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Encyclopedia > Occupation of Japan
Japan
Military occupation

1945 – 1952
 

Flag Coat of arms
Flag Imperial Seal
Capital Tokyo
Language(s) Japanese
Political structure Military occupation
Military Governor
 - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur
 - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway
Emperor
 - 1926-1989 Hirohito
Historical era Post-WWII
 - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945
 - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952

At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers, led by the United States with contributions from Australia, India, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. This was the first time since the unification of Japan that the island nation had been occupied by a foreign power. The San Francisco Peace Treaty, signed on September 8, 1951, marked the end of the Allied occupation, and when it went into effect on April 28, 1952, Japan was once again an independent state. Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... This article is about the country in East Asia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flag Capital Not specified Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Historical era Post-WWII  - Battle of Okinawa April 1–June 21, 1945  - Treaty of San Francisco April 28, 1952  - Disestablished May 14, 1972 Currency United States dollar The Government of the Ryukyu Islands ) or U.S. Military government of... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Imperial_Seal_of_Japan. ... The national flag of Japan, known as Nisshōki (日章旗 sun flag) or Hinomaru (日の丸 sun disc) in Japanese, is a base white flag with a large red disc (representing the rising sun) in the center. ... The Imperial Seal of Japan is called 菊の御紋 Kiku No Gomon in Japanese, which, literally, means Noble Symbol of Chrysanthemum or Imperial Seal of Chrysanthemum . The Imperial Seal is used by members of the Japanese Imperial family. ... Image File history File links LocationMapJapan. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory belonging to a state passes to a hostile army. ... Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) was the title for Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following WWII. The title did belong to Dwight David Eisenhower during WWII, however, he had nothing to do with the attacks on Japan. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895–July 26, 1993) was a United States Army general. ... For the CPR ocean liner, see Empress of Japan. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... The Japanese representatives, Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu, on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru of Japan, gave a speech on Reconciliation and rapport (和解と信頼) in 1951 at San Francisco Peace conference. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru of Japan, gave a speech on Reconciliation and rapport (和解と信頼) in 1951 at San Francisco Peace conference. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Surrender

Main article: Surrender of Japan
One of the early proposed divisions of Japan into occupation zones that was abandoned after the Japanese surrender. For the other proposed division see here
One of the early proposed divisions of Japan into occupation zones that was abandoned after the Japanese surrender. For the other proposed division see here

Japan initially surrendered to the Allies on August 14, 1945, when Emperor Hirohito accepted the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. On the following day, Hirohito announced Japan's surrender on the radio. The announcement was the emperor's first ever radio broadcast and the first time most citizens of Japan ever heard their sovereign's voice.[1] This date is known as Victory over Japan, or V-J Day; it was the end of World War II, and the beginning of a long road to recovery for a shattered Japan. The Japanese representatives, Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu, on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1397x1593, 166 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Maps of Japan ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1397x1593, 166 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Maps of Japan ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 526 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1397 × 1593 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/png) Divide-and-rule plan of Japan by plan of in existence in American National Archives; based on Image:Japan large. ... The Japanese representatives, Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijiro Umezu, on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the... 15 August 1945 marked Victory over Japan or VJ Day, taking a name similar to Victory in Europe Day, which was generally known as VE Day. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


On V-J Day, United States President Harry Truman appointed General Douglas MacArthur as Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP), to supervise the occupation of Japan. During the war, the Allied Powers had planned to divide Japan amongst themselves for the purposes of occupation, as was done for the occupation of Germany. Under the final plan, however, SCAP was given direct control over the main islands of Japan (Honshū, Hokkaidō, Shikoku and Kyūshū) and the immediately surrounding islands, while outlying possessions were divided between the Allied Powers as follows: 15 August 1945 marked Victory over Japan or VJ Day, taking a name similar to Victory in Europe Day, which was generally known as VE Day. ... For the victim of Mt. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) was the title for Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following WWII. The title did belong to Dwight David Eisenhower during WWII, however, he had nothing to do with the attacks on Japan. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... This article is about the island. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

