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The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II by a group of SS officers in order to prevent their prosecutions for war crimes. Nazism, or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the totalitarian ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “SS” redirects here. ...


The purpose of such groups was to establish and facilitate secret escape routes, called ratlines, out of Germany to South America and the Middle East for hunted members. With alleged ties to Argentina, Egypt, Brazil, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and the Vatican, they operated out of Buenos Aires and helped such World War II war criminals as Karl-Adolf Eichmann, Josef Mengele, Erich Priebke, Aribert Heim, Eduard Roschmann, and many other SS members to find refuge in Latin America and the Middle East. Ratlines were systems of escape routes for Nazis and other fascists fleeing Europe at the end of World War II. These escape routes mainly led toward safe havens in South America, particularly Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Chile. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... Mengele in uniform Josef Mengele (March 16, 1911– February 7, 1979), was a German SS officer and a physician in the German Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aribert Heim Aribert Heim (born June 28, 1914) is an Austrian doctor and one of the worlds most wanted Nazi war criminals. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


SS-Obersturmbannführer Otto Skorzeny and Sturmbannführer Alfred Naujocks were both believed to have been active in such organizations, but positive proof for these suppositions has not been produced as yet. Similarly, General Reinhard Gehlen’s entire intelligence organisation, which was employed and protected by U.S. intelligence within a few months after the end of the war, came under suspicion of being a satellite group of the ODESSA. In Argentina, Rodolfo Freude was allegedly a member of the network. It is alleged that Hans-Ulrich Rudel was active in the Argentina group of the ODESSA. Alois Brunner is alleged to have escaped to Syria using the resources of the ODESSA. SS-Obersturmbannführer Rank Patch SA-Obersturmbannführer Rank Patch Obersturmbannführer was a paramilitary Nazi Party rank which was used by both the SA and the SS. The title was first created as an SA rank in 1932 after an expansion of the SA created the need for an... After Operation Greif, Otto Skorzeny was labelled the most dangerous man in Europe Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908 - July 6[1] 1975) was an Obersturmbannführer in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. After fighting on the Eastern Front, he is known as the commando leader who rescued... Sturmbannführer Collar Patch Sturmbannführer was a paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party which was used by both the Sturmabteilung (SA) and the Schutzstaffel (SS). ... Alfred Naujocks Born in 1911, SS-Sturmbannführer Alfred Helmut Naujocks was, according to some historians, ultimately responsible for the Second World War. ... Reinhard Gehlen (April 3, 1902 – June 8, 1979) was a Major General in the Nazi Wehrmacht during World War II, with the position of chief of intelligence-gathering on the Eastern Front. ... German-Argentine spy director Roldofo Freude (far left), with Juan Perón and Eva Perón. ... Hans-Ulrich Rudel (July 2, 1916 – December 18, 1982) was a Stuka dive-bomber pilot during World War II. Rudel is famous for being the most highly decorated German serviceman of the war (Hermann Göring was nominally more highly decorated, but he did not achieve his Grand Cross of... Alois Brunner (born April 8, 1912 in Rohrbrunn, Burgenland, reports of death contested) is an Austrian Nazi war criminal who was Adolf Eichmanns assistant. ...


Persons claiming to represent the ODESSA claimed responsibility in a note for the 9 July 1979 car bombing in France aimed at anti-Nazi activists Serge and Beate Klarsfeld. is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... A car bomb is a bomb that is placed in a car or truck and is intended to be exploded while there. ... Serge (September 17, 1935, Bucharest, Romania) and Beate (February 13, 1939, Berlin, Germany) Klarsfeld, French researchers engaging in Holocaust documentation and anti-Nazi activism. ...

Contents

History

According to Simon Wiesenthal, the ODESSA was set up in 1946 to aid fugitive Nazis. But other sources, such as many interviews by the ZDF German TV station with former SS men, suggested that the ODESSA was never the single world-wide secret organization that Wiesenthal described, but instead that there were several organizations, both overt and covert (including the CIA and several Latin American governments), that helped ex-SS men. Simon Wiesenthal, KBE, (Buczacz, December 31, 1908 – Vienna, September 20, 2005) was an Austrian-Jewish architectural engineer who became a Nazi hunter after surviving the Holocaust. ... Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (Second German Television), ZDF, is a public service German television channel based in Mainz. ... “CIA” redirects here. ...


