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Encyclopedia > Occupations of Palestine
The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed.
Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page.

Occupations of Palestine have been known to occur for as long as the people of the Middle East have kept written records. However, the term "occupation of Palestine", in modern contexts, typically refers to the Israeli rule of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, although Israel and its advocates abroad disagree that it is an occupation. This usage sometimes reflects the perspective that the region or parts of it should be "returned" to its "rightful owners", the Palestinians. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ...


The modern focus on the Arab point of view that Israel's presence in Palestine is ethically objectionable (from a religious, cultural, political and legal standpoint) informs nearly all discussion of this topic in the Western world.


Conquest of the region of Palestine has occurred several times throughout history, making it one of the most violently disputed regions on Earth. As of 2004, conflict continues in the area. Palestine is the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River, plus various adjoining lands to the east. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See:

This article discusses historical episodes of military control of this Middle Eastern region, which sometimes has been said to include Jordan, as wall as parts of Lebanon and Syria. In the past two decades, discussion of this area has focussed on the modern state of Israel, along with the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. The History of Palestine is the account of events in Palestine from ancient times to the present. ... Palestine is the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River, plus various adjoining lands to the east. ... The term Palestine and the related term Palestinian have several overlapping (and occasionally contradictory) definitions. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The entire region was occupied several times throughout history, and it remains one of the most violently disputed regions. For the current Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, see Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...

Contents


In the Bible

The earliest extant records of the area, going back over three thousand years ago, derive from the Bible when it was originally called the Land of Canaan. It was inhabited by a number of ancient tribes, such as the Jebusites, Amorites, and the Hivites each battling the other. The holy jewish scripture: The Torah. ... This article is about the land called Canaan. ... Jebus redirects here. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... The Hivites were one of the peoples displaced by the Hebrew conquest of Canaan. ...


According to the Bible, the land was promised to the Children of Israel, the descendants of the Biblical Patriarch, Abraham. When they returned there following their Exodus from ancient Egypt, they battled with the native inhabitants; their primary opponents were the ancient Philistines who were based in ancient Gaza. Eventually the ancient Kingdom of Israel (which later split between the northern Kingdom of Israel) and a southern Kingdom of Judah were established which lasted until the advent of Roman times. The Children of Israel (Hebrew: בני ישראל Bnai Yisrael or Bnei Yisrael or Bnei Yisroel) is a Biblical term for the Israelites. ... Abraham (אַבְרָהָם Father/Leader of many, Standard Hebrew Avraham, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇrāhām; Arabic ابراهيم Ibrāhīm) is the patriarch of Judaism, recognized by Christianity, and a very important prophet in Islam. ... For other uses of the name, see Exodus (disambiguation) Exodus is the second book of the Torah (the five books of Moses) and also the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and Christian Old Testament. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... The city of Gaza is the principal city in the Gaza Strip. ... The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew: מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʼel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʼēl) according to the Bible, was the Kingdom proclaimed by the Israelite nation around 1021 BCE. The nation itself was formed as the Israelites left Egypt during the Exodus at an uncertain date, often considered to... The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah son...


The Book of Genesis and Book of Joshua provide a scriptural view of God helping the ancient Hebrew tribes to gain dominion over this region. Jewish and most Christian sects accept these books as evidence of divine approval for the Jewish conquest of ancient Palestine. Other religious traditions dispute this interpretation. This article is about Genesis, the first book of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The term God is used to designate a Supreme Being; however, there are other definitions of God. ...


Assyria, Babylonia, Persia

The first occupation of the land by a major world power occurred when the Assyrians expanded from their cities near the Tigris river and eventually invaded, occupied and destroyed the northern Kingdom of Israel in the 8th century (BC) expelling and exiling what was to become known as the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. Assyria in earliest historical times referred to a region on the Upper Tigris river, named for its original capital, the city of Asshur (or Ashshur). ... Tigris River in Mosul, Iraq The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew: מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʼel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʼēl) according to the Bible, was the Kingdom proclaimed by the Israelite nation around 1021 BCE. The nation itself was formed as the Israelites left Egypt during the Exodus at an uncertain date, often considered to... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ...


Babylonia then conquered the area and occupied the Kingdom of Judah. It destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem around 586 BC, and Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon sent most of the Judeans into the Babylonian captivity. Babylonia was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah son... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Beit HaMikdash בית המקדש in Hebrew) was built in ancient Jerusalem and was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC Events and Trends 589 BC - Apries succeeds Psammetichus II as king of Egypt 588 BC _ Nebuchadnezzar II of... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ... The Babylonian captivity, or Babylonian exile, is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. ...