It is unclear why the occupation plan was changed. Common theories include the increased power of the United States following development of the atomic bomb, Truman's greater distrust of the Soviet Union when compared with Roosevelt, and an increased desire to contain Soviet expansion in the Far East after the Yalta Conference. Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... The Amami Islands amami shotō) are part of the Ryukyu Archipelago. ... A map of the Ogasawara Islands south of Japan The Ogasawara Islands (小笠原諸島) are an archipelago of over 30 subtropical islands some 1,000 km directly south of central Tokyo, Japan. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Pescadores (Traditional Chinese: 澎湖群島; Hanyu Pinyin: Pénghú Qúndăo; Tongyong Pinyin: Pénghú Cyúndăo; Wade-Giles: Peng-Hu Chün-Tao; Taiwanese POJ: Phêⁿ-ô·-kōan, from Portuguese, fishermen, pron. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ...


The Soviet Union is known to have bore some intentions of occupying Hokkaidō. Had this occurred, there would have been seen the foundation of a communist Democratic People's Republic of Japan in this Soviet zone of occupation. However, unlike as was the case with the Soviet occupations of East Germany and North Korea, these plans were never realized. Image of one of banners posted at the 1968 Red Square demonstration (For your and our freedom) Soviet occupations[1][2][3] is a term used for military occupations and force-backed political influence of Soviet Union since the prelude to World War II. Typically, Soviets established of Soviet-type... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


The Far Eastern Commission and Allied Council For Japan were also established to supervise the occupation of Japan. [1] It was agreed at the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers, and made public in communique issued at the end of the conference on December 27, 1945 that the Far Eastern Advisory Commission (FEAC) would become the Far Eastern Commission (FEC), it would be based in Washington, and would oversee the...


Japanese officials left for Manila on August 19 to meet MacArthur and to be briefed on his plans for the occupation. On August 28, 150 U.S. personnel flew to Atsugi, Kanagawa Prefecture. They were followed by USS Missouri, whose accompanying vessels landed the 4th Marine Division on the southern coast of Kanagawa. Other Allied personnel followed. For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Atsugi (Japanese: 厚木市; -shi) is a city located in Japan. ... Kanagawa Prefecture ) is a prefecture located in the southern Kantō region of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... The U.S. 4th Marine Division is a division of the United States Marine Corps. ...


MacArthur arrived in Tokyo on August 30, and immediately decreed several laws: No Allied personnel were to assault Japanese people. No Allied personnel were to eat the scarce Japanese food. For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender.
Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender.

On September 2, Japan formally surrendered with the signing of the Japanese Instrument of Surrender. Allied (primarily American) forces were set up to supervise the country. General MacArthur was technically supposed to defer to an advisory council set up by the Allied powers but in practice did everything himself. His first priority was to set up a food distribution network; following the collapse of the ruling government and the wholesale destruction of most major cities virtually everyone was starving. Even with these measures, millions of people were still on the brink of starvation for several years after the surrender.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 727 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (740 × 610 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Surrender of Japan, Tokyo Bay, 2 September 1945. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 727 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (740 × 610 pixel, file size: 95 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Surrender of Japan, Tokyo Bay, 2 September 1945. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ...

Douglas MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito.
Douglas MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito.

Once the food network was in place, at a cost of up to US$1 million per day, MacArthur set out to win the support of Hirohito. The two men met for the first time on September 28; the photograph of the two together is one of the most famous in Japanese history. However, many were shocked that MacArthur wore his standard duty uniform with no tie instead of his dress uniform when meeting the emperor. MacArthur may have done this on purpose, to send a message as to what he considered the emperor's status to be.[3] With the sanction of Japan's reigning monarch, MacArthur had the ammunition he needed to begin the real work of the occupation. While other Allied political and military leaders pushed for Hirohito to be tried as a war criminal, MacArthur resisted such calls and rejected the claims of members of the imperial family such as Prince Mikasa and Prince Higashikuni and intellectuals like Tatsuji Miyoshi who asked for the emperor's abdication [4], arguing that any such prosecution would be overwhelmingly unpopular with the Japanese people. This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... His Imperial Highness, Prince Mikasa (Takahito) of Japan (Mikasa no miya Takahito Shinnō; born December 15, 1915) is the fourth and youngest son of the Emperor Taishō and the Empress Teimei. ... Prince Higashikuni Prince Higashikuni (Naruhiko) of Japan (東久邇 稔彦 Higashikuni Naruhiko, also Higashikuni no miya Naruhiko ō (東久邇宮 稔彦王)) (3 December 1887 – 26 January 1990) was the 43rd Prime Minister of Japan from 17 August 1945 to 9 October 1945, a period of 54 days. ... Tatsuji Miyoshi , 23 August 1900 – 5 April 1964) was a Japanese poet, literary critic, and literary editor active in Showa period Japan. ...


