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Encyclopedia > Oceanography
Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere
Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere

Oceanography (from the greek words Ωκεανός meaning Ocean and γράφω meaning to write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earth's oceans and seas. It covers a wide range of topics, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within it: biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology, and physics. A simplified summary of the path of the Thermohaline Circulation. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience or the geosciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This article is about the body of water. ... For other uses, see Ecological Systems Theory. ... An ocean current is any more or less permanent or continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... A WAVES Photographer 3rd Class The WAVES were a World War II era division of the U.S. Navy that consisted entirely of women. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... flux in science and mathematics. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...

Contents

Sub categories

The study of oceanography may be divided into a number of branches:

  • Biological oceanography, or marine biology, is the study of the plants, animals and microbes (biota) of the oceans and their ecological interaction;
  • Chemical oceanography, or marine chemistry, is the study of the chemistry of the ocean and its chemical interaction with the atmosphere;
  • Geological oceanography, or marine geology, is the study of the geology of the ocean floor including plate tectonics;
  • Physical oceanography, or marine physics, studies the ocean's physical attributes including temperature-salinity structure, mixing, waves, internal waves, tides and currents. Of particular interest is the behaviour of sound (acoustical oceanography), light (optical oceanography) and radio waves in the ocean.

These branches reflect the fact that many oceanographers are first trained in the exact sciences or mathematics and then focus on applying their interdisciplinary knowledge, skills and abilities to oceanography.[1] Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... It has been suggested that Biota (taxonomy) be merged into this article or section. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Chemical oceanography is the study of the behaviour of the chemical elements within the Earths oceans. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Marine geology involves geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and coastal margins. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... World Oceans Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters. ... For the TV movie also known as The Ocean Waves, see I Can Hear the Sea. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... Ocean currents (1911) Ocean currents (1943) An ocean current is any more or less continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... Acoustical Oceanography is the use of underwater sound to study the sea, its boundaries and its contents. ... Exact science refers to systematized knowledge. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ...


Oceanology is used in Ocean engineering, involved in the design and building of oil platforms, ships, harbors, and other structures that allow us to use the ocean safely.[2] Ocean engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the design, analysis and operation of systems that operate in an oceanic environment. ... An oil platform is a large structure used to house workers and machinery needed to drill and then produce oil and natural gas in the ocean. ...


History

Ocean currents (1911)
Ocean currents (1911)

Man began to acquire knowledge of the waves and currents of the seas and oceans in pre-historic times. Observations on tides are recorded by Aristotle and Strabo. Early modern exploration of the oceans was primarily for cartography and mainly limited to its surfaces and of the creatures that fishermen brought up in nets, though depth soundings by lead line were taken. But when Louis Antoine de Bougainville, who voyaged between 1766 and 1769, and James Cook, who voyaged from 1768 to 1779, carried out their explorations in the South Pacific, information on the oceans themselves formed part of the reports. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1081x768, 1223 KB) Ocean currents. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1081x768, 1223 KB) Ocean currents. ... This article is about tides in the ocean. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, by Jean-Pierre Franquel Louis-Antoine, comte de Bougainville (November 12, 1729 Paris - August 20, 1811 Paris) was a French navigator and military commander. ... This article is about the British explorer. ... Pacific redirects here. ...


James Rennell wrote the first scientific textbooks about currents in the Atlantic and Indian oceans during the late 18th and at the beginning of 19th century. Sir James Clark Ross took the first modern sounding in deep sea in 1840, and Charles Darwin published a paper on reefs and the formation of atolls as a result of the second voyage of HMS Beagle in 1831-6. Fitzroy published a report in four volumes of the three voyages of the Beagle. James Rennell (December 3, 1742 - March 29, 1830) was a British geographer. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... This article is about the water body. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... For other uses, see Reef (disambiguation). ... Portion of a Pacific atoll showing two islets on the ribbon or barrier reef separated by a deep pass between the ocean and the lagoon. ... HMS Beagle was a Cherokee class 10-gun brig of the Royal Navy, named after the beagle, a breed of dog. ...