Persia then rose to world power and one of its kings, Cyrus allowed the Judeans, also called the Jews to rebuild the Second Temple in Jerusalem. Persia and Persian can refer to: the Western name for Iran. ... The name Cyrus (or Koroush in Farsi) may refer to: Cyrus I of Anshan -- King of Persia around 650 B.C. Cyrus the Great -- King of Persia 576 B.C. - 529 B.C. Cyrus the Younger -- died 401 B.C. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... Drawing of Herods Second Temple in Jerusalem A stone (2. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim; Arabic: القدس al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ...


Rome and Greece

Under the leadership of Alexander the Great, Ancient Greece defeated Persia and entered into Judea. Under Alexander peace reigned, but after his death the Syrian-Greek Seleucids invaded the land and were defeated by the Judean Hasmoneans, the Maccabees. Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king Darius (Pompei mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original, now lost). ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BC. Origin of the Hasmonean dynasty The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is... The Maccabees were a Jewish family who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ...


With the rise of Rome the Roman Empire expanded to encompass the entire Mediterranean Basin. Eventually they instituted harsh rule provoking the Great Jewish Revolt against Rome. The history of Rome's destruction of Jerusalem and their bloody occupation and has been preserved by the historian Josephus. It was also the time of Jesus and the subsequent birth of Christianity from Judaism. City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... Satellite image Map of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... The Great Jewish Revolt (66–73 CE), sometimes called The first Jewish-Roman War, was the first of two major rebellions by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire (the second was Bar Kokhbas revolt in 132-135). ... The Destruction of Jerusalem (specifically, the Second Destruction of Jerusalem) was the culmination of the successful campaign of Titus Flavius against Judea after an unsuccessful attack four years prior by Cestius Gallus. ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... As historian E. P. Sanders has observed, of all the religions that existed within the Roman Empire, only two have widespread followings today: Rabbinic Judaism and Christianity, both of which have their origins in Roman-occupied Palestine, both of which claim to be based on the Hebrew Bible/New Testament... Comparing and contrasting Judaism and Christianity suggests that Judaism and Christianity are not necessarily part of the same Judeo-Christian tradition. ...


After crushing Bar Kokhba's revolt in 135, Emperor Hadrian wiped the name Provincia Judaea off the map and renamed the land Provincia Syria Palaestina, a Greek name derived from the Hebrew word "Philistine" (פלשת) and renamed Jerusalem "Aelia Capitolina." [1]. Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt, was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Judea. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... Emperor Hadrian Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 - July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117 - 138, and member of the gens Aelia Hadrian was born in Italica, Hispania, to a well-established settler family. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... See related article Occupations of Palestine. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ...


Byzantines, Sassanians, Muslims, Crusaders

It was the Byzantine Empire (Roman Eastern Empire) that then continued to dominate the land that the Romans had now re-named Provincia Syria Palaestina which by then had become a neglected and arid land after centuries of strife. The Christian Byzantines fostered a line of spiritual leaders over Jerusalem that has continued until the present, see the List of Greek Orthodox Patriarchs of Jerusalem as an example of this outlook. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, a Christian state of the Greek nation, centred at its capital in Constantinople. ... See related article Occupations of Palestine. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim; Arabic: القدس al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ... Jerusalme Bishops Name & Dates Jacob (Greek bishop) 62 Simeon (Greek bishop) 106-107 Ioustos I until 111 Zakheos 111-134 Tobias 111-134 Beniamin I 111-134 John I (Greek bishop) 111-134 Matthew I 111-134 Fillip 111-134 Senekas 111-134 Ioustos II 111-134 Levis (Greek bishop...


During a protracted conflict with the Byzantine Empire, the Sassanian Empire under Khosrau II briefly wrested control of the region from the Byzantines. An invasion of Mesopotamia by Byzantine Emperor Heraclius forced the Sassanians to withdraw. Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Khosrau II, the Victorious (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... Flavius Heraclius Augustus (c. ...