By the end of 1945, more than 350,000 U.S. personnel were stationed throughout Japan. By the beginning of 1946, replacement troops began to arrive in the country in large numbers and were assigned to MacArthur's Eighth Army, headquartered in Tokyo's Dai-Ichi building. Of the main Japanese islands, Kyūshū was occupied by the 24th Infantry Division, with some responsibility for Shikoku. Honshū was occupied by the First Cavalry Division. Hokkaidō was occupied by the 11th Airborne Division. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the island. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ...

The 2nd Battalion, 5th Royal Gurkha Rifles marching through Kure soon after their arrival in Japan. (May 1946)
The 2nd Battalion, 5th Royal Gurkha Rifles marching through Kure soon after their arrival in Japan. (May 1946)

By June 1950, all of these army units had suffered extensive troop reductions, and their combat effectiveness was seriously weakened. When North Korea invaded South Korea, elements of the 24th Division were flown into South Korea to try to stem the massive invasion force there, but the green occupation troops, while acquitting themselves well when suddenly thrown into combat almost overnight, suffered heavy casualties and were forced into retreat until other Japan occupation troops could be sent to assist. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x667, 255 KB) Description: THE ALLIED OCCUPATION OF JAPAN. The 2/5th Royal Gurkha Rifles marching through Kure soon after their arrival in Japan as part of the Allied forces of occupation. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x667, 255 KB) Description: THE ALLIED OCCUPATION OF JAPAN. The 2/5th Royal Gurkha Rifles marching through Kure soon after their arrival in Japan as part of the Allied forces of occupation. ... The 5th Royal Gurkha Rifles was an infantry regiment of the British Indian Army. ... Kure (呉市; -shi) is a city located in Hiroshima, Japan. ...


The official British Commonwealth Occupation Force (BCOF), composed of Australian, British, Indian and New Zealand personnel, was deployed on February 21, 1946. While U.S. forces were responsible for overall military government, BCOF was responsible for supervising demilitarization and the disposal of Japan's war industries.[2] BCOF was also responsible for occupation of several western prefectures and had its headquarters at Kure. At its peak, the force numbered about 40,000 personnel. During 1947, BCOF began to decrease its activities in Japan, and it was officially wound up in 1951. The 2nd Battalion, 5th Royal Gurkha Rifles marching through Kure soon after their arrival in Japan. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kure (呉市; -shi) is a city located in Hiroshima, Japan. ...


Accomplishments of the Occupation

Disarmament

Japan's postwar constitution, adopted under Allied supervision, included a "Peace Clause" (Article 9), which renounced war and banned Japan from maintaining any armed forces. This was intended to prevent the country from ever becoming an aggressive military power again. However, within a decade, America was pressuring Japan to rebuild its army as a bulwark against Communism in Asia after the Chinese Revolution and the Korean War, and Japan established Self-Defense Forces. Traditionally, Japan's military spending has been restricted to about 1% of its GNP, though this is by popular practice, not law, and has fluctuated up and down from this figure. Recently, past Prime Ministers Junichiro Koizumi and Shinzo Abe, and other politicians have tried to repeal or amend the clause. Article 9 of the Constitution of Japan is a No War clause. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (traditional... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... The Japan Self-Defense Forces ), or JSDF, are the military forces in Japan that were established after the end of World War II. The force has not been engaged in real combat but has been engaged in some international peacekeeping operations. ... Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... Portions of this article or section may be outdated. ... Alternative meaning: Prime Minister (band) A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the... Junichiro Koizumi , born January 8, 1942) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. ... Shinzo Abe , ; born 21 September 1954) is the current Prime Minister of Japan, elected by a special session of the National Diet on 26 September 2006. ...


