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Encyclopedia > Octopus
Octopus
The Common Octopus, Octopus vulgaris.
The Common Octopus, Octopus vulgaris.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
Subclass: Coleoidea
Superorder: Octopodiformes
Order: Octopoda
Leach, 1818
Suborders

Pohlsepia (incertae sedis)
Proteroctopus (incertae sedis)
Palaeoctopus (incertae sedis)
Cirrina
Incirrina Look up octopus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 788 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,704 × 2,058 pixels, file size: 1. ... Binomial name Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 Synonyms Octopus vulgaris Lamarck, 1798 Octopus rugosus Bosc, 1792 The Common Octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is the most studied of all octopus species. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontida The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum Mollusca. ... Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) ?†Boletzkyida Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusc class... Orders Aulacocerida (extinct) Hematitida  (extinct) Phragmoteuthida  (extinct) Belemnitida  (extinct) Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida Subclass Coleoidea is the grouping of cephalopods containing all the primarily soft-bodied creatures. ... Orders Vampyromorphida Octopoda Octopodiformes is a superorder of the subclass Coleoidea. ... William Elford Leach FRS (February 2, 1790 – August 26, 1836) was an English zoologist and marine biologist. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Binomial name Pohlsepia mazonensis Kluessendorf & Doyle, 2000 Pohlsepia mazonensis is the earliest described octopod, dated at approximately 296 million years old. ... Incertae sedis—of uncertain position (seat)—is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. ... Binomial name Proteroctopus ribeti Fischer & Riou, 1982 Proteroctopus ribeti was a primitive octopod that lived in the Middle Jurassic, approximately 164 million years ago. ... Incertae sedis—of uncertain position (seat)—is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. ... Binomial name Palaeoctopus newboldi (Woodward, 1896) Synonyms Calais newboldi Woodward, 1896 Paleoctopus newboldi Palaeoctopus newboldi was a primitive octopod that lived in the Late Cretaceous, approximately 89 to 71 million years ago. ... Incertae sedis—of uncertain position (seat)—is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. ... Families 14 in two suborders, see text. ... Families Amphitretidae Bolitaenidae Octopodidae Vitreledonellidae Superfamily Argonautoida Alloposidae Argonautidae Ocythoidae Tremoctopodidae Incirrina is a suborder of the order Octopoda. ...

Synonyms
  • Octopoida
    Leach, 1817

The octopus (Greek Χταπόδι (Οκτάπους), 'eight-legs', with plural forms: octopuses, octopi, or octopodes, see below) is a cephalopod of the order Octopoda that inhabits many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs. The term may also refer to only those creatures in the genus Octopus. In the larger sense, there are around 300 recognized octopus species, which is over one-third of the total number of known cephalopod species. In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) ?†Boletzkyida Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusc class... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Physiology

Octopuses are characterized by their eight arms (not tentacles), usually bearing suction cups. These arms are a type of muscular hydrostat. Unlike most other cephalopods, the majority of octopuses — those in the suborder most commonly known, Incirrina — have almost entirely soft bodies with no internal skeleton. They have neither a protective outer shell like the nautilus, nor any vestige of an internal shell or bones, like cuttlefish or squids. A beak, similar in shape to a parrot's beak, is the only hard part of their body. This enables them to squeeze through very narrow slits between underwater rocks, which is very helpful when they are fleeing from morays or other predatory fish. The octopuses in the less familiar Cirrina suborder have two fins and an internal shell, generally lessening their ability to squeeze into small spaces. Look up ARM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tentacles can refer to the elongated flexible organs that are present in some animals, especially invertebrates, and sometimes to the hairs of the leaves of some insectivorous plants. ... A muscular hydrostat is a biological structure, found in animals. ... Families Amphitretidae Bolitaenidae Octopodidae Vitreledonellidae Superfamily Argonautoida Alloposidae Argonautidae Ocythoidae Tremoctopodidae Incirrina is a suborder of the order Octopoda. ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... Genera Allonautilus Nautilus Nautilus (from Greek ναυτίλος, sailor) is the common name of any marine creatures of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole family of the suborder Nautilina. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Orders and Families †Vasseuriina †Vasseuriidae †Belosepiellidae Sepiina †Belosaepiidae Sepiadariidae Sepiidae Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida belonging to the Cephalopoda class (which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses). ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... Systematics (but see below) Family Cacatuidae (cockatoos) Subfamily Microglossinae (Palm Cockatoo) Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoos) Subfamily Cacatuinae (white cockatoos) Family Psittacidae (true parrots) Subfamily Loriinae (lories and lorikeets) Subfamily Psittacinae (typical parrots and allies) Tribe Arini (American psittacines) Tribe Cyclopsitticini (fig parrots) Tribe Micropsittini (pygmy parrots) Tribe Nestorini (kakas and... Genera See text. ... Families 14 in two suborders, see text. ...