After the death of Muhammad, the Muslims invaded and occupied Syria Palaestina along with Iraq, Egypt, and Yemen establishing various Caliphs and dynasties. It is not clear what these various Arab rulers called Palestine, but it is known that they considered Jerusalem to be a holy city and called it Al-Quds meaning "Holy Place" as they viewed themselves as descendants of Ishmael son of Abraham by Hagar the Egyptian. Due to the split in Islam between Sunni Islam and Shi'a Islam, each has had rival historic claims to the holy places of Jerusalem. Muhammad   listen? (Arabic: , also transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, Muhammed, and sometimes Mahomet, following the Latin or Turkish) was an Arab religious and political leader and the final prophet of Islam. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... See related article Occupations of Palestine. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب Ê»arab) are an originally Arabian ethnicity widespread in the Middle East and North Africa. ... This article explores the different names of Jerusalem and their linguistic natures, etc. ... Ishmael, a person mentioned in both the Torah and the Quran, is in traditional Jewish, Christian and Islamic belief, the ancestor of the Arabs. ... Abraham (אַבְרָהָם Father/Leader of many, Standard Hebrew Avraham, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAḇrāhām; Arabic ابراهيم Ibrāhīm) is the patriarch of Judaism, recognized by Christianity, and a very important prophet in Islam. ... Hagar (Arabic هجر Hajar; Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew Hāḡār) is an Egyptian-born servant of Sarah, wife of Abraham in the Book of Genesis and in the Torah. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam (Arabic: or follower. ...


The Crusades by the Christian European lands brought a fervor to liberate Jerusalem from the Muslims. During the First Crusade Jerusalem was taken and many of its Jews and Muslims were killed. (Along the way thousands of Ashkenazi Jews were killed even though they were living in Europe at the time). A Christian Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem was established in the 12th century which lasted for about two hundred years. Some current monarchs still lay claim, albeit silently, to this "kingdom", see Kings of Jerusalem. This article is about the medieval Crusades . ... The term Christian means belonging to Christ and is derived from the Greek noun Χριστός Khristós which means anointed one, which is itself a translation of the Hebrew word Moshiach (Hebrew: משיח, also written Messiah), (and in Arabic it is pronounced Maseeh مسيح). Christian is primarily an adjective, describing an object associated... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, Standard Hebrew Aškanazim, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzîm), are Jews who are descendants of Jews from Germany, Poland, Austria and Eastern Europe. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a short-lived country established in the 12th century by the First Crusade. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ...


Mamluks and Ottomans

The Islamic Mamluks of Egypt took control of the land after the defeat of the Crusaders. The Mamluk ruling class, descended from former slaves of foreign origin, built a powerful dynasty. They co-operated with the rising Ottoman Empire but by 1517 Sultan Selim I took the land of ancient Israel and Judea from the Mamluks (1250–1517). The Ottomans had a benevolent attitude towards the Jews, having welcomed thousands of Jewish refugees who had been expelled from Spain by Ferdinand II in 1492. The Sultan was so taken with Jerusalem and its plight that he ordered that a magnificent surrounding fortress-wall be built around the entire city. This wall still stands and can be seen today. See Suleiman the Magnificent. An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks or Mamelukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish National Anthem The March for Sultan Abdul-Mejid Capital Ä°stanbul (Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 6. ... Events January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh. ... Selim I Selim I (1465 – September 22, 1520; also known as the Grim, nicknamed Yavuz, the Brave in Turkish) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided between Israel, Jordan and the West Bank. ... Ferdinand and his wife Isabella of Castile Ferdinand II (Fernando de Aragón in Spanish and Ferran dAragó in Catalan), nicknamed the Catholic (March 10, 1452 – June 23, 1516) was king of Aragon, Castile, Sicily, Naples, Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Events January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim; Arabic: القدس al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman, (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was born...


The Ottoman Turks ruled Palestine for almost exactly four hundred years until their defeat and expulsion at the hands of the British in 1917. 1917 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...


France, Great Britain, Versailles, League of Nations

Napoleon of France briefly waged war against the remaining Mamluks and Turkey (allied then with Great Britain). His forces conquered and occupied cities in Palestine, but they were finally defeated and driven out by 1801. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


World War I saw Turkey on the side of the losing Germans as a result of which Palestine was captured by Great Britain's army (now allied with France) led by General Allenby in a series of battles. (See the battles of the Third Battle of Gaza and Battle of Beersheba). Allenby famously dismounted from his horse when he entered captured Jerusalem as a mark of respect for the Holy City. He was greeted by all the Christian, Jewish, and Islamic leaders of the city with great honor. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby (April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier most famous for his role during World War I. Field Marshal Edmund Allenby Early years and active service Born in Brackenhurst, Nottinghamshire, Allenby was educated at Haileybury College. ... Third Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 31 October–7 November 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Allied victory The Third Battle of Gaza was fought in 1917 in southern Palestine during World War I. The British forces under the command of General Edmund Allenby successfully broke the... The Battle of Beersheba took place on October 31, 1917, as part of the Sinai and Palestine campaign during World War I. The Australian 4th Light Horse Brigade, under Brigadier General William Grant, charged more than four miles at the Turkish trenches, overran them and captured the wells at Beersheba. ... The term Christian means belonging to Christ and is derived from the Greek noun Χριστός Khristós which means anointed one, which is itself a translation of the Hebrew word Moshiach (Hebrew: משיח, also written Messiah), (and in Arabic it is pronounced Maseeh مسيح). Christian is primarily an adjective, describing an object associated... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