Long before the ZDF TV network, historian Gitta Sereny wrote in her 1974 book Into That Darkness, based on interviews with the former commandant of the extermination camp at Treblinka, Franz Stangl (see References following), that the ODESSA had never existed. She wrote: “The prosecutors at the Ludwigsburg Central Authority for the Investigation into Nazi Crimes, who know precisely how the postwar lives of certain individuals now living in South America have been financed, have searched all their thousands of documents from beginning to end, but say they are totally unable to authenticate (the) ‘Odessa.’ Not that this matters greatly: there certainly were various kinds of Nazi aid organisations after the war—-it would have been astonishing if there hadn’t been.”[1] Gitta Sereny (born March 13, 1921) is a Hungarian-born British biographer, historian and journalist whose writing focuses mainly on the Holocaust and abused children. ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ... Treblinka is a small village in the Mazowieckie voivodship (province) of Poland. ... Franz Stangl (March 26, 1908 – June 28, 1971) was an SS officer, commandant of the Sobibór and of Treblinka Nazi extermination camps. ...


In his interviews with Sereny, Stangl denied any knowledge of a group called the ODESSA. Recent biographies of Adolf Eichmann, who also escaped to South America, and Heinrich Himmler, the alleged founder of the ODESSA, made no reference to such an organisation. [2] Otto Adolf Eichmann (known as Adolf Eichmann; March 19, 1906 – June 1, 1962) was a high-ranking Nazi and SS Obersturmbannführer (equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel). ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900–23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ...

Dr. Alois Hudal, Roman Catholic bishop – and,during the 1930s, an honorary member of the Nazi Party. Title page of the book The Foundations of National Socialism (1937).
Dr. Alois Hudal, Roman Catholic bishop – and,
during the 1930s, an honorary member of the Nazi Party.
Title page of the book The Foundations of National Socialism (1937).

Sereny attributed the fact that SS members could escape more to postwar chaos and the inability of the Roman Catholic Church, the Red Cross, and the American military to verify the claims of people who came to them for help than to the activities of an underground Nazi organisation. She identified a Vatican official, Bishop Aloïs Hudal, not former SS men, as the principal agent in helping Nazis leave Italy for South America. Image File history File links Alois_Hudal. ... Image File history File links Alois_Hudal. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, originally known as the DAP (this changed in 1920) and commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945 that was known as the German Workers Party before the name was changed in 1920. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Aloïs Hudal (born in 1885) was a Rome-based, pro-Nazi cleric who established a Ratline which allowed prominent Nazi war criminals to escape trial after World War II. Biography Bishop Aloïs (also known as Luigi) Hudal was born in Weipert, Bohemia, (today Czech Republic), then Austro-Hungarian...


Uki Goñi, in his 2002 book The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Perón’s Argentina (see References) suggested that Sereny’s more complex, less conspiratorial, story was closer to the truth. The book prompted a US House of Representatives resolution in 2003, urging Argentina to open their hitherto secret documents concerning this matter. Uki Goñi is an Argentinian journalist, author and historian known for his work exposing the role of the Argentinian government under Juan Perón in organising ratline escape routes for ex-Nazi war criminals after Germanys defeat in World War II. His research, drawing on investigation in Argentinian... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... This article concerns the legal meaning of the term resolution. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Of particular importance in examining the postwar activities of high-ranking Nazis was Paul Manning’s book Martin Bormann: Nazi in Exile which detailed Martin Bormann’s rise to power through the Nazi Party and as Hitler’s Chief of Staff. During the war, Manning himself was a correspondent for the fledgling CBS News along with Edward R. Murrow and Walter Cronkite in London, and his reporting and subsequent researches presented Bormann’s cunning and skill in the organization and planning for the flight of Nazi-controlled capital from Europe during the dimming years of the war--notwithstanding the possibility of Bormann’s death in Berlin on May 1, 1945. Martin Bormann Martin Bormann (June 17, 1900 - c. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... Edward R. Ed Murrow (April 25, 1908 – April 27, 1965) was an American journalist and media figure. ... Walter Leland Cronkite, Jr. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


According to Manning, “eventually, over 10,000 former German military made it to South America along escape routes set up by ODESSA and the Deutsche Hilfsverein…” (page 181). While in Manning ODESSA itself was incidental, the continuing existence of the Bormann Organization was, according to him, a much larger and more menacing fact. None of this had been convincingly proved as yet.