The steep slope beyond the continental shelves was not discovered until 1849. Matthew Fontaine Maury's Physical Geography of the Sea, 1855 was the first textbook of oceanography. The first successful laying of transatlantic telegraph cable in August 1858 confirmed the presence of an underwater "telegraphic plateau" mid-ocean ridge.  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... Matthew Fontaine Maury Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806 – February 1, 1873), USN - American astronomer, astrophysicist, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, educator. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The first transatlantic telegraph cable crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Foilhommerum, Valentia Island, in western Ireland to Hearts Content, in eastern Newfoundland. ... Oceanic Ridge Oceanic crust is formed at an oceanic ridge, while the lithosphere is subducted back into the asthenosphere at trenches. ...


After the middle of the 19th century, scientific societies were processing a flood of new terrestrial botanical and zoological information. European natural historians began to sense the lack of more than anecdotal knowledge of the oceans. In the 19th century Edward Forbes undertook dredging in the Aegean Sea that founded marine ecology. Edward Forbes (February 12, 1815 - November 18, 1854), British naturalist, was born at Douglas, in the Isle of Man. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 1871, under the recommendations of the Royal Society of London, the British government sponsored an expedition to explore world's oceans and conduct scientific investigations. With that, oceanography began as a quantifiable science in 1872, when the Scots Charles Wyville Thompson and Sir John Murray launched the Challenger expedition (1872–1876). The results of this were published in 50 volumes covering biological, physical and geological aspects. 4417 new species were discovered. For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the country. ... Professor Sir Charles Wyville Thomson (March 5th, 1830 - March 10th, 1882), Professor of Zoology and chief scientist on the Challenger expedition. ... Sir John Murray (March 3, 1841 - March 16, 1914), pioneering Scots-Canadian oceanographer and marine biologist. ... The Challenger Expedition was a scientific expedition that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of oceanography. ...


Other European and American nations also sent out scientific expeditions (as did private individuals and institutions). The first purpose built oceanographic ship, the "Albatros" was built in 1882. The four-month 1910 North Atlantic expedition headed by Sir John Murray and Johan Hjort was at that time the most ambitious research oceanographic and marine zoological project ever, and led to the classic 1912 book The Depths of the Ocean. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Sir John Murray (March 3, 1841 - March 16, 1914), pioneering Scots-Canadian oceanographer and marine biologist. ... Johan Hjort was born in Oslo, Norway 18 February 1869 and died there 7 October 1948. ...


Oceanographic institutes dedicated to the study of oceanography were founded. In the United States, these included the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1892, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 1930, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University, and the School of Oceanography at University of Washington. In Britain, there is a major research institution: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton which is the successor to the Institute of Oceanography. In Australia, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, known as CMAR, is a leading center. In 1921 the International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) was formed in Monaco. Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier Scripps Institution of Oceanography (sometimes referred to as SIO, Scripps Oceanography or just Scripps) in La Jolla, California, is one of the oldest and largest centers for ocean and earth science research, graduate training, and public service in the world. ... The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers. ... Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory is a world-class research institution specializing in earth sciences and part of Columbia University. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK National Oceanography Centre, Southampton at sunset The National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (NOCS) is a purpose-built, joint venture between the University of Southampton and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). ... CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR) is one of the currently c. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ...


In 1893 Fridtjof Nansen allowed his ship "Fram" to be frozen in the Arctic ice. As a result he was able to obtain oceanographic data as well as meteorological and astronomical data. The first international organization of oceanography was created in 1902 as the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Fridtjof Nansen Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg Nansen (born October 10, 1861 in Store Frøen, near Christiania - died May 13, 1930 in Lysaker, outside Oslo) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist and diplomat. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was established in 1902 by eight northern European nations. ...


