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Encyclopedia > Ocean
Animated map exhibiting the world's oceanic waters. A continuous body of water encircling the Earth, the world (global) ocean is divided into a number of principal areas. Five oceanic divisions are usually recognized: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern; the last two listed are sometimes consolidated into the first three.
Earth's oceans
(World Ocean)

An ocean (from Greek Ωκεανός, Okeanos (Oceanus)) is a major body of saline water, and a principal component of the hydrosphere. Approximately 71% of the Earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers) is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water that is customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand (ppt) (3.5%), and nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... Pacific redirects here. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the northern hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest of the worlds five major oceanic divisions and the shallowest. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... Look up ocean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle, a key process of the hydrosphere. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... An open surface with X-, Y-, and Z-contours shown. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... This article is about the body of water. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ...

Contents

Overview

Though generally recognized as several 'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water often referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean.[1][2] This concept of a global ocean as a continuous body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is of fundamental importance to oceanography.[3] The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, and other criteria: these divisions are (in descending order of size) the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean (which is sometimes subsumed as the southern portions of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans), and the Arctic Ocean (which is sometimes considered a sea of the Atlantic). The Pacific and Atlantic may be further subdivided by the equator into northerly and southerly portions. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs, bays and other names. There are also some smaller bodies of saltwater that are on land and not interconnected with the World Ocean, such as the Aral Sea, and the Great Salt Lake – though they may be referred to as 'seas', they are actually salt lakes. There are five oceans of the world: the Pacific Ocean the largest and deepest ocean of the world, the Atlantic Ocean the second largest and deepest ocean of the world, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean the smallest and shallowest ocean of the world. The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere Oceanography (from the greek words Ωκεανός meaning Ocean and γράφω meaning to write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... This article is about the body of water. ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ... Look up North in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see South (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body of water. ... Bay redirects here. ... In geography, a bay or gulf is a collection of water that is surrounded by land on three sides. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt lake in the Western Hemisphere,[1] the fourth-largest terminal lake in the world,[2] and the 33rd largest lake on Earth. ... For a lake containing a high concentration of salt, see salt lake (geography). ...


The oceans cover ¾ of the earth’s surface and have great impact on the biosphere. The evaporation of these oceans is how we get most of our rainfall, and their temperature determines our climate and wind pattern. Life within the ocean had already evolved 3 billion years prior to the movement of animal and plant life on land. The amount of life and distance from shore (abiotic factor) effects the major distribution of marine biomes. Animals such as algae, branacles and muscles who live within the intertidal zone (land meets ocean) will fix themselves to rocks so they do not get washed from the resulting tides. The ocean is home to many species and consists of several other zones such as pelagic, benthic (sea floor), photic, and aphotic.[4]


Geologically, an ocean is an area of oceanic crust covered by water. Oceanic crust is the thin layer of solidified volcanic basalt that covers the Earth's mantle where there are no continents. From this perspective, there are three oceans today: the World Ocean and the Caspian and Black Seas, the latter two having been formed by the collision of Cimmeria with Laurasia. The Mediterranean Sea is very nearly a discrete ocean, being connected to the World Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, and indeed several times over the last few million years movement of the African continent has closed the strait off entirely. The Black Sea is connected to the Mediterranean through the Bosporus, but this is in effect a natural canal cut through continental rock some 7,000 years ago, rather than a piece of oceanic sea floor like the Strait of Gibraltar. For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Cimmerian plate is an ancient tectonic plate that comprises parts of present-day Iran, Afghanistan, and Tibet. ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ...


Physical properties

Further information: Sea water

The area of the World Ocean is 361 million square kilometers (139 million sq mi),[5] its volume is approximately 1.3 billion cubic kilometers (310 million cu mi)[6], and its average depth is 3,790 meters (12,430 ft).[5] Nearly half of the world's marine waters are over 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) deep.[2] The vast expanses of deep ocean (anything below 200m) cover about 66% of the Earth's surface.[7] This does not include seas not connected to the World Ocean, such as the Caspian Sea. Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


The total mass of the hydrosphere is about 1.4 × 1021 kilograms, which is about 0.023% of the Earth's total mass. Less than 2% is freshwater; the rest is saltwater, mostly in the ocean. The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle, a key process of the hydrosphere. ... Fresh water redirects here. ... For information on water from a sea or ocean, see sea water. ...


