FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ocean acidification
Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s
Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s

Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Between 1751 and 1994 surface ocean pH is estimated to have decreased from approximately 8.179 to 8.104 (a change of -0.075)[1][2]. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixels Full resolution (1683 × 1133 pixel, file size: 232 KB, MIME type: image/png) Estimated change in sea surface pH from the pre-industrial period (1700s) to the present day (1990s). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixels Full resolution (1683 × 1133 pixel, file size: 232 KB, MIME type: image/png) Estimated change in sea surface pH from the pre-industrial period (1700s) to the present day (1990s). ... The correct title of this article is . ... The correct title of this article is . ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... Layers of Atmosphere—not to scale (NOAA) [1] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ...

Contents

Carbon cycle

Pollution
v  d  e
Air pollution
Acid rainAir Quality IndexAtmospheric dispersion modelingChlorofluorocarbonGlobal dimmingGlobal warming • Haze • Indoor air qualityOzone depletionParticulateSmog
Water pollution
EutrophicationHypoxiaMarine pollutionOcean acidificationOil spillShip pollutionSurface runoffThermal pollutionWastewaterWaterborne diseasesWater qualityWater stagnation
Soil contamination
Bioremediation • Herbicide • PesticideSoil Guideline Values (SGVs)
Radioactive contamination
Actinides in the environmentEnvironmental radioactivityFission productNuclear falloutPlutonium in the environmentRadiation poisoningradium in the environmentUranium in the environment
Other types of pollution
Invasive speciesLight pollutionNoise pollutionRadio spectrum pollutionVisual pollution
Inter-government treaties
Montreal ProtocolNitrogen Oxide ProtocolKyoto Protocol • CLRTAP
Major organizations
DEFRAEPAGlobal Atmosphere WatchGreenpeaceNational Ambient Air Quality Standards
Related topics
Natural environment

In the natural carbon cycle, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) represents a balance of fluxes between the oceans, terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Human activities such as land-use changes, the combustion of fossil fuels, and the production of cement have led to a new flux of CO2 into the atmosphere. Some of this has remained in the atmosphere (where it is responsible for the rise in atmospheric concentrations), some is believed to have been taken up by terrestrial plants, and some has been absorbed by the oceans. It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... The term acid rain or more accurately acid precipitation is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, dew, or dry particles. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Eutrophication refers to an increase in the primary productivity of any ecosystem. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Pumping of highly toxic (dark black) sludge, much seeps back into the ocean in the form of particles. ... An oil spill is the unintentional release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity. ... Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... Thermal pollution is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated drinking water is consumed. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... Standing water redirects here. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil contamination is the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration of the natural soil environment. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... This article about actinides in the environment is about the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in the environment. ... The environmental radioactivity page is devoted to the subject of radioactive materials in man and his environment. ... Fission products are the residues of fission processes. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... // Radium Radium in quack medicine See the story of Eben Byers for details of one very nasty case which involved a product called Radithor this contained 1 mCi of 226Ra and 1 mCi of 228Ra per bottle. ... Uranium in the environment, this page is devoted to the science of uranium in the environment and in animals (including humans). ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Radio spectrum pollution is the straying of waves in the radio and electromagnetic spectrums outside their allocations that cause problems for some activities. ... Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person might want to look at. ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2000 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Protocol (disambiguation). ... Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes, opened for signature on 31 October 1988 and entered into force on 14 February 1991, was to provide for the control or reduction of nitrogen oxides and... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... note - abbreviated as Air Pollution opened for signature - 13 November 1979 entered into force - 16 March 1983 objective - to protect the human environment against air pollution and to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution parties - (48) Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in England. ... EPA redirects here. ... Global Atmosphere Watchs logo The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization – a United Nations agency – to monitor trends in the Earths atmosphere. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere,and atmosphere of the Earth (other astronomical objects may have similar carbon cycles, but nothing is yet known about them). ... Look up equilibrium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A false-color composite of global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ... A combustion reaction taking place in a igniting match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal and petroleum (fuel oil or natural gas), formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals[1] by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earths crust over hundreds of millions of years[2]. The theory that hydrocarbons were formed from these... In the most general sense of the word, cement is a binder, a substance which sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants...