Octopuses have a relatively short life span, and some species live for as little as six months. Larger species, such as the North Pacific Giant Octopus, may live for up to five years under suitable circumstances. However, reproduction is a cause of death: males can only live for a few months after mating, and females die shortly after their eggs hatch. They neglect to eat during the (roughly) one month period spent taking care of their unhatched eggs, but they don't die of starvation. Endocrine secretions from the two optic glands are the cause of genetically-programmed death (and if these glands are surgically removed, the octopus may live many months beyond reproduction, until she finally starves). We dont have an article called North Pacific Giant Octopus Start this article Search for North Pacific Giant Octopus in. ...


Octopuses have three hearts. Two pump blood through each of the two gills, while the third pumps blood through the body. Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein hemocyanin for transporting oxygen. Although less efficient under normal conditions than the iron-rich hemoglobin of vertebrates, in cold conditions with low oxygen pressure, hemoglobin oxygen transportation is less efficient than hemocyanin oxygen transportation. The hemocyanin is dissolved in the plasma instead of being bound in red blood cells and gives the blood a blue color. Octopuses draw water into their mantle cavity where it passes through its gills. As mollusks, octopuses have gills that are finely divided and vascularized outgrowths of either the outer or the inner body surface. For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Single Oxygenated Hemocyanin protein from Octopus Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are respiratory proteins containing two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontida The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum Mollusca. ...


Intelligence

A Big Blue Octopus (Octopus cyanea) observing its surroundings
A Big Blue Octopus (Octopus cyanea) observing its surroundings

Octopuses are highly intelligent, probably more intelligent than any other order of invertebrates. The exact extent of their intelligence and learning capability is much debated among biologists,[1][2][3] but maze and problem-solving experiments have shown that they do have both short- and long-term memory. Their short lifespans limit the amount they can ultimately learn. There has been much speculation to the effect that almost all octopus behaviors are independently learned rather than instinct-based, although this remains largely unproven. They learn almost no behaviors from their parents, with whom young octopuses have very little contact. An octopus keeping watch. ... a bright red octopus from the GIMP-savvy photo library[1], which lists the origin as: Photo Credit:US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... a bright red octopus from the GIMP-savvy photo library[1], which lists the origin as: Photo Credit:US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Octopus cyanea Gray, 1849 Synonyms Octopus cyaneus Gray, 1849 Octopus marmoratus Hoyle, 1885 Octopus tonganus Hoyle, 1885 Octopus horsti Joubin, 1898 Polypus herdmani Hoyle, 1904 Callistoctopus magnocellatus Taki, 1964 The Big Blue Octopus (Octopus cyanea), also known as the Day Octopus and Cyanes Octopus, is an octopus... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as primary, working, or active memory, is that part of memory which stores a limited amount of information for a few seconds. ... Long-term memory (LTM) is memory, stored as meaning, that can last as little as 30 seconds or as long as decades. ...


An octopus has a highly complex nervous system, only part of which is localized in its brain. Two-thirds of an octopus's neurons are found in the nerve cords of its arms, which have a remarkable amount of autonomy. Octopus arms show a wide variety of complex reflex actions arising on at least three different levels of the nervous system. Some octopuses, such as the Mimic Octopus, will move their arms in ways that emulate the movements of other sea creatures. Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... For other uses, see Reflexive (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Thaumoctopus mimicus Norman & Hochberg, 2005 The Indonesian Mimic Octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus) is a species of octopus that has the uncanny ability to mimic several other sea creatures. ...