Liberalization

The Allies attempted to dismantle the Japanese Zaibatsu. However, the Japanese resisted these attempts, claiming that the zaibatsu were required in order for Japan to compete internationally, and looser industrial groupings known as keiretsu evolved. A major land reform was also conducted, led by Wolf Ladejinsky of General Douglas MacArthur's SCAP staff. However, Ladejinsky has stated that the real architect of reform was Socialist Hiro Wada, former Japanese Minister of Agriculture. Under the reform program, five million acres (20,000 km²) of land were taken out of the hands of landlords and given to the farmers who worked them, dismantling a power structure that the landlords had dominated. Zaibatsu ) is a Japanese term referring to the financial cliques, or business conglomerates, whose influence and size allowed for control over significant parts of the Japanese economy throughout the Edo and Meiji periods. ... A keiretsu lit. ... -1... Wolf Isaac Ladejinsky (1899-1975) was an influential American agricultural economist and researcher, serving first in the United States Department of Agriculture, then the Ford Foundation and later the World Bank. ... MacArthur landing at Leyte Beach in 1944. ... Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) was the title for Douglas MacArthur during the Occupation of Japan following WWII. The title did belong to Dwight David Eisenhower during WWII, however, he had nothing to do with the attacks on Japan. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The Minister of Agriculture is a position in several cabinet governments. ... A landlord, is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called the tenant. ...


Democratization

In 1946, the Diet ratified a new Constitution of Japan which followed closely a 'model copy' prepared by the Occupational authorities, and was promulgated as an amendment to the old Prussian-style Meiji Constitution. The new constitution guaranteed basic freedoms and civil liberties, abolished nobility, and, perhaps most importantly, made the emperor the symbol of Japan, removing him from politics. Shinto was abolished as a state religion, and Christianity reappeared in the open for the first time in decades. Women gained the right to vote, and in April 1946, 14 million turned out for the election that gave Japan its first modern prime minister, Shigeru Yoshida. The Constitution of Japan ) has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1946. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Yoshida Shigeru Yoshida ), September 22, 1878–October 20, 1967, was a Japanese diplomat and politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 1946 to 1947 and from 1948 to 1954. ...


Education reform

Before and during the war, Japanese education was based on the German system, with "Gymnasium" (English: High Schools) and universities to train students after primary school. During the occupation, Japan's secondary education system was changed to incorporate three-year junior high schools and senior high schools similar to those in the U.S.: junior high became compulsory but senior high remained optional. The Imperial Rescript on Education was repealed, and the Imperial University system reorganized. The longstanding issue of restricting Kanji usage, which had been planned for decades but continuously opposed by more conservative elements, was also resolved during this time. The Japanese written system was drastically reorganized to give the Tōyō kanji, predecessor of today's Jōyō kanji, and orthography was greatly altered to reflect spoken usage. The Imperial Rescript on Education (教育勅語 Kyôiku Chokugo) was signed by Emperor Meiji of Japan on October 30, 1890. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 Category The tōyō kanji (当用漢字, kanji for general use) are the result of a reform of the characters of Chinese origin in the Japanese written language. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The jōyō kanji (常用漢字) are the 1,945 kanji issued by the Japanese Ministry of Education on October 10, 1981. ...

Hideki Tojo takes the stand at the Tokyo war crimes tribunal.
Hideki Tojo takes the stand at the Tokyo war crimes tribunal.

from nara. ... from nara. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ...

