FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > October Revolution
Bolshevik (1920), by Boris Kustodiev.
Bolshevik (1920), by Boris Kustodiev.

The October Revolution in Russia (Russian Октябрьская революция), also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, refers to a revolution that began with a coup d'etat traditionally dated to October 25, 1917 (November 7, N.S.). [1]It was the second phase of the overall Russian Revolution of 1917, after the February Revolution of the same year. The October Revolution overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and gave the power to the Soviets dominated by Bolsheviks. It was followed by the Russian Civil War (1917–1922) and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922. October Revolution may refer to one of the following. ... Red October may refer to: Red October (factory), a factory which played an important part in the Battle of Stalingrad Red October (sweet factory), in Moscow Soviet submarine Red October, a fictional submarine in the works of author Tom Clancy The Hunt for Red October, a book by Clancy about... Image File history File links Kustodiyev_bolshevik. ... Image File history File links Kustodiyev_bolshevik. ... Self-Portrait in front of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra, 1912 Boris Mikhaylovich Kustodiev (Russian: ) (March 7, 1878–May 28, 1927) was a Russian art deco painter. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist...


The revolution was led by the Bolsheviks[1] . Bolshevik troops began the takeover of government buildings on October 24;[1] however October 25 was the date when the Winter Palace (the seat of the Provisional government located in Petrograd, then capital of Russia), was captured. For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991...


Initially, the event was referred to as the October uprising (Октябрьский переворот) or the Uprising of 25th, as seen in contemporary documents (for example, in the first editions of Lenin's complete works). With time, the term October Revolution came into use, and the event became seen as of major importance. Lenin redirects here. ...


The Great October Socialist Revolution (Russian: Великая Октябрьская социалистическая революция, Velikaya Oktyabr'skaya sotsialisticheskaya revolyutsiya) was the official name for the October Revolution in the Soviet Union since the 10th anniversary of the Revolution in 1927. Today this name is used mainly by Russian Communists. A communist revolution is a social revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, normally with socialism (state ownership over the means of production) as an intermediate stage. ... The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (Russian: Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации = КПРФ; translit. ...

Contents

Causes

The mounting frustration of workers and soldiers erupted in July with several days of rioting on the streets, in what became known as the July Days.[citation needed] This event was sparked by the June offensive against Germany, in which War Minister Alexander Kerensky sent troops in a major attack on the Germans, only to be repelled. The July Days were also sparked by the workers' anger at their economic plight. A group of 20,000 armed sailors from "Red Kronstadt,"the naval base on the island of Kronstadt located near St.Petersburg or Petrograd, as it was known, marched into Petrograd and demanded that the Soviet take power. The capital was defenseless for two days. After suppressing the riots, the government blamed the Bolsheviks for encouraging the rebellion and many Bolshevik leaders, including Lenin and Grigory Zinoviev, were forced to go into hiding. Although the Bolshevik party had to operate semi-legally throughout July and August, its position on the far left end of the political spectrum was consolidated. Radical anti-war social democrats, who had joined the Mezhraiontsy earlier in the year, merged with the Bolsheviks in August. Many of them, particularly Trotsky, Joffe and Konstantin Yurenev would prove vital to the Bolsheviks' eventual seizure of Petrograd. The July Days took place between July 4 and 7 July in 1917 in Russia when sailors and industrial workers of Petrograd rioted against the Russian Provisional Government. ... Alexander Kerensky This article is about the Russian politician. ... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... 1888 map of the Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt (German: for Crown and Stadt for City) is a Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg near the head of the Gulf of Finland. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991... Grigory Zinoviev Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евс́еевич Зин́овьев, alternative transliteration Grigorii Ovseyevish Zinoviev, born Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky (Радомысльский), also known as Hirsch Apfelbaum, (September 23 [O.S. September 11] 1883 - August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician. ... Mezhraiontsy or Mezhraoinka (Russian: межрайонцы), usually translated as the interdistrictites (from the Russian mezh-, i. ...


The Kornilov Affair was another catalyst to Revolution. Alexander Kerensky, who held positions in both the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet, felt he needed a trustworthy military leader. After appointing Lavr Kornilov, Kerensky soon accused Kornilov of trying to set up his own military dictatorship. It is still uncertain as to whether or not Kornilov did engineer a plot of this kind or not. Kornilov, convinced Kerensky was acting under duress of the Bolsheviks, responded by issuing a call to all Russians to "save their dying land!" Unsure of the support of his army generals, Kerensky was forced to ask for help from other quarters- including the Bolshevik Red Guards, even providing them with arms. Kornilov's supposed attempt to seize power collapsed without bloodshed as his Cossacks deserted him. Kornilov and around 7000 of his supporters were arrested. The Kornilov Affair (Russian: Корниловщина, Kornilovshchina) was a confused struggle between Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army, General Lavr Kornilov and Aleksandr Kerensky in August/September, 1917, in between the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the October Revolution. ... Alexander Kerensky This article is about the Russian politician. ...


Events

Cruiser Aurora.
Cruiser Aurora.