In laboratory experiments, octopuses can be readily trained to distinguish between different shapes and patterns. They have been reported to practice observational learning,[4] although the validity of these findings is widely contested on a number of grounds.[1][2] Octopuses have also been observed in what some have described as play: repeatedly releasing bottles or toys into a circular current in their aquariums and then catching them.[5] Octopuses often break out of their aquariums and sometimes into others in search of food. They have even boarded fishing boats and opened holds to eat crabs.[3] Observational learning or social learning is learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating behavior observed in others. ... A fishing boat can range from two-person pleasure fishing boats up to 7-8 ton commercial fishers that can haul in over a billion fish at one time. ...


In some countries, octopuses are on the list of experimental animals on which surgery may not be performed without anesthesia. In the UK, cephalopods such as octopuses are regarded as honorary vertebrates under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 and other cruelty to animals legislation, extending to them protections not normally afforded to invertebrates.[6] For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (ASPA) is a law passed by the U.K. parliament in 1986, which regulates the use of laboratory animals in the U.K. Fundamentally, actions that have the potential of causing pain, distress or lasting harm to animals are illegal in the U.K. under... A man in Shanghai who is asking for money and carrying a monkey that is missing a limb. ...


A common belief is that when stressed, an octopus may begin to eat its own arms. However, limited research conducted in this area has revealed that the cause of this abnormal behavior, called autophagy, may be a virus that attacks the octopus's nervous system. Thus this behavior may be more correctly labeled as a neurological disorder.[citation needed] Self-cannibalism is the practice of eating oneself, also called autocannibalism,[1] autophagy[2] and autosarcophagy. ...


Defense

An ocellated octopus nestled in a clamshell
An ocellated octopus nestled in a clamshell
Greater Blue-ringed Octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata)
Greater Blue-ringed Octopus (Hapalochlaena lunulata)

Three defensive mechanisms are typical of octopuses: ink sacs, camouflage, and autotomising limbs. Image File history File linksMetadata Ocellated_octopus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ocellated_octopus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1118x1405, 372 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Blue-ringed octopus Octopodidae User:FreplySpang User:Jnpet Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/February-2007 Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1118x1405, 372 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Blue-ringed octopus Octopodidae User:FreplySpang User:Jnpet Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/February-2007 Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates... Species Hapalochlaena fasciata Hapalochlaena lunulata Hapalochlaena maculosa Hapalochlaena nierstraszi The Blue-ringed Octopus (genus Hapalochlaena) are small octopuses that live in tide pools in the Pacific, in places from Japan to Australia. ... An ink sak is a part of an octipus or a squid that squirts ink to confuse enemy, or prey. ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... Autotomy (from the Greek auto = self- and tomy = severing) or self amputation is the act whereby an animal severs one of its own appendages, usually as a self-defence mechanism designed to elude a predators grasp. ...


Most octopuses can eject a thick blackish ink in a large cloud to aid in escaping from predators. The main colouring agent of the ink is melanin, which is the same chemical that gives humans their hair and skin colour. This ink cloud dulls smell, which is particularly useful for evading predators that are dependent on smell for hunting, such as sharks. Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ...


An octopus's camouflage is aided by certain specialized skin cells which can change the apparent color, opacity, and reflectiveness of the epidermis. Chromatophores contain yellow, orange, red, brown, or black pigments; most species have three of these colors, while some have two or four. Other color-changing cells are reflective iridophores, and leucophores (white).[7] This color-changing ability can also be used to communicate with or warn other octopuses. The very venomous blue-ringed octopus becomes bright yellow with blue rings when it is provoked. Zebrafish chromatophores mediate background adaptation on exposure to dark (top) and light environments (bottom). ... Iridophores are a type of chromatophore cell found in the skin of many cephalopods, fish and reptiles. ... Zebrafish chromatophores mediate background adaptation on exposure to dark (top) and light environments (bottom). ... Species See text. ...