Color

Main article: Color of water

A common misconception is that the oceans are blue primarily because the sky is blue. In fact, water has a very slight blue color that can only be seen in large volumes. While the sky's reflection does contribute to the blue appearance of the surface, it is not the primary cause.[8] The primary cause is the absorption by the water molecules' nuclei of red photons from the incoming light, the only known example of color in nature resulting from vibrational, rather than electronic, dynamics.[9] The color of water is a subject of both scientific study and popular misconception. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Glow

A number of sailors and professional mariners have reported that the ocean often emits a visible glow, or luminescence, which extends for miles at night. In 2005, scientists announced that for the first time, photographic evidence had been obtained of this glow. [10] It may be due to bioluminescence. Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism as the result of a chemical reaction during which chemical energy is converted to light energy. ...


Exploration

Main article: Ocean exploration
Map of large underwater features. (1995, NOAA)

Travel on the surface of the ocean through the use of boats dates back to prehistoric times, but only in modern times has extensive underwater travel become possible. Ocean exploration is a part of oceanography describing more generally the exploration of ocean surfaces. ... Download high resolution version (1010x597, 466 KB)Ocean basins mapped with satellite altimetry. ... Download high resolution version (1010x597, 466 KB)Ocean basins mapped with satellite altimetry. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ...


The deepest point in the ocean is the Marianas Trench located in the Pacific Ocean near the Northern Mariana Islands. It has a maximum depth of 10,923 meters (35,838 ft) [11]. It was fully surveyed in 1951 by the British naval vessel, "Challenger II" which gave its name to the deepest part of the trench, the "Challenger Deep". In 1960, the Trieste successfully reached the bottom of the trench, manned by a crew of two men. The Mariana Trench is the deepest known submarine trench, and the deepest location in the Earth itself. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The bathyscaphe Trieste Trieste was a Swiss-designed deep-diving research bathyscaphe (deep boat) with a crew of two people, which reached a record-breaking depth of about 10,900 m (about 35,760 ft), in the deepest part of any ocean on earth, the Challenger Deep in the Mariana...


Much of the bottom of the world's oceans are unexplored and unmapped. A global image of many underwater features larger than 10 kilometers (6 mi) was created in 1995 based on gravitational distortions of the nearby sea surface.


Regions

The major oceanic divisions
The major oceanic divisions

Oceans are divided into numerous regions depending on the physical and biological conditions of these areas. The pelagic zone includes all open ocean regions, and can be subdivided into further regions categorized by depth and light abundance. The photic zone covers the oceans from surface level to 200 meters down. This is the region where the photosynthesis most commonly occurs and therefore contains the largest biodiversity in the ocean. Since plants can only survive with photosynthesis any life found lower than this must either rely on material floating down from above (see marine snow) or find another primary source; this often comes in the form of hydrothermal vents in what is known as the aphotic zone (all depths exceeding 200m). The pelagic part of the photic zone is known as the epipelagic. The pelagic part of the aphotic zone can be further divided into regions that succeed each other vertically. The mesopelagic is the uppermost region, with its lowermost boundary at a thermocline of 12°C, which, in the tropics generally lies between 700 and 1,000 m. After that is the bathypelagic lying between 10°C and 4°C, or between 700 or 1,000 m and 2,000 or 4,000 m. Lying along the top of the abyssal plain is the abyssalpelagic, whose lower boundary lies at about 6,000 m. The final zone falls into the oceanic trenches, and is known as the hadalpelagic. This lies between 6,000 m and 10,000 m and is the deepest oceanic zone. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone. ... The photic zone is the depth of the water, whether in a lake or an ocean, that is exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur. ... In the deep ocean, marine snow is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column. ... Hydrothermal vents are fissures in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... The aphotic zone is the depth of the ocean that is not exposed to sunlight. ... The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i. ... The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i. ... The thermocline is a layer within a body of water where the temperature changes rapidly with depth. ... The pelagic zone is the part of the open sea or ocean comprising the water column, i. ... Layers of the pelagic zone The abyssal zone is the pelagic zone that contains the very deep benthic communities near the bottom of oceans. ... The Hadal Zone is the deepest part of the Earth. ...