Argentina’s Nazi files

From December 2002, the Argentine government in Buenos Aires refused calls from the Wiesenthal Center for the release of 58 files dealing with the escape of Nazis to Argentina. In July 2003, two of the files were opened. For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ...


Also, Argentina’s government had, in 1938 (on the verge of World War II, and with Hitler’s politics regarding Jews already on the move), sanctioned an immigration law restricting access to any individual scorned or forsaken by his country’s government. This was implicitly targeted for Jews and other minorities fleeing Germany at the time. This law was discovered and denounced by Argentine writer Uki Goñi. This legislation, though already in disuse for many years, was finally repealed on 8 June 2005. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Hitler redirects here. ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precendent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Uki Goñi is an Argentinian journalist, author and historian known for his work exposing the role of the Argentinian government under Juan Perón in organising ratline escape routes for ex-Nazi war criminals after Germanys defeat in World War II. His research, drawing on investigation in Argentinian... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Odessa is the name of a city in Ukraine. ... The ODESSA File is a thriller novel by Frederick Forsyth, first published in 1972, about the adventures of a young German reporter tracing an SS concentration-camp commander. ... Secretaría de Inteligencia (Intelligence Secretariat, S.I) is the premier intelligence agency of the Argentine Republic and head of its National Intelligence System. ... Operation Paperclip scientists pose together. ... The Underground Reich is a theory that fascist elements embedded primarily in German chemical and heavy industry, with the aid of banking and finance elements of the early 20th century, not only facilitated Hitlers rise to power and armed the Third Reich, but survived World War II and continue... Ratlines were systems of escape routes for Nazis and other fascists fleeing Europe at the end of World War II. These escape routes mainly led toward safe havens in South America, particularly Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil and Chile. ... HIAG (German:Hilfsgemeinschaft auf Gegenseitigkeit der Angehörigen der ehemaligen Waffen-SS) was an organization founded in 1951 by former members of the Waffen-SS. The main aims of the organisation were to provide assistance to veterans, and campaign for the rehabilitation of their legal status with respect to veterans... David Emory is an American talk radio host and personality based in Ben Lomond, California. ... The Office of Special Investigations operates under the auspices of the Criminal Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Gitta Sereny, Into That Darkness (Pimlico 1974), 274
  2. ^ David Cesarini, Eichmann: His Life and Crimes (Vintage 2004); Peter Padfield: Himmler: Reichsfuhrer SS (Macmillan 1990)

References

  • "A la caza del ultimo Nazi", El Mundo, October 30, 2005. 
  • Uki Goñi (2002): The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Perón’s Argentina. New York; London: Granta Books. ISBN 1-86207-581-6 (hardcover); ISBN 1-86207-552-2 (paperback, 2003)
  • Gitta Sereny (1974): Into That Darkness. From Mercy Killings to Mass Murder. Republished (1983) as Into That Darkness: An Examination of Conscience. New York: Vintage. ISBN 0-394-71035-5.
  • Martin A. Lee (1997): The Beast Reawakens. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-51959-6.
  • Paul Manning (1980) Martin Bormann: Nazi in Exile. Lyle Stuart, Inc., ISBN 0-8184-0309-8, also available online

Martin A. Lee is an author and activist who has written extensively on far-right movements, terrorism, media issues and drug politics. ... The Beast Reawakens is a book by investigative journalist Martin A. Lee. ...

External links

  • Information on ODESSA—From the Jewish Virtual Library
  • ZDF.de (2002). “Mythos Odessa: Wahrheit oder Legende?” (German) (“The Myth of ODESSA: Truth or Legend?”)
  • ODESSA and Nazis in Latin America—From The Straight Dope syndicated column’s website

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