When under attack, some octopuses can detach their own limbs, in a similar manner to the way skinks and other lizards detach their tails. The crawling arm serves as a distraction to would-be predators; this ability is also used in mating. Autotomy (from the Greek auto = self- and tomy = severing) or self amputation is the act whereby an animal severs one of its own appendages, usually as a self-defence mechanism designed to elude a predators grasp. ... This article is about the reptile. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ...


A few species, such as the Mimic Octopus, have a fourth defense mechanism. They can combine their highly flexible bodies with their color changing ability to accurately mimic other, more dangerous animals such as lionfish, sea snakes and eels. They have also been observed changing the texture of their mantle in order to achieve a greater camouflage. The mantle can take on the spiky appearance of seaweed, or the scraggly, bumpy texture of a rock, among other disguises. Binomial name Thaumoctopus mimicus Norman & Hochberg, 2005 The Indonesian Mimic Octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus) is a species of octopus that has the uncanny ability to mimic several other sea creatures. ... Lionfish in Red Sea near Hurghada Lionfish, Peleliu, Palau Lionfish at the Dallas World Aquarium A Lionfish is any of several species of venomous marine fish in the genera Pterois, Parapterois, Brachypterois, Ebosia or Dendrochirus, of the family Scorpaenidae. ... Sea snakes of several different species belong to a group related to the cobras but aquatic rather than land dwelling. ... For other uses, see Eel (disambiguation). ...


Reproduction

When octopuses reproduce, males use a specialized arm called a hectocotylus to insert spermatophores (packets of sperm) into the female's mantle cavity. The hectocotylus, usually the third right arm, detaches from the male during copulation. Males die within a few months after mating. In some species, the female octopus can keep the sperm alive inside her for weeks until her eggs are mature. After they have been fertilized, the female lays about 200,000 eggs (this figure dramatically varies between families, genera, species and also individuals). The female hangs these eggs in strings from the ceiling of her lair, or individually attaches them to the substratum depending on the species. The female cares for the eggs, guarding them against predators, and gently blowing currents of water over them so that they get enough oxygen. The female does not eat during the roughly one-month period spent taking care of the unhatched eggs. At around the time the eggs hatch, the mother dies and the young larval octopuses spend a period of time drifting in clouds of plankton, where they feed on copepods, larval crabs and larval starfish until they are ready to sink down to the bottom of the ocean, where the cycle repeats itself. In some deeper dwelling species, the young do not go through this period. This is a dangerous time for the larval octopuses; as they become part of the plankton cloud they are vulnerable to many plankton eaters. A hectocotylus is one of the arms of the male of most kinds of cephalopods that is modified in various ways to effect the fertilization of the females eggs. ... A spermatophore is a capsule or mass created by males of various invertebrate species, containing spermatozoa and transferred in entirety to the female during sex. ... For the SpongeBob SquarePants character, see Plankton (SpongeBob SquarePants). ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Copepods are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat. ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ... Orders Brisingida (100 species[1]) Forcipulatida (300 species[2]) Paxillosida (255 species[3]) Notomyotida (75 species[4]) Spinulosida (120 species[5]) Valvatida (695 species[6]) Velatida (200 species[7]) For other uses, see Starfish (disambiguation). ...