The first acoustic measurement of sea depth was made in 1914. Between 1925 and 1927 the "Meteor" expedition gathered 70,000 ocean depth measurements using an echo sounder, surveying the Mid Atlantic Ridge. The Great Global Rift, running along the Mid Atlantic Ridge, was discoved by Maurice Ewing and Bruce Heezen in 1953 while the mountain range under the Arctic was found in 1954 by the Arctic Institute of the USSSR. The theory of seafloor spreading was developed in 1960 by Harry Hammond. The Ocean Drilling Project started in 1966. Deep sea vents were discovered in 1977 by John Corlis and Robert Ballard in the submersible "Alvin". William Maurice Doc Ewing (May 12, 1906 – May 4, 1974) was an American geophysicist and oceanographer. ... Bruce C. Heezen (1924 - June 21, 1977) was a geologist. ... Harry Hammond (born c1932-2002) was an evangelical preacher in the United Kingdom. ... Robert D. Ballard Robert Duane Ballard, Ph. ... Alvin, which means noble friend and dinosaur like, could mean many things. ...


In the 1950s Auguste Piccard invented the bathyscape and used the "Trieste" to investigate the ocean's depths. The nuclear submarine Nautilus made the first journey under the ice to the North Pole in 1958. In 1962 there was the first deployment of FLIP (Floating Instrument Platform), a 355 foot spar buoy. Auguste Piccard (1927) Auguste Antoine Piccard (January 28, 1884 – March 24, 1962) was a Swiss physicist, inventor and explorer. ... The Bathyscaphe Trieste A bathyscape or bathyscaphe is a self-propelled deep-sea diving submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere suspended below a float filled with a buoyant liquid such as petrol. ... Genera Allonautilus Nautilus Nautilus (from Greek ναυτίλος, sailor) is the common name of any marine creatures of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole family of the suborder Nautilina. ...


Then in 1966, the U.S. Congress created a National Council for Marine Resources and Engineering Development. NOAA was put in charge of exploring and studying all aspects of Oceanography in the USA. It also enabled the National Science Foundation to award Sea Grant College funding to multi-disciplinary researchers in the field of oceanography. Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ...


From the 1970s there has been much emphasis on the application of large scale computers to oceanography to allow numerical predictions of ocean conditions and as a part of overall environmental change prediction. An oceanographic buoy array was established in the Pacific to allow prediction of El Niño events. Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ...


1990 saw the start of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) which continued until 2002. Geosat seafloor mapping data became available in 1995.


In 1942 Sverdrup and Fleming published "The Ocean" which was a major landmark. "The Sea" (in three volumes covering physical oceanography, seawater and geology) edited by M.N. Hill was published in 1962 while the "Encyclopedia of Oceanography by Rhodes Fairbridge was published in 1966.


Ocean and atmosphere connections

The study of the oceans is intimately linked to understanding global warming and related biosphere concerns. The atmosphere and ocean are linked because of evaporation and precipitation as well as thermal flux (and solar insolation). Wind stress is a major driver of ocean currents while the ocean is a sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... For other uses, see Biosphere (disambiguation). ... Vaporization redirects here. ... Not to be confused with insulation. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... An ocean current is any more or less permanent or continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

Our planet is invested with two great oceans; one visible, the other invisible; one underfoot, the other overhead; one entirely envelopes it, the other covers about two thirds of its surface.
 
Matthew F. Maury (1855) The Physical Geography of the Seas and Its Meteorology

Matthew Fontaine Maury Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806 – February 1, 1873), nicknamed Pathfinder of the Seas, was an oceanographer who made important contributions to charting wind and ocean currents. ... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ...

Major oceanographic institutions and programs

International

This article is about the military alliance. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was established in 1902 by eight northern European nations. ... The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission was established by resolution 2. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The European Geosciences Union (or EGU) is an interdisciplinary learned non-profit association open to individuals who are professionally engaged in or associated with geosciences, planetary and space sciences, and related studies. ...

Belgium

Laboratoire d'Oceanologie, University of Liege


Brazil

Instituto Oceanográfico, Universidade de São Paulo


Bulgaria

Canada

The Bedford Institute of Oceanography is Canadas largest centre for ocean research. ...