On October 10, the Bolsheviks' Central Committee voted 10-2 for a resolution saying that "an armed uprising is inevitable, and that the time for it is fully ripe".[2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2341x1592, 155 KB) The museum ship Aurora moored in St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2341x1592, 155 KB) The museum ship Aurora moored in St. ... The Aurora (Russian: Авро́ра; English transliteration: Avrora) is a Russian protected cruiser, currently preserved as a museum ship in St. ...


On October 23, 1917 (by the Julian calendar still in use in Russia at the time; November 5 by the current Gregorian calendar), Bolshevik leader Jaan Anvelt led his leftist revolutionaries in an uprising in Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. On October 25 (November 7), 1917, Vladimir Lenin led his forces in the uprising in Saint Petersburg, the capital of Russia, against the ineffective Kerensky Provisional Government.[1] For the most part, the revolt in Petrograd was bloodless, with the Red Guards led by Bolsheviks taking over major government facilities with little opposition before finally launching an assault on the Winter Palace on the night of 25/26 October. The assault led by Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko was launched at 9:45 p.m. signaled by a blank shot from the cruiser Aurora. (The Aurora was placed in Leningrad (modern St. Petersburg) and still stands there now.) The Winter Palace was guarded by Cossacks, cadets (military students), and a Women's Battalion. It was taken at about 2 a.m. The earlier date was made the official date of the Revolution, when all offices except the Winter Palace had been taken.[1] is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Jaan Anvelt Jaan Anvelt, Eessaare Aadu, Jaan Holm, Jaan Hulmu, Kaarel Maatamees, Onkel Kaak or Н. Альтъ (18 April 1884 Orgu, Võisiku vald, Sakala – 11 December 1937 Soviet Union), was a revolutionary of Estonia, the leader of the Communist Party of Estland, and the first Premier of Soviet Estland, and the... County Area 159. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Russian:Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский) (April 22, 1881 (May 2, New Style) - June 11, 1970) was the second prime minister of the... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Located between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, the Winter Palace (Russian: Зимний Дворец) in Saint Petersburg, Russia was built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars. ... Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko Vladimir Alexandrovich Antonov-Ovseenko (real lastname Ovseenko) (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (March 9, 1883 - February 10, 1939), was a prominent Soviet Bolshevik leader and later Soviet diplomat. ... The Aurora (Russian: Авро́ра; English transliteration: Avrora) is a Russian protected cruiser, currently preserved as a museum ship in St. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... A cadet is a future officer in the military. ... 2nd Moscow Womens Battalion Womens Battalions were segregated all-female combat units formed after the February Revolution by the Russian Provisional Government in a last ditch effort to inspire the mass of war-weary soldiers to continue fighting in World War I until victory could be achieved. ...


Later official accounts of the revolution from the Soviet Union would depict the events in October as being far more dramatic than they actually had been. (See firsthand account by British General Knox). Official films made much later showed a huge storming of the Winter Palace and fierce fighting, but in reality the Bolshevik insurgents faced little or no opposition and were practically able to just walk into the building and take it over. The insurrection was timed and organized to hand state power to the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies, which began on October 25th. Alfred Knox (born in Ulster 1870 - 1964) was a career British military officer. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Outcomes

Petrograd Milrevcom proclamation about the deposing of the Russian Provisional Government
Petrograd Milrevcom proclamation about the deposing of the Russian Provisional Government

The Second Congress of Soviets consisted of 650 elected delegates; 390 were Bolshevik and nearly a hundred were Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, who also supported the overthrow of the Kerensky Government. When the fall of the Winter Palace was announced, the Congress adopted a decree transferring power to the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies, thus ratifying the Revolution. The transfer of power was not without disagreement. The center and Right wings of the Socialist Revolutionaries as well as the Mensheviks believed that Lenin and the Bolsheviks had illegally seized power and they walked out before the resolution was passed. As they exited, they were taunted by Leon Trotsky who told them "You are pitiful isolated individuals; you are bankrupts; your role is played out. Go where you belong from now on — into the dustbin of history!" The following day, the Congress elected a Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom) as the basis of a new Soviet Government, pending the convocation of a Constituent Assembly, and passed the Decree on Peace and the Decree on Land. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 431 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (549 × 764 pixel, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Translation: From the w:Military Revolutionary Committee of the w:Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies To Citizens of Russia The Provisional Government is deposed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 431 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (549 × 764 pixel, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Translation: From the w:Military Revolutionary Committee of the w:Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies To Citizens of Russia The Provisional Government is deposed. ... Military Revolutionary Committee (Russian: ) was the name for military organs under soviet (council)s during the period of the Russian Revolution. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное Собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye Sobranie) was a democratically elected constitutional body convened in Russia after the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II. It met for 13 hours, 4 p. ... The Decree On Peace, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers, Soldiers, and Peasants Deputies on the 26 October 1917, following the success of the October Revolution. ... Decree on Land title page The Decree on Land, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second Congress of Soviets of Workers, Soldiers, and Peasants Deputies on 26 October 1917, following the success of the October Revolution. ...