At the subsequent 1919 Paris Peace Conference and Treaty of Versailles, Turkey lost its Middle East empire. The British had in the interim made two agreements. In the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence there was an undertaking to form an Arab state in exchange for the Great Arab Revolt and in the Balfour Declaration in 1917 to "favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people". Prior to the conference Emir Faisal, son of the king of part of modern Saudi Arabia, but Syria at the time, had agreed in the Faisal-Weizmann Agreement to support the immigration of Jews into Palestine as part of a larger Arab state. When the conference did not produce that Arab state, Faisal called instead for Palestine to become part of his Arab Syrian kingdom. 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, negotiated the treaties ending World War I. The Paris Peace Conference, 1946, negotiated the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, with Germanys [[World War II allies and co-belligerents in Europe. ... Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ... The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence during World War I was a 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Hejazi (the Hejaz later became part of Saudi Arabia) leader Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab... The Arab Revolt (1916–1918) was initiated by Sherif Hussein ibn Ali with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Yemen. ... The name Balfour Declaration is applied to two key British government policy statements associated with Conservative statesman Arthur Balfour. ... 1917 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Faisal I Faisal ibn Husayn (May 20, 1883 – September 8, 1933) was for a short while king of Greater Syria in 1920 and king of Iraq from 1921 to 1933. ... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal, son of the King of Hejaz and Chaim Weizmann, later President of the World Zionist Organization. ...


McMahon's promises are seen by Arab nationalists as a pledge of immediate Arab independence, an undertaking violated by the region's subsequent partition into British and French League of Nations mandates under the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 1916 (undermining the work of Lawrence of Arabia) and which became the real cornerstone of the geopolitics structuring the entire region. League of Nations mandates were territories established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, 28 June 1919. ... The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective areas of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ... The “Chess revolution” by Nick Gabrichidze is believed to be inspired by Zbigniew Brzezinski’s 1997 book The Grand Chessboard the contemporary Bible of geopolitics Geopolitics analyses politics, history and social science with reference to geography. ...


There is a question over the issue of whether Palestine was not excluded from the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence agreement, and it is claimed that Palestine was part of the agreement. However, McMahon later claimed it was excluded from the discussions. Britain later promised to favour the creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine in the Balfour Declaration of November 1917. Certainly, to Chaim Weizmann and the World Zionist Organization of which he was president, the goal was the establishment of a completely independent Jewish state in Palestine, as it was the historic "Jewish homeland", to be attained as soon as possible. The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence during World War I was a 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Hejazi (the Hejaz later became part of Saudi Arabia) leader Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab... The Balfour Declaration was a letter of November 2, 1917 from British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation. ... Chaim Weizmann Chaim Weizmann (חיים ויצמן) (also: Chaijim W., Haim W.) ( November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected May 16, 1948, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel which eventually became the Weizmann Institute... The World Zionist Organization [WZO] was founded as the Zionist Organization [ZO] on September 3, 1897, at the First Zionist Congress held in Basel, Switzerland. ...


In 1920 the new League of Nations established the British Mandate of Palestine, which identified two territories of different administration, one to the west of the Jordan River, the other to the east. Article 25 specified that the eastern area did not have to be subject to all parts of the Mandate, notably the provisions regarding a Jewish homeland. This was used by the British as one rationale to establish an Arab state, thereby at least partially fulfilling the undertakings in the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence. On 11 April 1921 the British passed administration of the eastern region to the Hashemite Arab dynasty from the Hejaz in Saudi Arabia as the kingdom of Transjordan and on 15 May 1923 recognized it as a state. The western area was populated by a competing and growing Jewish and Arab population that came to resent and fight each other for the same land. In 1936 the British Peel Commission advised that the western part of Palestine be divided between Arabs and Jews. 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the First World War at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... This article is about the Jordan River in western Asia. ... The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence during World War I was a 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Hejazi (the Hejaz later became part of Saudi Arabia) leader Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Hashemite traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashim, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ... Corresponding geographically to todays Kingdom of Jordan, the Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political subdivision of the British Mandate of Palestine, split off in April 1921. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Peel Commission of 1936, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the British Mandate of Palestine following the outbreak of the Great Uprising. ...