Along with pelagic aphotics zones there are also benthic aphotic zones, these correspond to the three deepest zones. The bathyal zone covers the continental slope and the rise down to about 4,000 m. The abyssal zone covers the abyssal plains between 4,000 and 6,000 m. Lastly, the hadal zone corresponds to the hadalpelagic zone which is found in the oceanic trenches. The pelagic zone can also be split into two subregions, the neritic zone and the oceanic zone. The neritic encompasses the water mass directly above the continental shelves, while the oceanic zone includes all the completely open water. In contrast, the littoral zone covers the region between low and high tide and represents the transitional area between marine and terrestrial conditions. It is also known as the intertidal zone because it is the area where tide level affects the conditions of the region. In marine geology and biology, benthos are the organisms and habitats of the sea floor; in freshwater biology they are the organisms and habitats of the bottoms of lakes, rivers, and creeks. ... The layers of the pelagic zone. ... The abyssal zone contains the very deep benthic communities near the bottom of oceans. ... Hadal is the term used designate the deepest parts of the oceans, especially parts below 6,000 meters (19,700 feet). ... The neritic zone spans from the low-tide line to the edge of the continental shelf in oceans. ... The continental shelf is an area of relatively shallow sea water that is found on the edge of each continent. ... A littoral is the region near the shoreline of a body of fresh or salt water. ... It has been suggested that Intertidal ecology, Foreshore and Littoral be merged into this article or section. ...


Climate effects

One of the most dramatic forms of weather occurs over the oceans: tropical cyclones (also called "typhoons" and "hurricanes" depending upon where the system forms). Ocean currents greatly affect the Earth's climate by transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, where they may be carried inland by winds. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current encircles that continent, influencing the area's climate and connecting currents in several oceans. For other uses, see Weather (disambiguation). ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Ocean currents (1911) Ocean currents (1943) An ocean current is any more or less continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an ocean current that flows from west to east around Antarctica. ...


Ecology

Lifeforms native to oceans include (among others):

Phyla Cnidaria Ctenophora The Radiata are the radially symmetric animals of the Eumetazoa subregnum. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation). ... Genera Neophocaena Phocoena - Harbor porpoise Phocoenoides - Dalls porpoise The porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. ... Orders Subclass Nautiloidea †Plectronocerida †Ellesmerocerida †Actinocerida †Pseudorthocerida †Endocerida †Tarphycerida †Oncocerida †Discosorida Nautilida †Orthocerida †Ascocerida †Bactritida Subclass †Ammonoidea †Goniatitida †Ceratitida †Ammonitida Subclass Coleoidea †Belemnoidea †Aulacocerida †Belemnitida †Hematitida †Phragmoteuthida Neocoleoidea (most living cephalopods) ?†Boletzkyida Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Teuthida Octopoda Vampyromorphida The cephalopods (Greek plural (kephalópoda); head-foot) are the mollusc class... For other uses, see Octopus (disambiguation). ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Any worm that lives in a marine environment is considered a marine worm. ... This article is about the real-life under-sea organisms. ... Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine... Classes Asteroidea Concentricycloidea Crinoidea Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiuroidea Echinoderms (Echinodermata) is a phylum of marine animals found in the ocean at all depths. ...

Economy

The oceans are essential to transportation: most of the world's goods are moved by ship between the world's seaports. Important ship canals include the Saint Lawrence Seaway, Panama Canal, and Suez Canal. They are also an important source of valuable food items for the fishing industry. Some of these are shrimp, fish, crabs and lobster. For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... A ship canal is a canal especially constructed to carry ocean-going ships, as opposed to barges. ... The Eisenhower Locks in Massena, NY. The St. ... The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Phthirus pubis Pubic lice (Phthirus pubis), also known as crabs , are one of the many varieties of lice (singular louse) specialized to live on different areas of different animals. ... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ...


Ancient oceans

Genesis of an ocean
Genesis of an ocean

Continental drift has reconfigured the Earth's oceans, joining and splitting ancient oceans to form the current oceans. Ancient oceans include: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 418 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,614 × 2,312 pixels, file size: 301 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 418 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,614 × 2,312 pixels, file size: 301 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ...