Sensation

Octopuses have keen eyesight. Although their slit-shaped pupils might be expected to afflict them with astigmatism, it appears that this is not a problem in the light levels in which an octopus typically hunts. Surprisingly, they do not appear to have color vision, although they can distinguish the polarization of light. Attached to the brain are two special organs, called statocysts, that allow the octopus to sense the orientation of its body relative to horizontal. An autonomic response keeps the octopus's eyes oriented so that the pupil slit is always horizontal. Image File history File linksMetadata Octopus_vulgaris_EL12p. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Octopus_vulgaris_EL12p. ... Binomial name Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 Synonyms Octopus vulgaris Lamarck, 1798 Octopus rugosus Bosc, 1792 The Common Octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is the most studied of all octopus species. ... The human eye The pupil is the central transparent area (showing as black). ... Astigmatism is an affliction of the eye, where vision is blurred by an irregularly shaped cornea. ... Color vision is the capacity of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect or emit. ... In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. ... The statocyst is a balance organ present in some aquatic invertebrates (Cnidarians, Ctenophores, Bilaterians). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Octopuses also have an excellent sense of touch. An octopus's suction cups are equipped with chemoreceptors so that the octopus can taste what it is touching. The arms contain tension sensors so that the octopus knows whether its arms are stretched out. However, the octopus has a very poor proprioceptive sense. The tension receptors are not sufficient for the octopus brain to determine the position of the octopus's body or arms. (It is not clear that the octopus brain would be capable of processing the large amount of information that this would require; the flexibility of an octopus's arms is much greater than that of the limbs of vertebrates, which devote large areas of cerebral cortex to the processing of proprioceptive inputs.) As a result, the octopus does not possess stereognosis; that is, it does not form a mental image of the overall shape of the object it is handling. It can detect local texture variations, but cannot integrate the information into a larger picture.[8] A Chemosensor, also known as chemoreceptor, is a cell or group of cells that transduce a chemical signal into an action potential. ... For the social and aesthetic aspects of taste, see taste (sociology). ... Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ... // Proprioception (PRO-pree-o-SEP-shun (IPA pronunciation: ); from Latin proprius, meaning ones own and perception) is the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body. ... The ability to perceive the form of an object by using the sense of touch. ...


The neurological autonomy of the arms means that the octopus has great difficulty learning about the detailed effects of its motions. The brain may issue a high-level command to the arms, but the nerve cords in the arms execute the details. There is no neurological path for the brain to receive feedback about just how its command was executed by the arms; the only way it knows just what motions were made is by observing the arms visually.[8]


Locomotion

Octopuses swim headfirst, with arms trailing behind
Octopuses swim headfirst, with arms trailing behind

Octopuses move about by crawling or swimming. Their main means of slow travel is crawling, with some swimming. Their only means of fast travel is called jet propulsion. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 741 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3136 × 2538 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 741 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3136 × 2538 pixel, file size: 1. ...


They crawl by walking on their arms, usually on many at once, on solid surfaces, while supported in water. In 2005 it was reported that some octopuses can walk on two arms on a solid surface, while at the same time imitating a coconut or a clump of seaweed.[9]


They swim by expelling a jet of water from a contractile mantle, and aiming it via a muscular siphon. The mantle is an organ found in mollusks. ... Nautilus belauensis seen from the front, showing the hyponome. ...


Terminology

There are three forms of the plural of octopus; namely, octopuses, octopi, and octopodes. Currently, octopuses is the most common form in the UK as well as the US; octopodes is rare, and octopi is often objected to.[10]


The Oxford English Dictionary (2004 update[11]) lists octopuses, octopi and octopodes (in that order); it labels octopodes "rare", and notes that octopi derives from the mistaken assumption that octōpūs is a second declension Latin noun, which it is not. Rather, it is (Latinized) Greek, from oktṓpous (ὀκτώπους), gender masculine, whose plural is oktṓpodes (ὀκτώποδες). If the word were native to Latin, it would be octōpēs ('eight-foot') and the plural octōpedes, analogous to centipedes and mīllipedes, as the plural form of pēs ('foot') is pedes. In modern, informal Greek, it is called khtapódi (χταπόδι), gender neuter, with plural form khtapódia (χταπόδια). The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Latin is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined in order to serve a grammatical function. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ...


Chambers 21st Century Dictionary[12] and the Compact Oxford Dictionary[13] list only octopuses, although the latter notes that octopodes is "still occasionally used"; the British National Corpus has 29 instances of octopuses, 11 of octopi and 4 of octopodes. Merriam-Webster 11th Collegiate Dictionary lists octopuses and octopi, in that order; Webster's New World College Dictionary lists octopuses, octopi and octopodes (in that order). The British National Corpus (or just BNC) is a 100-million-word collection of samples of written and spoken English from a wide range of sources. ...


Fowler's Modern English Usage states that "the only acceptable plural in English is octopuses," and that octopi is misconceived and octopodes pedantic. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, often referred to simply as Fowlers Modern English Usage, or Fowler, is a style guide to British English usage, authored by Henry W. Fowler. ... For the medical term see rigor (medicine) Rigour (American English: rigor) has a number of meanings in relation to intellectual life and discourse. ...


