienne département Châtillon, in the Hauts-de... The Bishop of Beauvais-Noyons-Senlis is a suffragan of the Archbishop of Reims. ... Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon, Admiral of France and Protestant leader, came of a noble family of Burgundy. ...

Contents

Life

Birth

His birth at Chatillon, as his parents' second son, was recorded in his mother's book of hours.[1] A illuminated page from the Très Riches Heures showing the day for exchanging gifts from the month of January A Book of Hours is the most common type of surviving medieval illuminated manuscript. ...


Catholic career

He occupied high church offices during this initial part of his career. He became prior of Saint-Stephan in Beaume in 1530. At the papal consistory of November 7, 1533 (at 16 and whilst still a layman)[2] he was created cardinal deacon, receiving the red hat and the titular church of Santi Sergio e Bacco three days later. Soon afterwards he became Abbot of Saint Bénigne de Dijon, of Fleury, of Ferrière and of Vaux de Cernay. June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... In Christian archeology, a titulus is one of a set number of Early Christian churches (collectively known as the tituli) built round the edges of the city of Rome, which were ascribed to patrons, whose names often identified them: they received the name tituli, from the name of the founder...


In 1534 he became a Canon in Paris, participated in a papal conclave, and was made administrator of the metropolitan see of Toulouse on April 29, despite not yet having been ordained a priest. This he held until his resignation from that role on October 20, 1550. Meanwhile, on October 20, 1535, he had become administrator of the see of Beauvais, and Abbot of Saint-Lucien de Beauvais from 1537. 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the bishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Midi-Pyrénées Département Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Beauvais is a town and commune of northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Oise département. ... Events January 6 - Alessandro de Medici assassinated August 25 - The Honourable Artillery Company, the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior, was formed. ...


He opted for the deaconry of S. Adriano on February 25, 1549 and participated in the papal conclave of 1549-1550. He was placed in charge of the library of France's Royal Privy Council and, using this and his other offices, he protected his friends Ronsard and Rabelais (in 1550 obtaining for the latter a ten year monopoly on book-printing - Rabelais dedicated his Quart Livre to Odet in gratitude). The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... Pierre de Ronsard, commonly referred to as Ronsard (September 11, 1524 - December, 1585), was a French poet and prince of poets (as his own generation in France called him). ... François Rabelais (ca. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ...


In 1556 he became abbot of Ferrières on the recommendation of Pope Pius IV and Henry II, and four years later, Pius named him grand inquisitor of France, though the French parliament's opposition to the inquisition prevented him taking up the post. Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Pius IV, né Giovanni Angelo Medici (March 31, 1499 – December 9, 1565), pope from 1559 to 1565, was born of humble parentage in Milan, unrelated with the Medicis of Florence. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Grand Inquisitor (Latin: Inquisitor Generalis) is the lead official of an Inquisition. ...


Sometime after 1560 he also became abbot of Grandchamps, of Quincy and (from 1560) of Vézelay. In sum, then, he was Abbot of St. Euvertius, of Fontainejean, Ferrières, and St. Benoît, and from 1554 to 1560 prior (and after 1560 provost) of St-Pierre de Mâcon). Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Prior is a Latin adjective, meaning coming before, as earlier (as in a priori, regardless what comes next). ... Provost is from the Latin praepositus (set over, from praeponere, to place in front). It may mean: Provost (religion), a church official. ...


Protestant career

However, under his family's influence, he continued reforms and even eventually went over to the Protestant camp himself, becoming a Calvinist Huguenot in April 1561. Indeed, this is said by some to be little surprise since his long church career was more motivated by ambition than Catholic piety.[3] Gathering a faction around himself, he greatly helped those of the Huguenot party. He participated with his brother in the religious wars and acted as a mediator between the Protestants and Queen Catherine de' Medici. In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... Catherine de Medici, c. ...

Isabelle Hauteville, Odet's mistress and wife, by Jean Clouet (artist of the image of Odet at the top of this page)
Enlarge
Isabelle Hauteville, Odet's mistress and wife, by Jean Clouet (artist of the image of Odet at the top of this page)

In 1562 the Inquisition declared him a heretic. He escaped to Lyon, relinquished his title of cardinal and called himself the count of Beauvais (comte de Beauvais), after his old bishopric. In the secret consistory of March 31, 1563, Pope Pius IV and the French parliament declared him a heretic, excommmunicated him and deprived him of all his offices. In December 1564, he married his mistress Isabeau/Isabelle de Hauteville (also known as Elizabeth de Kanteville or Mme. la Cardinale) at Montataire, without a Catholic ceremony.[4] and wearing, at the Huguenots' request, his cardinal's robe. François I of France - Jean and François Clouet (c. ... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Catholic Church. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: (Arpitan: Forward, forward, Lyon the best) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Rhône-Alpes Department Rhône (69) Subdivisions 9 arrondissements Intercommunality Urban Community of Lyon Mayor Gérard Collomb  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... // Antiquity Originally, the Latin word consistorium meant simply sitting together, just as the Greek syn(h)edrion (from which the Biblical sanhedrin was a corruption). ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... Pius IV, né Giovanni Angelo Medici (March 31, 1499 – December 9, 1565), pope from 1559 to 1565, was born of humble parentage in Milan, unrelated with the Medicis of Florence. ...