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Insular Islands were a giant chain of active volcanic islands somewhere in the Pacific Ocean during the Cretaceous time that rode on top a microplate called the Insular Plate, beginning around 130 million years ago. ... North American redirects here. ... The Iapetus Ocean was an Ocean that existed in the Southern Hemisphere between Scotland, England and Scandinavia between 400 and 600 million years ago. ... Baltica (green) Baltica is a Late Proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic continent that now includes the East European craton of northwestern Eurasia. ... Avalonia was a paleomicrocontinent also known as a Terrane. ... Panthalassa (Greek for all seas) was the vast ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea during the late Paleozoic era and the early Mesozoic era. ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ... The Rheic Ocean was an ocean in the Paleozoic Era that existed between the continent of Baltica (northern Europe) and number of terranes broken up from Gondwana, including the future southern Europe. ... The Slide Mountain Ocean was an ancient ocean that existed between the Intermontane Islands and North America sometime during the Triassic time beginning around 245 million years ago. ... The Intermontane Islands where a volcanic chain in the Pacific Ocean during the Jurassic period. ... Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... Khanty Ocean was an ancient, small ocean that existed near the end of the Precambrian time to the Silurian. ... Mirovia (from Russian мировой, mirovoy, meaning global) was a global ocean that encompassed the supercontinent Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic era, about 1 billion to 750 million years ago. ... In geology, Rodinia (from the Russian родина, or motherland) refers to one of the oldest known supercontinents, which contained most or all of Earths then-current landmass. ... The Paleo-Tethys Ocean was an ancient Paleozoic ocean. ... Proto-Tethys Ocean was an ancient ocean that existed from the latest Ediacaran to the Carboniferous. ... The Pan-African Ocean is an hypothesized paleo-ocean that surrounded the supercontinent of Pannotia. ... Pannotia is the name given to a hypothetical supercontinent that existed from about 600 to about 540 mya. ... The supercontinent Pangaea surrounded by the superocean Panthalassa. ... Ural Ocean was a small, ancient ocean that was situated between Siberia and Baltica. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Baltica (green) Baltica is a Late Proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic continent that now includes the East European craton of northwestern Eurasia. ...

Extraterrestrial oceans

See also Extraterrestrial liquid water

Earth is the only known planet with liquid water on its surface and is certainly the only one in our own solar system. However, liquid water is thought to be present under the surface of the Galilean moons Europa and, with less certainty, Callisto and Ganymede. Geysers have been found on Enceladus, though these may not involve bodies of liquid water. Other icy moons may have once had internal oceans that have now frozen, such as Triton. The planets Uranus and Neptune may also possess large oceans of liquid water under their thick atmospheres, though their internal structure is not well understood at this time. Extraterrestrial liquid water, the presence of water in its liquid state, is a subject of wide interest because it is a commonly suggested prerequisite for the emergence of extraterrestrial life. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... There is also an asteroid named 204 Kallisto. ... This article is about the natural satellite of Jupiter. ... Strokkur geyser, Iceland A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ... Apparent magnitude 11. ... Triton (trye-tÉ™n, IPA: , Greek Τρίτων), or Neptune I, is the planet Neptunes largest moon. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 120 kPa Hydrogen 83% Helium 15% Methane 1. ... Atmospheric characteristics Surface pressure ≫100 MPa Hydrogen - H2 80% ±3. ...


There is currently much debate over whether Mars once had an ocean of water in its northern hemisphere, and over what happened to it if it did; recent findings by the Mars Exploration Rover mission indicate it had some long-term standing water in at least one location, but its extent is not known. Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars (credit: Maas Digital LLC) Marvin the Martian, Spirit rover Mission patch Duck Dodgers, Opportunity rover Mission patch NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of two rovers â€” Spirit...


Astronomers believe that Venus had liquid water and perhaps oceans in its very early history. If they existed, all trace of them seems to have vanished in later resurfacing. Venus, the second planet from the Sun, has an atmosphere very different from that of Earth. ... A global view of Venus made from a mosaic of radar images from the Magellan spacecraft, centred at 90 degrees longitude. ...


Liquid hydrocarbons are thought to be present on the surface of Titan, though it may be more accurate to describe them as "lakes" rather than an "ocean." The Cassini-Huygens space mission initially discovered only what appeared to be dry lakebeds and empty river channels, suggesting that Titan had lost what surface liquids it might have had. A more recent fly-by of Titan made by Cassini has produced radar images that strongly suggest hydrocarbon lakes near the polar regions where it is colder. Titan is also thought likely to have a subterranean water ocean under the mix of ice and hydrocarbons that forms its outer crust. Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ... Cassini-Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ...