When CO2 dissolves, it reacts with water to form a balance of ionic and non-ionic chemical species : dissolved free carbon dioxide (CO2 (aq)), carbonic acid (H2CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbonate (CO32-). The ratio of these species depends on factors such as seawater temperature and alkalinity (see the article on the ocean's solubility pump for more detail). An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... In organic chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Sea surface alkalinity (from the GLODAP climatology) Alkalinity or AT is a measure of the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence point of carbonate or bicarbonate. ... In oceanic biogeochemistry, the solubility pump is a physico-chemical process that transports carbon (as dissolved inorganic carbon) from the oceans surface to its interior. ...


Acidification

Average surface ocean pH[1]
Time pH pH change Source
Pre-industrial (1700s) 8.179 0.000 analysed field[2]
Present-day (1994) 8.104 -0.075 field[2]
2050 (2×CO2 = 560 ppm) 7.949 -0.230 model[1]
2100 (IS92a)[3] 7.824 -0.355 model[1]

Dissolving CO2 in seawater also increases the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration in the ocean, and thus decreases ocean pH. The use of the term "ocean acidification" to describe this process was introduced in Caldeira and Wickett (2003)[4]. Since the industrial revolution began, ocean pH has dropped by approximately 0.1 units (on the logarithmic scale of pH), and it is estimated that it will drop by a further 0.3 - 0.5 units by 2100 as the ocean absorbs more anthropogenic CO2[4][1][5]. Note that, although the ocean is acidifying, its pH is still greater than 7 (that of neutral water), so the ocean could also be described as becoming less alkaline. Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... Logarithms to various bases: is to base e, is to base 10, and is to base 1. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qalyالقلوي, القالي ) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. ...


Possible Impacts

Although the natural absorption of CO2 by the world's oceans helps mitigate the climatic effects of anthropogenic emissions of CO2, it is believed that the resulting decrease in pH will have negative consequences, primarily for oceanic calcifying organisms. These use the calcite or aragonite polymorphs of calcium carbonate to construct cell coverings or skeletons. Calcifiers span the food chain from autotrophs to heterotrophs and include organisms such as coccolithophores, corals, foraminifera, echinoderms, crustaceans, and some mollusks, especially pteropods. Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with chemical formula CaCO3. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Doubly refracting Calcite from Iceberg claim, Dixon, New Mexico. ... Aragonite Aragonite is a polymorph of the mineral calcite, both having the chemical composition CaCO3. ... Polymorphism in materials science is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype A heterotroph (Greek heterone = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... Coccolithophores are single-celled algae belonging to the haptophytes. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Orders Allogromiida Carterinida Fusulinida - extinct Globigerinida Involutinida - extinct Lagenida Miliolida Robertinida Rotaliida Silicoloculinida Spirillinida Textulariida incertae sedis    Xenophyophorea    Reticulomyxa The Foraminifera, or forams for short, are a large group of amoeboid protists with reticulating pseudopods, fine strands that branch and merge to form a dynamic net. ... Classes Subphylum Homalozoa Gill & Caster, 1960 Class Homostelea Class Homoiostelea Class Stylophora Gill & Caster, 1960 Class Ctenocystoidea Robison & Sprinkle, 1969 Subphylum Crinozoa Class Eocrinoidea Jaekel, 1899 Class Paracrinoidea Regnéll, 1945 Class Cystoidea von Buch, 1846 Class Blastoidea Class Crinoidea Subphylum Asterozoa Class Ophiuroidea Class Asteroidea Subphylum Echinozoa Helicoplacoidea †  ?Arkarua... Classes Remipedia Cephalocarida Branchiopoda Ostracoda Maxillopoda Malacostraca The crustaceans (Crustacea) are a large group of arthropods (55,000 species), usually treated as a subphylum. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Families Limacinidae Cavoliniidae Clioidae Creseidae Cuvierinidae Praecuvierinidae Peraclididae Cymbuliidae Desmopteridae Sea butterflies, or flapping snails, are holoplanktonic mollusks (Mollusca, Gasteropoda), belonging to the suborder Thecosomata (Blainville, 1824). ...