Purging of war criminals

While these other reforms were taking place, various military tribunals, most notably the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Ichigaya, were trying Japan's war criminals and sentencing many to death and imprisonment. However, many suspects such as Tsuji Masanobu, Nobusuke Kishi, Yoshio Kodama and Ryoichi Sasakawa were never judged, while the Showa Emperor, all members of the imperial family implicated in the war such as Prince Chichibu, Prince Asaka, Prince Hiroyasu Fushimi, Prince Higashikuni and Prince Takeda, and all members of Unit 731 were exonerated from criminal prosecutions by MacArthur. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal or simply as the Tribunal, was convened to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of crimes: Class A (crimes against peace), Class B (war crimes... Ichigaya (市谷) is a neighborhood in Tokyo, Japan. ... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international (criminal) law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Nobusuke Kishi Nobusuke Kishi (岸 信介 Kishi Nobusuke, November 13, 1896–August 7, 1987) was a Japanese politician and the 56th and 57th Prime Minister of Japan from February 25, 1957 to June 12, 1958 and from then to July 19, 1960. ... Yoshio Kodama (児玉誉士夫 Kodama Yoshio; February 18, 1911 - January 17, 1984) was a prominent figure in the rise of organized crime in Japan. ... Ryōichi Sasakawa (笹川良一 Sasakawa Ryōichi) (May 18, 1899 – July 14, 1995) was a Japanese businessman, fascist, organized crime figure, renowned shipbuilder, philanthropist and goodwill ambassador. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... His Imperial Highness Prince Chichibu (Yasuhito) of Japan (25 June 1902 - 4 January 1953) (jp: 秩父宮 雍仁, Chichibu no miya Yasuhito Shinnō), also known as Prince Yasuhito, was the second son of the Taisho Emperor and a younger brother of the Emperor Shōwa. ... Prince Asaka Yasuhiko, circa 1937 His Imperial Highness Prince Asaka (Yasuhiko) of Japan (jp: 朝香鳩彦 Asaka Yasuhiko, 2 October 1887 - 13 April 1981), Prince Asaka-no-miya (朝香宮) of Japan, was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer. ... Prince Fushimi Hiroyasu ) (16 October 1875 - 16 August 1946) was a scion of the Japanese imperial family and was a career naval officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1932 to 1940. ... Prince Higashikuni Prince Higashikuni (Naruhiko) of Japan (東久邇 稔彦 Higashikuni Naruhiko, also Higashikuni no miya Naruhiko ō (東久邇宮 稔彦王)) (3 December 1887 – 26 January 1990) was the 43rd Prime Minister of Japan from 17 August 1945 to 9 October 1945, a period of 54 days. ... The ōke (王家), literally Prince Houses, were branches of the Imperial Family formed from branches of the Fushimi-no-miya house. ... Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried...


Before the war crimes trials actually convened, the SCAP, the IPS and Shōwa officials worked behind the scenes not only to prevent the imperial family from being indicted, but also to slant the testimony of the defendants to ensure that no one implicated the Emperor. High officials in court circles and the Shōwa government collaborated with Allied GHQ in compiling lists of prospective war criminals, while the individuals arrested as Class A suspects and incarcerated in Sugamo prison solemnly vowed to protect their sovereign against any possible taint of war responsibility.[5] Thus, "months before the Tokyo tribunal commenced, MacArthur's highest subordinates were working to attribute ultimate responsibility for Pearl Harbor to Hideki Tōjō"[6] by allowing "the major criminal suspects to coordinate their stories so that the Emperor would be spared from indictment."[7] and "with the full support of MacArthur's headquarters, the prosecution functioned, in effect, as a defense team for the emperor."[8] The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Sugamo Prison (巣鴨拘置所) was built in the 1920s for political prisoners, using the prisons of Europe as a model. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... Hideki Tōjō (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan; he served as prime minister during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... It has been suggested that Macarthur be merged into this article or section. ...


For historian John W. Dower, John W . ...