However, to both Arabs and Jews, Palestine was seen as being occupied by the British. The Jews in particular organized the Irgun and Lehi to fight the British and the Haganah and Palmach to fight the Arabs. In retaliation, some Arabs expressed their rage against the Jewish population in incidents such as the Jerusalem pogrom of April, 1920, the Riots in Palestine of May, 1921; the 1929 Hebron massacre; and the 1936 Great Uprising (with incitement by the militant Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Amin al-Husayni). By the time order was restored in March of 1939, more than 3,000 Arabs, 2,000 Jews, and 600 Britons had been killed. Irgun poster showing their view of the Land of Israel Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a paramilitary Zionist group that operated in the British Mandate of Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... Avraham Stern Lehi (Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel) was a radical self-described terrorist group that had as its goal the eviction of the British from Palestine to allow unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of a Jewish state. ... The Haganah (Hebrew: Defense, ×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in Palestine during the British mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... The Palmach (in Hebrew - פלמח ) was the regular fighting force of the Haganah (the underground army of Jewish settlers during the British mandate in Palestine). ... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem in April 4-7, 1920. ... On May 1, 1921, a scuffle began in Tel Aviv-Jaffa between rival groups of Jewish Bolsheviks, carrying Yiddish banners demanding Soviet Palestine, and Socialists parading on May Day. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Great Uprising, or Great Revolt, was a violent rebellion by Arabs in the British Mandate of Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


United Nations, Partition of Palestine, Israel

The United Nations was created after World War II and in order to bring the British occupation of Palestine to an end, issued the 1947 UN Partition Plan seeking a "two-state solution" by creating both a new Jewish state and an Arab state. The Arab states rejected the United Nations and Great Britain's plan. Under duress, the British finally pulled out and the new State of Israel was created with the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air, August 9, 1945. ... Map showing the UN Partition Plan. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... The Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948 David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ...


This was followed by immediate war and the invasion of Lebanese, Syrian, Iraqi, Egyptian, Transjordanian, Saudi Arabian and Yemenite troops beginning the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The Arabs were defeated and the 1949 Armistice Agreements brought a cease-fire. Corresponding geographically to todays Kingdom of Jordan, the Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political subdivision of the British Mandate of Palestine, split off in April 1921. ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... The Republic of Yemen is a country in the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, and is a part of the Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia. ... // The 1948 Arab-Israeli War, called the War of Independence (Hebrew: מלחמת העצמאות) by Israelis and al Nakba (Arabic: النكبة, the catastrophe) by Arabs, was the first in a series of wars in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ...


Palestinians, Jordan, Egypt

The neighboring Arab states did not establish a Palestinian state following the 1948 war with Israel. They concentrated on the fate of Palestinian refugees. Relief work was overseen by such bodies as the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, with little financial aid from independent oil-rich Arab states such as Saudi Arabia. In their view, Israel was now occupying Palestinian (Arab) land that they felt the UN and the British had no right to give away. They absolutely refused to recognize Israel and enacted boycotts against it. Thus, hundreds of thousands of Arab refugees fled from the former war zone in Palestine to neighboring Arab countries where they have remained in refugee camps. In the years following the war hundreds of thousands of Sephardic Jews who had lived in North Africa and the Middle East for over 2,500 years (having lived there long before the rise of Islam), fled persecution by newly-nationalistic Arab states, without material compensation, and headed for Israel. See Immigration to Israel from Arab lands. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency, providing education, healthcare, social services and emergency aid to over four million refugees living in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and the Syrian Arab republic. ... A boycott is a refusal to buy, sell, or otherwise trade with an individual or business who is generally believed by the participants in the boycott to be doing something morally wrong. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal: ספרד, Standard Hebrew Səfárad, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄áraḏ / Səp̄āraḏ), or whose ancestors were among the Jews expelled from... History of Jews in Arab lands Jews lived in what are now Arab and Muslim states since the times of the Babylonian captivity (597 BCE), about 2,600 years ago. ...


Jordan and Egypt had also won some strategic victories on the battlefield. The Egyptian army took control of the Gaza Strip (see Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egypt). Similarly, Jordan's army took control of the West Bank and began the occupation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Jordan. King Abdullah II of Jordan annexed the West Bank in 1950, in defiance of international law and the Fourth Geneva Convention. Under Egyptian and Jordanian rule over the territories, there was no serous attempt by any Arab group to exercise the UN-given right to create a Palestinian state. Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ... Map of the West Bank today Occupation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Jordan occurred following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War for a period of nearly two decades (1948 - 1967). ... Abdullah II April 5, 2001 King Abdullah and Queen Rania His Majesty King Abdullah II ibn al-Hussein (Arabic: عبدالله الثاني بن الحسين) (born January 30, 1962) is the current King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan since February 7, 1999. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV) relates to the protection of civilians during times of war in the hands of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power. ...


See Political status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Map 2004 This article is in need of attention. ...