The term octopod (plural octopods or octopodes) is taken from the taxonomic order Octopoda but has no classical equivalent. The collective form octopus is usually reserved for animals consumed for food.


Relationship to humans

Moche Octopus. 200 A.D. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.
Moche Octopus. 200 A.D. Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.

The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped the sea and its animals. Octopuses were often depicted in their art.[14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ...


As food

Many species of octopus are eaten as food by human cultures around the world. The arms and sometimes other parts of the body are prepared in various ways, often depending on the species being eaten. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 453 KB) Summary Octopus for sale in Tsukiji fish market, in Tokyo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 453 KB) Summary Octopus for sale in Tsukiji fish market, in Tokyo. ... Tsukiji as seen from Shiodome End of the fresh tuna auction at Tsukiji. ...


Octopus is a common ingredient in Japanese cuisine, including sushi, takoyaki, and Akashiyaki. Some small species are sometimes eaten alive as a novelty and health food (mostly in South Korea). Octopus is also a common food in Mediterranean cuisine. In Galicia, polbo á feira (fair style octopus) is a local delicacy. Restaurants which specialize or serve this dish are known as pulperías. There are many views as to what defines Japanese cuisine, as the everyday food of the Japanese people has diversified immensely over the past century or so. ... This article is about Japanese cuisine. ... A Boat of Takoyaki Square takoyaki pan with 16 molds Takoyaki ) (literally fried or baked octopus) is a popular Japanese dumpling made of batter, diced octopus, tempura scraps (tenkasu), pickled ginger, konnyaku, and green onion, topped with okonomiyaki sauce, green laver (aonori), mayonnaise, and katsuobushi (fish shavings), originated in Osaka. ... Akashiyaki (明石焼き) or Akashi no tamagoyaki (明石の玉子焼き) is a small round dumpling from the city of Akashi in Hyogo prefecture, Japan. ... Sannakji is the name of a South Korean dish which consists of live nakji — Octopus (Octopus) minor minor, a small octopus — that has been cut into small pieces and served immediately, usually lightly seasoned with sesame and sesame oil. ... External links Mediterranean cuisine guide and recipes Categories: Stub | Mediterranean cuisine ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Polbo á feira (octopus at fairs style) is a traditional Galician dish made of boiled octopus served on wood plates and seasoned with olive oil and paprika. ...

Wikibooks
Wikibooks' Cookbook has more about this subject:

According to the USDA Nutrient Database (2007), cooked octopus contains approximately 139 calories per three ounce portion, and is a source of vitamin B3, B12, potassium, phosphorus, and selenium.[15] Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ...


As pets

An octopus escaping an aquarium through a thin crack.
An octopus escaping an aquarium through a thin crack.

Though octopuses can be difficult to keep in captivity, some people keep them as pets. Octopuses often escape even from supposedly secure tanks, due to their intelligence, problem solving skills, mobility and lack of rigid structure. Download high resolution version (1200x900, 623 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x900, 623 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ...


The variation in size and life span among octopus species makes it difficult to know how long a new specimen can naturally be expected to live. That is, a small octopus may be just born or may be an adult, depending on the species. By selecting a well-known species, such as the California Two-spot Octopus, one can choose a small octopus (around the size of a tennis ball) and be confident that it is young with a full life ahead of it. Binomial name Octopus (Octopus) bimaculoides Pickford/McConnaughey, 1949 The California Two-spot Octopus (Octopus bimaculoides) is an octopus species that lives off the coast of California. ...


Octopuses are also quite strong for their size. Octopuses kept as pets have been known to open the covers of their aquariums and survive for a time in the air in order to get to a nearby feeder tank and gorge themselves on the fish there. They have also been known to catch and kill some species of sharks.[16]


Classification

Wikispecies has information related to:
Wikibooks
Wikibooks' Dichotomous Key has more about this subject:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Octopus
A fisherman's catch of octopus dries in the sun
A fisherman's catch of octopus dries in the sun

Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 93 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 93 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Orders Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida Nautilida The Cephalopods (head-foot) are the mollusc class Cephalopoda characterized by bilateral body symmetry, a prominent head, and a modification of the mollusc foot into the form of arms or tentacles. ... Orders Nautilida Bactrida Nautiloids are a group of marine animals which all possess an external shell, the most well known example being the modern nautiluses. ... Orders Aulacocerida (extinct) Hematitida  (extinct) Phragmoteuthida  (extinct) Belemnitida  (extinct) Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida Subclass Coleoidea is the grouping of cephalopods containing all the primarily soft-bodied creatures. ... Orders Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Decapodiformes is a superorder of Cephalopoda, which includes all species with ten limbs; the name derives from the Latin meaning ten feet. ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... Orders and Families †Vasseuriina †Vasseuriidae †Belosepiellidae Sepiina †Belosaepiidae Sepiadariidae Sepiidae Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida belonging to the Cephalopoda class (which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses). ... Orders Vampyromorphida Octopoda Octopodiformes is a superorder of the subclass Coleoidea. ... Binomial name Vampyroteuthis infernalis Chun, 1903 The Vampire Squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis, lit. ... Binomial name Pohlsepia mazonensis Kluessendorf & Doyle, 2000 Pohlsepia mazonensis is the earliest described octopod, dated at approximately 296 million years old. ... Incertae sedis—of uncertain position (seat)—is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. ... Binomial name Proteroctopus ribeti Fischer & Riou, 1982 Proteroctopus ribeti was a primitive octopod that lived in the Middle Jurassic, approximately 164 million years ago. ... Incertae sedis—of uncertain position (seat)—is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. ... Binomial name Palaeoctopus newboldi (Woodward, 1896) Synonyms Calais newboldi Woodward, 1896 Paleoctopus newboldi Palaeoctopus newboldi was a primitive octopod that lived in the Late Cretaceous, approximately 89 to 71 million years ago. ... Incertae sedis—of uncertain position (seat)—is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. ... Families 14 in two suborders, see text. ... Genera Cirroctopus Opisthoteuthis Species Genus Cirroctopus Cirroctopus antarctica Cirroctopus glacialis Four-blotched Umbrella Octopus, Cirroctopus hochbergi Cirroctopus mawsoni Genus Opisthoteuthis Opisthoteuthis agassizii Flapjack Octopus, Opisthoteuthis californiana Roughy Umbrella Octopus, Opisthoteuthis chathamensis Japanese Pancake Devilfish, Opisthoteuthis depressa Opisthoteuthis extensa Opisthoteuthis grimaldii Opisthoteuthis japonica Opisthoteuthis medusoides Meros Umbrella Octopus, Opisthoteuthis mero... Genera Cirroteuthis Cirrothauma Froekenia Species Genus Cirroteuthis Cirroteuthis hoylei Big-eye Jellyhead, Cirroteuthis magna Cirroteuthis massyae Cirroteuthis mülleri Genus Cirrothauma Blind Cirrate, Cirrothauma murrayi Froekenia clara Categories: Animal stubs | Octopuses ... Species Stauroteuthis gilchristi Stauroteuthis syrtensis Species Stauroteuthis gilchristi Stauroteuthis syrtensis Categories: Animal stubs | Octopuses ... Families Amphitretidae Bolitaenidae Octopodidae Vitreledonellidae Superfamily Argonautoida Alloposidae Argonautidae Ocythoidae Tremoctopodidae Incirrina is a suborder of the order Octopoda. ... Species Amphitretus pelagicus Amphitretus thielei Species Telescope Octopus, Amphitretus pelagicus Amphitretus thielei Categories: Animal stubs | Octopuses ... Genera Bolitaena Dorsopsis Eledonella Japetella Bolitaenidae is a family of small, common pelagic octopuses found in all tropical and temperate oceans of the world. ... Genera Many, see text Species Genus Vulcanoctopus Deepsea Vent Octopus, Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis Subfamily Bathypolypodinae Genus Bathypolypus Bathypolypus arcticus Spoonarm Octopus, Bathypolypus arcticus arcticus Bathypolypus arcticus proschi Bathypolypus faeroensis Bathypolypus salebrosus Globose Octopus, Bathypolypus sponsalis Boxer Octopus, Bathypolypus valdiviae Genus Benthoctopus Benthoctopus abruptus Benthoctopus berryi Benthoctopus canthylus Benthoctopus clyderoperi Benthoctopus ergasticus... Binomial name Vitreledonella richardi Joubin, 1918b Categories: Animal stubs | Octopuses ... Families Alloposidae Argonautidae Ocythoidae Tremoctopodidae Argonautoida is a superfamily of the suborder Incirrata. ... Binomial name Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861a The Seven-arm Octopus (Haliphron atlanticus) is the largest known species of octopus, with a mantle length of 40 cm and a total body length of 200 cm. ... Species Argonauta argo Argonauta bottgeri Argonauta cornuta Argonauta hians Argonauta nodosa Argonauta nouryi Argonauta pacifica Argonauts (genus Argonauta, the only genus in the Argonautidae family) are a kind of pelagic octopus that live close to the surface of warm seas rather than on the sea floor, as nearly all other... Binomial name Ocythoe tuberculata Rafinesque, 1814 Categories: Animal stubs | Octopuses ... Species Tremoctopus gelatus Tremoctopus robsoni Tremoctopus violaceus gracilis Tremoctopus violaceus violaceus Species Gelatinous Blanket Octopus, Tremoctopus gelatus Tremoctopus robsoni Tremoctopus violaceus Palmate Octopus, Tremoctopus violaceus gracilis Common Blanket Octopus or Violet Blanket Octopus, Tremoctopus violaceus violaceus Categories: Animal stubs | Octopuses ...