Under normal conditions, calcite and aragonite are stable in surface waters since the carbonate ion is at supersaturating concentrations. However, as ocean pH falls, so does the concentration of this ion, and when carbonate becomes under-saturated, structures made of calcium carbonate are vulnerable to dissolution. Research has already found that corals[6], coccolithophore algae[7] and pteropods[1] experience reduced calcification or enhanced dissolution when exposed to elevated CO2. The Royal Society of London published a comprehensive overview of ocean acidification, and its potential consequences, in June 2005[5]. The term supersaturation refers to a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances. ... The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ...


While the full ecological consequences of these changes in calcification are still uncertain, it appears likely that calcifying species will be adversely affected. There is also some evidence that the effect of acidification on coccolithophores (among the most abundant phytoplankton in the ocean) in particular may eventually exacerbate climate change, by decreasing the earth's albedo as well as oceanic cloud cover[8]. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Albedo is the ratio of reflected to incident electromagnetic radiation. ...


Aside from calcification (and specifically calcifiers), organisms may suffer other adverse effects, either directly as reproductive or physiological effects (e.g. CO2-induced acidification of body fluids, known as hypercapnia), or indirectly through negative impacts on food resources. However, as with calcification, as yet there is not a full understanding of these processes in marine organisms or ecosystems. // Hypercapnia (from the Greek hyper = above and kapnos = smoke), also known as CO2 Poisoning, is a condition where there is too much carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ...


Gallery

Sea surface "present day" (1990s) anthropogenic CO2
Sea surface "present day" (1990s) anthropogenic CO2
Vertical inventory of "present day" (1990s) anthropogenic CO2
Vertical inventory of "present day" (1990s) anthropogenic CO2
Change in surface CO32- ion from the 1700s to the 1990s

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 548 pixels Full resolution (1654 × 1133 pixel, file size: 227 KB, MIME type: image/png) Annual mean sea surface anthropogenic dissolved inorganic carbon concentration for the present day (1990s) from the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project climatology (the signal of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 548 pixels Full resolution (1654 × 1133 pixel, file size: 227 KB, MIME type: image/png) Annual mean sea surface anthropogenic dissolved inorganic carbon concentration for the present day (1990s) from the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project climatology (the signal of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixels Full resolution (1637 × 1133 pixel, file size: 384 KB, MIME type: image/png) Vertically integrated anthropogenic dissolved inorganic carbon for the present day (1990s) from the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project climatology (the signal of anthropogenic DIC was... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixels Full resolution (1637 × 1133 pixel, file size: 384 KB, MIME type: image/png) Vertically integrated anthropogenic dissolved inorganic carbon for the present day (1990s) from the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project climatology (the signal of anthropogenic DIC was... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixels Full resolution (1667 × 1133 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/png) Estimated change in sea surface carbonate ion (CO32-) concentration from the pre-industrial period (1700s) to the present day (1990s). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixels Full resolution (1667 × 1133 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/png) Estimated change in sea surface carbonate ion (CO32-) concentration from the pre-industrial period (1700s) to the present day (1990s). ...