China

The University of Hong Kong (HKU ; Chinese: 香港大學; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2 daai6 hok6; Mandarin Pinyin: ) is the oldest tertiary institution in Hong Kong, China. ...

Croatia

  • Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries

Finland

Finnish Institute of Marine Research


France

This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Station biologique de Roscoff The Station biologique de Roscoff (SBR) is a french marine biology and oceanography research and teaching center. ...

Germany

  • Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Bremerhaven
  • Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (MARUM), Bremen
  • Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Warnemünde
  • Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR), Kiel
  • Senckenberg by the Sea, Wilhelmshaven
  • German Marine Research Consortium

The Alfred Wegener Institute of Polar and Marine Research is a scientific organization located in Bremerhaven, Germany. ...

Greece

  • National Centre for Marine Research Association

Iceland

  • Marine Research Institute

India

The National Institute of Oceanography is a constituent laboratory of CSIR - the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, a research body of the Indian government. ...

Ireland

  • The Irish Marine Institute

Italy

  • Italian National Research Council

Netherlands

  • Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research

New Zealand

Norway

  • Institute of Marine Research

Pakistan

  • National Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Science and Technology[4]

Poland

  • Institute of Oceanography PAS

Portugal

  • Institute of Oceanography, University of Lisbon

Russia

  • P. P. Shirov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences

Spain

  • Spanish Institute of Oceanology, Madrid
  • CASEM (Marine Sciences Studies Andalusian High Center), Cádiz

Sweden

  • Stockholm Marine Research Centre

Taiwan (Republic of China)

  • Center for Maritime History, Academia Sinica
  • Institute of Marine Biology, National Sun Yat-Sen University
  • Institute of Marine Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University
  • Institute of Marine Environmental Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University
  • Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University
  • National Taiwan Ocean University

Ukraine

  • Marine Hydrophysical Institute, National Academy of Sciences

United Kingdom

National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK National Oceanography Centre, Southampton at sunset The National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (NOCS) is a purpose-built, joint venture between the University of Southampton and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). ... For other uses, see Southampton (disambiguation). ... East Sands beach, St Andrews, viewed from the Gatty Marine Laboratory The Gatty Marine Laboratory is a world leading centre of marine research with strong collaborative links with top research groups world-wide. ... For other uses, see St Andrews (disambiguation). ... Plymouth Marine Laboratory (sometimes referred to as as PML) in Plymouth, England is an independent collaborative centre of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). ... This article is about the city in England. ... The new building on the edge of Exeter The Met Office (originally an abbreviation for Meteorological Office, but now the official name in itself), which has its headquarters at Exeter in Devon, is the United Kingdoms national weather service. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ... // Bangor is a place-name found in a number of countries Bangor, New South Wales Bangor, South Australia Bangor, Tasmania Bangor, Nova Scotia Bangor, Ontario Bangor, Prince Edward Island Bangor (city), Saskatchewan Bangor (town), Saskatchewan Bangor Lodge, Saskatchewan Bangor Road, Prince Edward Island Bangor, Morbihan, Brittany Bangor, County Down, Northern...

USA

The American Geophysical Union (or AGU) is a nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting (as of 2006) of over 49,000 members from over 140 countries. ... Initiated in 1947, the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) is a scientific society with the goal of Advancing the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography. ... The Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution is in Fort Pierce, Florida. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier Scripps Institution of Oceanography (sometimes referred to as SIO, Scripps Oceanography or just Scripps) in La Jolla, California, is one of the oldest and largest centers for ocean and earth science research, graduate training, and public service in the world. ... The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers. ... The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) is a not-for-profit oceanographic research center in Moss Landing, California affiliated with the Monterey Bay Aquarium. ...

References

  1. ^ Impact from the Deep; October 2006; Scientific American Magazine; by Peter D. Ward; 8 Page(s)
  2. ^ Tom Garrison. "Oceanography: An Invitation to Marine Science" 5th edition. Thomson, 2005. Page 4.
  3. ^ Ocean Univisity of China
  4. ^ NIO-Pakistan

Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ...