See also

Three divers holding the largest catch of the 1963 World Octopus Wrestling Championships, a 57 pound North Pacific Giant Octopus. ... The Legend of the Octopus is a sports tradition during Detroit Red Wings home games in which an octopus is thrown onto the ice surface to symbolize good luck during a playoff run. ...

References

  1. ^ a b What is this octopus thinking?. By Garry Hamilton.
  2. ^ a b Is the octopus really the invertebrate intellect of the sea? By Doug Stewart. In: National Wildlife. Feb/Mar 1997, vol.35 no.2.
  3. ^ a b Giant Octopus—Mighty but Secretive Denizen of the Deep
  4. ^ Octopus intelligence: jar opening
  5. ^ What behavior can we expect of octopuses?. By Dr. Jennifer Mather, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge and Roland C. Anderson, The Seattle Aquarium.
  6. ^ United Kingdom Animals (Scientific Procedures) act of 1986
  7. ^ Meyers, Nadia. Tales from the Cryptic: The Common Atlantic Octopus. Southeastern Regional Taxonomic Center. Retrieved on 2006-07-27.
  8. ^ a b Wells. Martin John. Octopus: physiology and behaviour of an advanced invertebrate. London : Chapman and Hall ; New York : distributed in the U.S.A. by Halsted Press, 1978.
  9. ^ 'Science', vol. 307, p. 1927 (See "Bipedal Octopuses" external link below if you don't have access to Science online)
  10. ^ Peters, Pam (2004). The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62181-X, p. 388.
  11. ^ [1] (subscription required). Retrieved October 22, 2007.
  12. ^ [2]. Retrieved October 19, 2007.
  13. ^ [3] Retrieved October 19, 2007.
  14. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.
  15. ^ Octopus Calories And Nutrition
  16. ^ Archived Google video of an octopus catching a shark, from The Octopus Show by Mike deGruy

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Octopus - travel methods and great deal of other information. (975 words)
Octopus have a sharp beak that it uses to crack shells and inject poisons and digestive fluids into shellfish and other prey.
It is not unheard of for Octopi to leave the water for brief periods, and in fact octopuses kept as pets have been known to escape their containers and invade nearby aquariums to utilize the fish as a food source.
Supposedly an Octopus found only in the Pacific Northwest it was said to be amphibious, spending only their early life and mating season in the water.
JDBC Data Transformations (429 words)
A loadjob-generator is provided to generate Octopus loadjob skeletons (and even DODS DOML files !) from an existing database.
Octopus supports Ant and JUnit to create a database / tables and extract /load data during a build or test process.
Octopus gives you a very generic way to transform data.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

irazema
6th May 2010
Are the flapjack octopus endangered? would you reccomed them as a pet? why or why not.

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