«Even Japanese peace activists who endorse the ideals of the Nuremberg and Tokyo charters, and who have labored to document and publicize Japanese atrocities, cannot defend the American decision to exonerate the emperor of war responsibility and then, in the chill of Cold war, release and soon afterwards openly embrace accused right-wing war criminals like the later prime minister Kishi Nobusuke.» [9]

«In retrospect, apart from the military officer corps, the purge of alleged militarists and ultranationalists that was conducted under the Occupation had relatively small impact on the long-term composition of men of influence in the public and private sectors. The purge initially brought new blood into the political parties, but this was offset by the return of huge numbers of formaly purged conservative politicians to national as well as local politics in the early 1950s. In the bureaucracy, the purge was negligible from the outset... In the economic sector, the purge similarly was only mildly disruptive, affecting less than sixteen hundred individuals spread among some four hundred companies. Everywhere one looks, the corridors of power in postwar Japan are crowded with men whose talents had already been recognized during the war years, and who found the same talents highly prized in the "new" Japan.» [10] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Politics

Political parties had begun to revive almost immediately after the occupation began. Left-wing organizations, such as the Japan Socialist Party and the Japan Communist Party, quickly reestablished themselves, as did various conservative parties. The old Seiyukai and Rikken Minseito came back as, respectively, the Liberal Party (Nihon Jiyuto) and the Japan Progressive Party (Nihon Shimpoto). The first postwar elections were held in 1946 (women were given the franchise for the first time), and the Liberal Party's vice president, Yoshida Shigeru (1878-1967), became prime minister. For the 1947 elections, anti-Yoshida forces left the Liberal Party and joined forces with the Progressive Party to establish the new Democratic Party (Minshuto). This divisiveness in conservative ranks gave a plurality to the Japan Socialist Party, which was allowed to form a cabinet, which lasted less than a year. Thereafter, the socialist party steadily declined in its electoral successes. After a short period of Democratic Party administration, Yoshida returned in late 1948 and continued to serve as prime minister until 1954. However, because of a heart failure Yoshida was replaced by Shinto in 1955. The Japan Socialist Party (日本社会党) (in Japanese Nihon Shakai-to) was a former Japanese political party with a socialist, left-wing ideology, which functioned between 1945 and 1996. ... The Japanese Communist Party (JCP) (日本共産党), in Japanese known as Nihon Kyōsan-tō is a political party of Japan based on communism. ... Rikkenseiyukai (Friends of Constitutional Government, 立憲政友会) is a political party in Japan founded in 1890 by Count Itō Hirobumi. ... Rikken Minseitō (Constitutional Democratic Party) ) was one of the main political parties in pre-war Japan. ... Liberal Party (自由党 Jiyuto) is the name of five different political parties in different time periods in Japan. ... Shigeru Yoshida (吉田 茂 Yoshida Shigeru, September 22, 1878–October 20, 1967) was the Prime Minister of Japan from 1946 to 1947 and from 1948 to 1954. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... The Cabinet ) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ...


End of the occupation

In 1949, MacArthur rubber-stamped a sweeping change in the SCAP power structure that greatly increased the power of Japan's native rulers, and as his attention (and that of the White House) gradually diverted to the Korean War, the occupation began to draw to a close. The San Francisco Peace Treaty, signed on September 8, 1951, marked the end of the Allied occupation, and when it went into effect on April 28, 1952, Japan was once again an independent state (with the exceptions of Okinawa, which remained under U.S. control until 1972, and Iwo Jima, which remained under US control until 1968). Even though some 47,000 U.S. military personnel remain in Japan today, they are there at the invitation of the Japanese government under the terms of the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan and not as an occupying force. For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Prime Minister Yoshida Shigeru of Japan, gave a speech on Reconciliation and rapport (和解と信頼) in 1951 at San Francisco Peace conference. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... For other uses, see Iwo Jima (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security (in Japanese, 日本国とアメリカ合衆国との間の相互協力及び安全保障条約, Treaty of mutual cooperation and security between Japan and the United States of America) was signed between the United States and Japan in Washington on January 19, 1960. ...


Cultural reaction

Hirohito’s surrender broadcast was a profound shock to Japanese citizens. After years of being told about Japan’s military might and the inevitability of victory, these beliefs were proven false in the space of a few minutes. But for many people, these were only secondary concerns since they were also facing starvation and homelessness.