Beyond the solar system, Gliese 581 c is at the right distance from its sun for liquid water to exist on the planet's surface. Since it does not transit its sun, there is no way to know if there is any water there. HD 209458b may have water vapour in its atmosphere--this is currently being disputed. Gliese 436 b is believed to have "hot ice." Neither of these planets are cool enough for liquid water--but if water molecules exist there, they are also likely to be found on planets at a suitable temperature.[12] Gliese 581 c (IPA: ) is a super-earth extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf star Gliese 581. ... HD 209458b is an extrasolar planet that orbits the Sun-like star HD 209458 in the constellation Pegasus, some 150 light years from Earths solar system. ... Gliese 436 b (IPA: ) (GJ 436 b)[1] is a Neptune-sized extrasolar planet orbiting the red dwarf star Gliese 436. ...


Mythology

The original concept of "ocean" goes back to notions of Mesopotamian and Indo-European mythology, imagining the world to be encircled by a great river. Okeanos, "Ωκεανός" in Greek, reflects the ancient Greek observation that a strong current flowed off Gibraltar and their subsequent assumption that it was a great river. (Compare also Samudra from Hindu mythology and Jörmungandr from Norse mythology.) The world was imagined to be enclosed by a celestial ocean above the heavens, and an ocean of the underworld below (compare Rasā, Varuna). Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus, the thunderer. ... Oceanus or Okeanos refers to the ocean, which the Greeks and Romans regarded as a river circling the world. ... Samudra is a Sanskrit term for ocean. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... Thor goes fishing for the Midgard Serpent in this picture from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Several mythologies have the notion of a celestial ocean or river, enveloping the world both above the heavenly sphere and below the underworld. ... Rasa () means moisture, humitidy in Vedic Sanskrit, and appears as the name of a western tributary of the Indus in the Rigveda (verse 5. ... In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ...


See also

earthdive is a revolutionary new concept in social responsibility - a global project for millions of divers, snorkellers and ordinary citizens who can help change the world in which they live. ... Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to... Admiralty law (usually referred to as simply admiralty and also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ... A marginal sea is a part of ocean partially enclosed by land such as islands, archipelagos, or peninsulas. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... A turtle is trapped in a ghost net, an abandoned fishing net Marine debris usually applies to floating waste such as bottles, cans, styrofoam, cruise ship waste, offshore oil and gas exploration and production facilities pollution, and fishing paraphanalia from professional and recreational boaters. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere Oceanography (from the greek words Ωκεανός meaning Ocean and γράφω meaning to write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Scale diagram of the layers of the pelagic zone. ... This article is about the body of water. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Sea level measurements from 23 long tide gauge records in geologically stable environments show a rise of around 20 centimeters per century (2 mm/year). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sea state refers to the height, period, and character of waves on the surface of a large body of water. ... -1... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... World Ocean Day began on 8 June 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ...

References

  1. ^ "Ocean". The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2002. New York: Columbia University Press
  2. ^ a b "Distribution of land and water on the planet". UN Atlas of the Oceans
  3. ^ Spilhaus, Athelstan F. 1942 (Jul.). "Maps of the whole world ocean." Geographical Review (American Geographical Society). Vol. 32 (3): pp. 431-5.
  4. ^ Biology: Concepts & Connections. Chapter 34: The Biosphere: An Introduction to Earth's Diverse Environments (sec 34.7)
  5. ^ a b "The World's Oceans and Seas". Encarta.
  6. ^ Qadri, Syed (2003). "Volume of Earth's Oceans". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  7. ^ Drazen, Jeffrey C.. "Deep-Sea Fishes". School of Ocean Earth Science and Technology, University of University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  8. ^ BAD PHYSICS: Misconceptions spread by K-6 Grade School Textbooks
  9. ^ Braun, C. L. and Smirnov, S. N. (1993) Why is water blue? J. Chem. Edu. 70, 612.
  10. ^ Mystery Ocean Glow Confirmed in Satellite Photos, By Robert Roy Britt, LiveScience Managing Editor, October 4, 2005.
  11. ^ Ocean Studies - RAIN
  12. ^ Hot "ice" may cover recently discovered planet [1]

The American Geographical Society (AGS) was founded in 1851 in New York City, New York as a non-profit organization with the goal of increasing worldwide knowledge of geography. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up Ocean in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Wiktionary-logo-en. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers. ...

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