See also

energy Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... In oceanic biogeochemistry, the biological pump is the sum of a suite of biologically-mediated processes that transport carbon from the surface euphotic zone to the oceans interior. ... Carbon sequestration from a fossil-fuel power station A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon source. The main sinks are the oceans and growing vegetation. ... In oceanic biogeochemistry, the continental shelf pump is proposed to operate in the shallow waters of the continental shelves, acting as a mechanism to transport carbon (as either dissolved or particulate material) from surface waters to the interior of the adjacent deep ocean. ... The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis project bringing together oceanographic data collected during the 1990s by research cruises on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and Ocean-Atmosphere Exchange Study (OACES) programmes. ... In oceanic biogeochemistry, the solubility pump is a physico-chemical process that transports carbon (as dissolved inorganic carbon) from the oceans surface to its interior. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Orr, J. C. et al. (2005). Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437, 681-686.
  2. ^ a b c Key, R.M., Kozyr, A., Sabine, C.L., Lee, K., Wanninkhof, R., Bullister, J., Feely, R.A., Millero, F., Mordy, C. and Peng, T.-H. (2004). A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from GLODAP. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18, GB4031.
  3. ^ Review of Past IPCC Emissions Scenarios, IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (ISBN 0521804930).
  4. ^ a b Caldeira, K., and Wickett, M.E. (2003). Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425, 365-365.
  5. ^ a b Raven, J. A. et al. (2005). Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Royal Society, London, UK.
  6. ^ Gattuso, J.-P., Frankignoulle, M., Bourge, I., Romaine, S. and Buddemeier, R. W. (1998). Effect of calcium carbonate saturation of seawater on coral calcification. Glob. Planet. Change 18, 37-46.
  7. ^ Riebesell, U. et al. (2000). Reduced calcification of marine plankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature 407, 364-367 (Subscription required).
  8. ^ Ruttiman, J. (2006). Sick Seas. Nature 442, 978-980 (Subscription required).

IPCC is science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess the risk of human-induced climate change. The Panel is open to all...

Further reading

  • Cicerone, R., J. Orr, P. Brewer et al. (2004). The Ocean in a High CO2 World. Eos. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 85, 351-353.
  • Doney, S. C. (2006). The Dangers of Ocean Acidification. Scientific American 294, 58-65 (Article preview only).
  • Feely, R. A. et al. (2004). Impact of Anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 System in the Oceans. (Abstract) Science 305, 362-366.
  • Henderson, C. (2006) Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem New Scientist 2563, 5 August 2006.
  • Jacobson, M. Z. (2005). Studying ocean acidification with conservative, stable numerical schemes for nonequilibrium air-ocean exchange and ocean equilibrium chemistry. J. Geophys. Res. Atm. 110, D07302.
  • Kleypas, J.A., R.A. Feely, V.J. Fabry, C. Langdon, C.L. Sabine, and L.L. Robbins. (2006). Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers: A Guide for Further Research, report of a workshop held 18-20 April 2005, St. Petersburg, FL, sponsored by NSF, NOAA and the U.S. Geological Survey, 88pp.
  • Kolbert, E. (2006). The Darkening Sea: Carbon emissions and the ocean. The New Yorker magazine. 20 November 2006.
  • Sabine, C. L. et al. (2004). The Oceanic Sink for Anthropogenic CO2. Science 305, 367-371.
  • Stone, R. (2007). A World Without Corals? Science 316, 678-681.

External links

RealClimate is a commentary site (blog) on climatology by a group of climate scientists for the interested public and journalists. ...

Carbonate system calculators

The following packages calculate the state of the carbonate system in seawater (including pH):


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ocean acidification Summary (700 words)
Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Between 1751 and 2004 surface ocean pH is estimated to have dropped from approximately 8.25 to 8.14 (Jacobson, 2005).
Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms.
Ocean acidification, marine organisms, and climate change (309 words)
The Royal Society paper establishes that oceans are absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, resulting in ocean acidification.
Basing analyses on 13 global carbon models assuming "business-as-usual" trends in greenhouse gas emissions, their conclusions are that the oceans will be undersaturated in calcium carbonate: leading to increasing difficulty for shelled organisms to create skeletons and shells.
Given that the oceans have already absorbed a substantial amount of carbon dioxide, we have already committed to an irreversible amount of ocean acidification.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m