Fighting at the Battle of Saint-Denis, his position as a self-proclaimed Protestant leader made him vulnerable to Catherine's persecutions, forcing him to flee to England in 1568. In London, requested monetary support for the French Protestants from Queen Elizabeth, who favoured him and his wife. Still wanted by the French government for treason, he nevertheless remained provisionally in England, probably because he had secret orders from the French court to seek Elizabeth's hand in marriage for the prince of Anjou. The Battle of Saint-Denis was fought on November 10, 1567 between Catholics and Protestants during the French Wars of Religion in Saint-Denis near Paris, France . ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 – June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ...


In 1568, his former abbacy of Ferrières was besieged by the troops of Louis de Condé, friend of the Coligny family and fellow Protestant. The abbey was pillaged and profaned and, although no monks were killed, the reliquaires and treasures of the abbey were dispersed, the tombs of Louis III, Carloman and Louis de Blanchefort heavily damaged and the monks stalls removed. Odet (abroad by then) only intervened to stop this after three days when his own financial interests in the benefice seemed threatened. Prince of Condé is a title in French peerage, attributed for the first time to Louis of Bourbon, brother of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome and uncle of Henry IV of France. ...


Death

Odet de Coligny as a Protestant
Enlarge
Odet de Coligny as a Protestant

He was preparing to go from England to La Rochelle to join his brother when he died at the former pilgrims' lodge at Canterbury under mysterious circumstances (possibly poisoned by his servant, possibly - or possibly not - on the orders of the French government) in 1571. La Rochelle is a city and commune of western France, and a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean (population 76,584 in 1999). ...


He was therefore buried in a temporary and very plain tomb covered in hessian and plaster in the Trinity Chapel in the east end of Canterbury Cathedral. Meant to have been a temporary solution pending his body's return to France, this in fact never occurred and he still rests there. The term Hessian refers to the inhabitants of the German state of Hesse. ... This article is about the building material. ... Canterbury Cathedral from the southwest. ...


One conspiracy theory relates that - Coligny not being high-ranking enough for permanent burial in this important part of the cathedral - the tomb in fact contains the hidden relics of Thomas Becket from his nearby shrine (dissolved 40 years earlier), Coligny's body having been returned to France or never in fact laid to rest here. This theory is not, however, accepted by historians. A conspiracy theory attempts to explain the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually political, social, or historical events) as a secret, and often deceptive, plot by a covert alliance of powerful or influential people or organizations. ... St. ...


Sources

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ [4]

Bibliography

  • Atkinson, Ernest G. The Cardinal of Châtillon in England, 1568-1571 : a paper read on November 13, 1889, before the Huguenot society of London. London : printed by Spottiswoode & co., 1890
  • Becquerel, Antoine César. Souvenirs historiques sur l'amiral Coligny : sa famille et sa seigneurie de Châtillon-Sur-Loing. 2d ed. Paris : Firmin-Didot, 1876
  • Berton, Charles. Dictionnaire des cardinaux, contenant des notions générales sur le cardinalat, la nomenclature complète ..., des cardinaux de tous les temps et de tous les pays ... les détails biographiques essentiels sur tous les cardinaux ... de longues études sur les cardinaux célèbre ... Paris : J.-P. Migne, 1857
  • Facsimile edition. Farnborough
  • Gregg, 1969, cols 692-693; Cardella, Lorenzo. Memorie storiche de' cardinali della Santa Romana Chiesa. Rome : Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793, IV, 134-135
  • Chacón, Alfonso. Vitæ, et res gestæ Pontificvm Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalivm ab initio nascentis Ecclesiæ vsque ad Vrbanvm VIII. Pont. Max. 2 volumes. Romae : Typis Vaticanis, 1630, II, cols. 1480-1481
  • Coligny, Odet de, cardinal de Chbtillon, 1515-1571. Correspondence d'Odet de Coligny, cardinal de Chatillon (1537-1568). Recueillie et publiée par M. Léon Marlet. Paris, A. Picard, 1885. (Documents publ. par la Sociité historique & archéologique du Gatinais; I)
  • Eubel, Conradus and Gulik, Guglielmus van. Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recientoris Aevi. Münich : Sumptibus et Typis Librariae Regensbergianae, 1935
  • reprint, Padua : Il Messagero di S. Antonio, 1960, III, 22, 72, 76, 131 and 315
  • Marlet, Léon. Le Cardinal de Châtillon : 1517-1571. Paris : H. Menu, 1883.

 
 

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