Six Day War, Yom Kippur War, Oslo Peace Process

As a result of the 1967 Six Day War, the Israel Defense Force took control of the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, and the Sinai Peninsula bringing them under military rule (see:Arab-Israeli conflict) The United Nation's Security Council passed Resolution 242, the "land for peace" formula, which called for Israeli withdrawal from territories occupied in 1967 in return for the end of all states of belligerency. 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ... A map of the Golan Heights and surrounding nations. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina شبه جزيرة سيناء) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor Military rule may mean several things in modern terms: When a country or area is conquered after invasion and placed under Belligerent occupation, also known as Military occupation (see list of military occupations). ... Israel and the Arab League states The Arab-Israeli conflict is a long-running conflict in the Middle East regarding the existence of the state of Israel and its relations with Arab states and with the Palestinian population (see Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ...


After the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula back to Egypt as part of the 1978 Camp David Peace Accords between Egypt and Israel. Then in 1994 came the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, and Israel withdrew from southern Lebanon in May 2000, in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 425. 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Yom Kippur War (Hebrew: Milchemet Yom HaKipurim (מלחמת יום הכיפורים), also known as the October War, the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, and the Ramadan War), was fought from October 6 (the day of Yom Kippur) to October 24, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Egypt and Syria. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina شبه جزيرة سيناء) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... (Redirected from 1978 Camp David Peace Accords between Egypt and Israel) Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, or Israel-Jordan peace treaty is a peace treaty signed between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in 1994. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 dates from 1978. ...


Yassir Arafat, Chairman and President of the Palestine Liberation Organization entered into peace talks with the Israelis. There are proposals for a Palestinian state following the historic 1993 Oslo Peace Accords between Palestinians and Israel (the "Oslo Accords") which gave the Palestinians limited self-government through the Palestinian Authority, and other detailed negotiations. An attempt was made to end the struggle at the Camp David 2000 Summit between Palestinians and Israel but no agreement was reached. Yasser Arafat Yasser Arafat (August 4 or August 24, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born Muhammad `Abd ar-Rauf al-Qudwa al-Husayni (Arabic محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني) and also known as Abu `Ammar (ابو عمّار), was co-founder and Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969–2004... The PLO emblem shows the Palestinian flag above a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the... Proposals for a Palestinian state vary depending on ones views of Palestinian statehood, as well as various definitions of Palestine and Palestinian (see also State of Palestine). ... (Redirected from 1993 Oslo Peace Accords between Palestinians and Israel) The Oslo Accords were a series of agreements negotiated between the Israeli government and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO, acting as representatives of the Palestinian people) in 1993 as part of a peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, officially... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ...


Economic conditions in the West Bank and Gaza under Israeli control

Per-capita GNP of the West Bank and Gaza expanded ten-fold between 1968 and 1991 from $165 to $1,715 (compared with Jordan's $1,050 and Egypt's $600). By 1986, 92.8% of the population in the West Bank and Gaza had electricity around the clock, as compared to 20.5% in 1967; 85% had running water in dwellings, as compared to 16% in 1967; 83.5% had electric or gas ranges for cooking, as compared to 4% in 1967. By 1986, the number of Palestinians working in Israel was 109,000, accounting for 35% of the employed population of the territories. Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The mortality rates in the territories fell by more than two-thirds between 1970 and 1990, while life expectancy rose from 48 years in 1967 to 72 in 2000. The infant mortality rate was reduced from 60 per 1,000 live births in 1968 to 15 per 1,000 in 2000. Under a systematic program of inoculation, childhood diseases such as polio, whooping cough, tetanus, and measles were eradicated. During the two decades preceding the First Intifada, the number of schoolchildren in the territories grew by 102%, and the number of classes by 99%, though the population itself had grown by 28%. Mortality rate (the word mortality comes from mortal, which originates from Latin mors, death) is the annual number of deaths (from a disease or at general) per 1000 people. ... Life expectancy is the most likely number of years remaining for a living being (or the average for a class of living beings) of a given age to live. ... Inoculation was a method of minimising the harm done by infection with smallpox. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Tetanus is a serious and often fatal disease caused by the exotoxin tetanospasmin which is produced by the Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani. ... The first Intifada was an uprising that took place from 1987 to 1991 or 1993 (see Intifada). ...


Before 1967, not a single university existed in the territories. By the early 1990s, there were seven such institutions attended by some 16,500 students. Illiteracy rates dropped to 14% of adults over age 15 (compared with 61% in Egypt, 45% in Tunisia, and 44% in Syria). (Source: Prof. Efraim Karsh, the Chairman of the Department of Mediterranean studies at King's College, University of London. Commentary Magazine, July 2002) Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but keeping the same mind-set. ...