See also

The American Practical Navigator , written by Nathaniel Bowditch, is an encyclopedia of navigation, a valuable handbook on oceanography and meteorology, and contains useful tables and a maritime glossary. ... Oceanic Anoxic Events occur when the Earths oceans become completely depleted of O2 below the surface levels. ... Anoxic sea water refers to water depleted of oxygen. ... Argo is a network of oceanic robotic probes coverig the Earths oceans, with a total of 3000 probes planned. ... The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) is a laboratory in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR). ... The Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center (or FNOC) is a meteorological and oceanographic center located in Monterey, California. ... The Draupner wave, a single giant wave measured on New Years Day 1995, finally confirmed the existence of freak waves, which had previously been considered near-mythical Freak waves, also known as rogue waves or monster waves, are relatively large and spontaneous ocean surface waves which can sink even... The following is a list of Oceanic basins: Aleutian Basin Agulhus Basin Angola Basin Arabian Basin Argentine Basin Bauer Basin Brazil Basin Canary Basin Cape Basin Central Pacific Basin Central Polar Basin Chile Basin Cocos Basin Guatemala Basin Guiana Basin Iceland Basin Labrador Basin North American Basin Madagascar Basin Melanesian... The Oceans Act of 2000 established the United States Commission on Ocean Policy, a working group tasked with the development of what would be known as the The objective of the report is to promote the following: Protection of life and property; Stewardship of ocean and coastal resources; Protection of... Ocean colonization is the theoretical practice of building structures to allow humans to live permanently in areas of Earth covered in water; whether floating on the surface of the ocean, secured to the ocean floor, or somewhere in between. ... The building rises from rocks Oceanographic Museum is a museum in Monaco-Ville, Monaco that houses various species of sea animals (sea stars, seahorses, turtles, jellyfish, crabs, lobsters, rays, sharks, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, eels, cuttlefish etc. ... This article is about the body of water. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Sea level measurements from 23 long tide gauge records in geologically stable environments show a rise of around 20 centimeters per century (2 mm/year). ... Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes and human remains. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Ocean engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the design, analysis and operation of systems that operate in an oceanic environment. ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ...

Related disciplines

The field of biogeochemistry involves scientific study of the chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes and reactions that govern the composition of the natural environment (including the biosphere, the hydrosphere, the pedosphere, the atmosphere, and the lithosphere), and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... Coastal geography is the study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography(i. ... Hydrography focuses on the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Lake Geneva Limnology (from Greek: Λίμνη limne, lake; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of inland waters (both fresh and saline), including their biological, physical, chemical, geological and hydrological aspects. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... True-color image of the Earths surface and atmosphere Physical geography (also know as geosystems or physiography) is a subfield of geography that focuses on the systematic study of patterns and processes within the hydrosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere. ... Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...

External links

For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ...

Further reading

  • Steele, J., K. Turekian and S. Thorpe. (2001). Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences. San Diego: Academic Press. (6 vols.) ISBN 0-12-227430-X
  • Sverdrup, Keith A., Duxbury, Alyn C., Duxbury, Alison B. (2006). Fundamentals of Oceanography, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0072826789.
Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (8192x4096, 10000 KB) Land surface, ocean color, sea ice and clouds. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oceanography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (722 words)
Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science is the study of the Earth's oceans and seas.
Physical oceanography, the study of the ocean's physical attributes (such as its temperature-salinity structure, waves, tides and currents).
Oceanography began as a quantifiable science in 1872, when the Scots Charles Wyville Thompson and John Murray launched the Challenger expedition (1872-76).
oceanography - HighBeam Encyclopedia (505 words)
OCEANOGRAPHY [oceanography] study of the seas and oceans.
Oceanography as a comprehensive study dates from the Challenger expedition (1872-76), directed by the naturalists C. Thomson, a Scot, and John Murray, a Canadian.
The term oceanography became current through reports of the expedition edited by Murray, who later became a leader in the study of ocean sediment.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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