The Decree on Land ratified the actions of the peasants who throughout Russia seized private land and redistributed it among themselves. The Bolsheviks viewed themselves as representing an alliance of workers and peasants and memorialized that understanding with the Hammer and Sickle on the flag and coat of arms of the Soviet Union. In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... For other uses, see Hammer and sickle (disambiguation). ...


Other decrees:

  • The Russian banks were all nationalised.
  • Control of the factories was given to the soviets.
  • Private bank accounts were confiscated.
  • The Church's properties (including bank accounts) were seized and religion forced to go underground.
  • Wages were fixed at higher rates than during the war and a shorter, eight-hour working day was introduced.
  • All foreign debts were repudiated, the Bolsheviks flatly refusing to pay. Their reasoning was that they were a new government and, as such, did not have to pay the debts accrued by previous governments. Russia's foreign relations were severely damaged by this action. Britain and France, for example, had lent large amounts to help Russia, and future dealings between them looked bleak; in spite of this the British Empire was the first country to recognize the Soviet Union upon its founding. Russia's global image was severely damaged, though it should be noted that the Bolsheviks did not at the time believe that the current governments would be in place for much longer.

Bolshevik-led attempts to seize power in other parts of the Russian Empire were largely successful in Russia proper — although the fighting in Moscow lasted for two weeks — but they were less successful in ethnically non-Russian parts of the Empire, which had been clamoring for independence since the February Revolution. For example, The Ukrainian Rada, which had declared autonomy on June 23, 1917, created the Ukrainian People's Republic on November 20, which was supported by the Ukrainian Congress of Soviets. This led to an armed conflict with the Bolshevik government in Petrograd and, eventually, a Ukrainian declaration of independence from Russia on January 25, 1918.[3] In Estonia, two rival governments emerged: the Estonian Diet declared independence on November 28, 1917, while an Estonian Bolshevik sympathizer, Jaan Anvelt, was recognized by Lenin's government as Estonia's leader on December 8, although forces loyal to Anvelt only controlled the capital.[4] The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Rada is the term for council or assembly borrowed by Polish from Middle High German Rat (council) and later passed into Czech, Ukrainian, and Belarusian languages. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Maapäev (English: National Diet) was the Legislative Assembly of Estonia from 1917—1919. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Jaan Anvelt Jaan Anvelt, Eessaare Aadu, Jaan Holm, Jaan Hulmu, Kaarel Maatamees, Onkel Kaak or Н. Альтъ (18 April 1884 Orgu, Võisiku vald, Sakala – 11 December 1937 Soviet Union), was a revolutionary of Estonia, the leader of the Communist Party of Estland, and the first Premier of Soviet Estland, and the... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The success of the October Revolution transformed the Russian state from parliamentarian to socialist in character. A coalition of anti-Bolshevik groups including invading armies from the victorious Allies attempted to unseat the new government in the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1922. Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist...


The United States did not recognize the new Russian government until 1933. The European powers recognized the Soviet Union in the early 1920s and began to engage in business with it after the New Economic Policy (NEP) was implemented. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Soviet in memoriam of the event

The term Red October (Красный Октябрь, Krasny Oktyabr) has also been used to describe the events of the month. This name has in turn been lent to a tractor factory made notable by the Battle of Stalingrad, a Moscow sweets factory that is well-known in Russia, and a fictional Soviet submarine. Combatants  Germany Romania Italy Hungary  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B: German Sixth Army # German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third... Moskovskaya Konditerskaya Fabrika Krasny Oktyabr Open Joint-Stock Company (Russian: ) is a Russian confectionery manufacturer and a member of Obyedinyonnye Kontserny holding company. ... This article contains a trivia section. ...


November 7, the anniversary of the October Revolution, was an official holiday in the Soviet Union is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There were eight major Public holidays in the Soviet Union. ...


Krasny Oktyabr is also the name given to a Russian piano company.


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Russian Revolution of 1917

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Revolutions of 1917-23 formed a revolutionary wave precipitated by the Russian Revolutions of 1917 and the end of World War I. Some authorities date the wave as ending in 1919 or 1921. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Ten Days that Shook the World (1919) is a book by American journalist and socialist John Reed, about the October Revolution in Russia 1917 which Reed experienced first-hand. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e "SparkNotes: The October Revolution" (timeline), SparkNotes LLC, 2006, webpage: SN-5: accessed 2007-01-28.
  2. ^ http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/oct/10a.htm
  3. ^ See Encyclopedia of Ukraine online
  4. ^ See the article on Estonian independence in the Britannica Concise Encyclopedia online

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: October Revolution (4070 words)
The October Revolution was the second phase of the overall Russian Revolution of 1917, after the February Revolution of the same year.
The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution or November Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution.
The October Revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks with the Mensheviks, Left Socialist-Revolutionaries and anarchist.
October Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1389 words)
The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution or November Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution.
The October Revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks with the Mensheviks, Left Socialist-Revolutionaries and anarchist.
With time, the October Revolution was seen as a hugely important global event, the first in a series of events that lay the groundwork for an epic Cold War struggle between the Soviet Union and Western capitalist countries, including the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m