Intifada, Separation Barrier, Road Map

From 1987 to 1993 the First Intifada by Palestinians against Israel took place. A fierce Intifada by the Palestinians then erupted in 2000 known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada allegedly in response to a visit to the Temple Mount by Ariel Sharon (who subsequently became Israel's Prime Minister). The violence grew, particularly suicide bombings by Hamas, Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, Islamic Jihad, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hizbollah, and Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command. Israeli Security Forces retaliated with invasions, targeted assassinations of Palestinian military leaders and organizers and by building a complex separation barrier between Israel, including key Israeli settlements, and the large Palestinian populations in the West Bank. 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The first Intifada was an uprising that took place from 1987 to 1991 or 1993 (see Intifada). ... Intifada (also Intefadah or Intifadah; from Arabic: انتفاضة shaking off) is an Arabic language term for uprising. It came into common usage as the popularised name for two recent campaigns directed at ending the Israeli military occupation. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The wreckage of a commuter bus in West Jerusalem after a suicide bombing on Tuesday, 18 June 2002. ... The Temple Mount (Hebrew: הַר הַבַּיִת, Har haBáyit) or Noble Sanctuary (Arabic: الحرم الشريف, al-Ḥaram aÅ¡-Å arÄ«f) is a hotly contested religious site in the Old City of Jerusalem. ... Ariel Sharon, the eleventh Prime Minister of Israel, spent many years in the Israel Defense Forces before being elected in March 2001. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death (see suicide, suicide weapons). ... The Hamas emblem shows two crossed swords, the Dome of the Rock, and a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... The Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (كتائب شهداء الاقصى) are one of the militias of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafats al-Fatah faction. ... This article is about particular organizations known as Islamic Jihad. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... Hezbollah militant Guerrilla carrying Hezbollah Flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a political and military organization in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight Israel in southern Lebanon. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command is a left-wing Palestinian nationalist organization. ... The Israel Security Forces (ISF) are several organizations collectively responsible for Israels security. ... Jack Ruby murdered the alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... Separation barriers (separation walls, security fences) are constructed to prevent the movement of people across the barrier or to separate two populations. ...


In 2002 the Road map for peace calling for the resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict was proposed by a "quartet": The United States, European Union, Russia, and United Nations. U.S. President George W. Bush in a speech on June 24, 2002 called for an independent Palestinian state living side by side with the Israeli state in peace. Bush was the first U.S. President to explicitly call for such a Palestinian state. 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The road map for peace is a plan to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict proposed by a quartet of international entities: the United States, the European Union, Russia, and the United Nations. ... ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is a politician and currently the 43rd President of the United States. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Proposals for a Palestinian state vary depending on ones views of Palestinian statehood, as well as various definitions of Palestine and Palestinian (see also State of Palestine). ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ...


Finally, Israel's government announced Israel's unilateral disengagement plan of 2004 from some important areas it had occupied for which Ariel Sharon has been hotly condemned by his own right wing allies in Israel. Palestinians have continued to fight using a variety of tactics and weapons, such as the Qassam rockets, special explosive belts for more suicide bombings, called martyrdom operations by some Muslims, car bombs and smuggling tunnels to bring in additional weapons and ammunition from Egypt. In response the Israeli West Bank barrier is being built in an attempt to stifle the movements of Palestinians between areas. Areas of Israel protected by the barrier have experienced a sharp decrease in terror attacks, though it is not clear if the barrier alone is responsible for this. Yet violence against Israelis continues with a long list of massacres committed during the Al-Aqsa Intifada with simultaneous accusations against Israel of war crimes during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. Israels unilateral disengagement plan (also known as the disengagement plan, תוכנית ההינתקות) is a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon to remove all permanent Israeli presence in the Gaza Strip and northern Samaria (part of what is known as The West Bank to the Palestinians, the UN, and... The Qassam rocket is a simple steel rocket filled with explosives, developed by the Palestinian organization Hamas. ... An explosive belt (also called suicide belt) is a vest packed with explosives (sometimes with nails, screws, bolts and other objects to maximize the number of casualties) and a detonator that is worn by suicide bombers. ... Warning: Graphic imagery, including pictures that include corpses or scenes of violence, may follow. ... A martyrdom operation is a suicide bombing. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... A car bomb is a bomb that is placed in a car or truck and is intended to be exploded while there. ... Smuggling tunnels are secret tunnels, usually hidden underground, used for smuggling of goods, illegal weapons and people. ... The barrier route as of February 2005 The Israeli West Bank barrier (also called the West Bank security fence by its supporters, or West Bank wall by its opponents) is a physical barrier consisting of a network of fences, walls, and trenches, which is being constructed by Israel. ... Many acts of violence and acts of terrorism were committed by individuals, groups and employees of the Palestinian National Authority against Israeli civilians in the last 4 years, since the failure of the Camp David talks in the summer of 2000. ... List of massacres committed during the Al-Aqsa Infatida See also: Violence against Israel Accusations against Israel of war crimes during the Al-Aqsa Intifada Categories: NPOV disputes | Terrorism and violence against Israel | Israeli-Palestinian conflict ... Human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have condemned Israels responses to the al-Aqsa Intifada that violate international law. ...