Post-war Japan was chaotic. The air raids on urban centers left millions displaced and food shortages, created by bad harvests and the demands of the war, worsened when the import of food from Korea, Formosa and China ceased.[11] Repatriation of Japanese living in other parts of Asia only aggravated the problems in Japan as these displaced people put more strain on many already scarce resources. Over 5.1 million Japanese returned to Japan in the fifteen months following October 1st, 1945. [12] Alcohol and drug abuse became major problems. Deep exhaustion, declining morale and despair was so widespread that it was termed the “kyodatsu condition”.[13] Inflation was rampant and many people turned to the black market in order to buy even the most basic goods. Prostitution also increased considerably.


In the 1950s, kasutori culture emerged. In response to the scarcity of the previous years, this sub-culture, named after the preferred drink of the artists and writers who embodied it, emphasized escapism, entertainment and decadence.[14] Shōchū ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ...


The phrase "shikata ga nai," or "nothing can be done about it," was commonly used in both Japanese and American press to encapsulate the Japanese public's resignation to the harsh conditions endured while under occupation. However, not everyone reacted the same way to the hardships of the postwar period. While some succumbed to the difficulties, many more were resilient. As the country regained its footing, they were able to bounce back as well. Shikata ga nai (仕方が無い) is a popular phrase used in Japanese literature and media, meaning It cant be helped or There is no other way. ...


See also

It was agreed at the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers, and made public in communique issued at the end of the conference on December 27, 1945 that the Far Eastern Advisory Commission (FEAC) would become the Far Eastern Commission (FEC), it would be based in Washington, and would oversee the... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Task Force 31 (TF 31) was a US Navy task force formed at the end of World War II, under Rear Admiral Oscar C. Badger II, to begin the occupation of Japan. ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor, Hirohito Military rule may mean: Militarism as an ideology of government Military occupation (or Belligerent occupation), when a country or area is conquered after invasion List of military occupations Martial law, where military... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ Gordon, Andrew. A Modern History of Japan. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. p.226.
  2. ^ Gordon, Andrew. A Modern History of Japan. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. p.228.
  3. ^ Guillain, 1981
  4. ^ Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, p. 571-573
  5. ^ Dower, Embracing defeat, 1999, p.325.
  6. ^ Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p.585.
  7. ^ Ibid. p.583.
  8. ^ Dower, ibid. p. 326.
  9. ^ Dower, Ibid., p. 562
  10. ^ J. W. Dower, Japan in War & Peace, New press, 1993, p.11
  11. ^ Dower, John, W. Embracing Defeat. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999. p.90
  12. ^ Dower, John, W. Embracing Defeat. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999.p.54
  13. ^ Gordon, Andrew. A Modern History of Japan. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. p.229
  14. ^ Dower, John, W. Embracing Defeat. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999. p.148
  • John W. Dower, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. Norton, 1999. ISBN 0393046869
  • Robert Guillain, I saw Tokyo burning: An eyewitness narrative from Pearl Harbor to Hiroshima (J. Murray, 1981). ISBN 0385157010
  • Yoneyuki Sugita, Pitfall or Panacea - The Irony of US Power in Occupied Japan, 1945-1952 (Rutledge, 2003). ISBN 0-415-94752-9

John W . ...

External links

  • The U.S. Army in Post WWII Japan
  • The Road Ahead: Lessons in Nation Building from Japan, Germany, and Afghanistan for Postwar Iraq, by Ray Salvatore Jennings May 2003, Peaceworks No. 49, United States Institute of Peace (The PDF report contains an excellent chapter on the occupation policys.)
  • Memories of War: The Second World War and Japanese Historical Memory in Comparative Perspective
  • A sweet memory: My first encounter of an American soldier
  • Hirata Tetsuo and John W. Dower, "Japan's Red Purge: Lessons from a Saga of Suppression of Free Speech and Thought"

This period is part of the Shōwa period of Japanese History Proposed new USIP headquarters, construction to begin 2007. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ...


< Expansionism | History of Japan | Post-Occupation > During the first part of the Shōwa era, Japan, with the Great Depression turned to military totalitarism like some occidental countries. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Following the end of the Allied occupation in 1952...


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