Current status

Many Arabs and their allies object violently to the Israeli presence in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, which they characterize as an illegal occupation. The UN General Assembly and Security Council have repeatedly denounce Israel's position and activities as being in violation of various international standards. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Occupation may refer to: the principal activity (job or calling) that earns money for a person (see profession, business) the periods of time following a nations territory invasion by controlling enemy troops (see belligerent occupation) any activity that occupies an important portion of a persons attention (see fan... The term general assembly can refer to The largest unit of organisation in the polity of a (national) Presbyterian church, containing several synods or presbyteries. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


Many Israelis and their allies view the Israel presence as benign and regard the Arab viewpoint as implying the complete denial of the State of Israel to exist as a Jewish state in the Middle East. They may know of a time when Jews lived in the modern British Mandate of Palestine and recall when they were called Palestinians under Turkish and British rule. Israelis may also perceive this phrase as a hostile statement meant to paint them in a negative light and delegitimize them. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


Palestinian Authority

Maps used in elementary schools under the control of the Palestinian Authority (PA) depict Palestine as the non-Jordanian portion of the region. Israel does not appear on these maps. The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ...


Commentators disagree about the meaning of these maps. Some regard it as a PA assertion that Israel does not exist (in a legal sense). A similar view is that the PA means by these maps to reject all of Israel's claims to territorial sovereignty, including the boundaries which several other states agree "belong" to Israel.


A starkly different view is that they indicate a view that Palestine is that portion of ancient Palestine not taken up by Jordan.


Islamic sphere

The view of much or most of the Islamic world is that Israel is occupying significant parts of Palestine (variously defined). The most commonly heard view is that the West Bank and the Gaza Strip are being controlled militarily by Israel in contravention of international law; thus, it is an illegal occupation. (See the various definitions of military rule). Along with this view is usually the view that these two regions belong, not only as a matter of law, but also as a matter of moral right, to the "Palestinian people" (see Palestinians and also definitions of Palestine). Occupation may refer to: the principal activity (job or calling) that earns money for a person (see profession, business) the periods of time following a nations territory invasion by controlling enemy troops (see belligerent occupation) any activity that occupies an important portion of a persons attention (see fan... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor Military rule may mean several things in modern terms: When a country or area is conquered after invasion and placed under Belligerent occupation, also known as Military occupation (see list of military occupations). ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... The term Palestine and the related term Palestinian have several overlapping (and occasionally contradictory) definitions. ...


Some countries, particularly those of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, do not recognize Israel as a nation, and would like to see it destroyed, something that Israelis are acutely aware of. The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ...


Note that the term Palestinian as applied to those people entitled to the Palestinian territories is itself in dispute. But the main argument is clear enough: The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... The West Bank The Gaza Strip The term occupied Palestinian territories was first adopted by the United Nations in 1974 and in different variations (eg. ...

  • The Palestinian people ought to have their own homeland, claiming a right of return
  • Israel is unlawfully occupying this homeland
  • Therefore, Israel must return this homeland to the Palestinian people.

Many Israelis challenge the notion that Palestinian Arabs had any more right to this land than Palestinian Jews or any other group who lived in the region (or wanted to), since it was a territory controlled by larger imperial powers who distributed it as they saw fit. Indeed, Britain gave away most of historic Palestine to the Hashemite's of Jordan, before dividing it further between Palestinian Arabs and Jews. A right of return is a right, held by members of an ethnic or national group, to assurance of immigration and naturalization into the nation of their homeland. ...


The conflict therefore continues, as so far neither Israel nor the Arabs have arrived at a mutually agreeable conclusion to their bitter dispute.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Palestine (594 words)
Its stated objectives are to end the Israeli occupation of Palestine, to negotiate an independent Palestinian state and to ensure Israeli security.
This allows Israel to claim that "the occupation" is over, even while claiming permanent control of huge settlement blocs throughout the West Bank and Gaza, and maintaining control of all of Jerusalem as Israel's permanent capital.
If the defenders of Israel's occupation in the Bush administration, now largely unchallenged, continue to have their way, that may be exactly where this road map leads.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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