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Encyclopedia > Occupation of Czechoslovakia
History of Czechoslovakia
Origins (Pre-1918)
First Republic
(1918-1938)
Second Republic and World War II
(1938-1945)
Third Republic
(1945-1948)
Communist Era I
(1948-1968)
Communist Era II
(1969-1987)
Communist Era III
(1987-1989),
Velvet Revolution and Democracy
(1989-1992)
Velvet Divorce:
January 1, 1993

== // Historical settings to 1918 Main Article: Origins of Czechoslovakia The creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918 was the culmination of the long struggle of the Czechs against their Austrian rulers and of the Slovaks against Hungarisation and their Hungarian rulers. ... This article is part of the article History of Czechoslovakia. ... This article is part of the article History of Czechoslovakia The independence of Czechoslovakia was proclaimed on October 28, 1918, by the Czechoslovak National Council in Prague. ... The Velvet Divorce is a journalistic term for the dissolution of the former country of Czechoslovakia into the nations of Slovakia and the Czech Republic, effective January 1, 1993. ...


On the same day, Hitler met with Chamberlain at Berchtesgaden and demanded the swift return of the Sudetenland to the Third Reich under threat of war. The Czechoslovaks, Hitler claimed, were slaughtering the Sudeten Germans. Chamberlain referred the demand to the British and French governments; both accepted. The Czechoslovak government resisted, arguing that Hitler's proposal would ruin the nation's economy and lead ultimately to German control of all of Czechoslovakia. Britain and France issued an ultimatum, making the French commitment to Czechoslovakia contingent upon acceptance. On September 21, Czechoslovakia capitulated. The next day, however, Hitler added new demands, insisting that the claims of Poland and Hungary for their minorities also be satisfied. Berchtesgaden is a German municipality in the Bavarian Alps with a population of around 9,000. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ...


The Czechoslovak capitulation precipitated an outburst of national indignation. In demonstrations and rallies, the Czechoslovaks called for a strong military government to defend the integrity of the state. A new cabinet, under General Jan Syrovy, was installed, and on September 23 a decree of general mobilization was issued. The Czechoslovak army, highly modernized and possessing an excellent system of frontier fortifications, was prepared to fight. The Soviet Union announced its willingness to come to Czechoslovakia's assistance. Benes, however, refused to go to war without the support of the Western powers. War, he believed, would come soon enough. Jan Syrovy Jan Syrový (January 24, 1888 - October 10, 1970) was a Czechoslovak general and prime minister during the Munich Crisis. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ...


On September 28, Chamberlain appealed to Hitler for a conference. Hitler met the next day, at Munich, with the chiefs of governments of France, Italy, and Britain. The Czechoslovak government was neither invited nor consulted. On September 29, the Munich Agreement was signed by Germany, Italy, France, and Britain. The Czechoslovak government capitulated September 30 and agreed to abide by the agreement. The Munich Agreement stipulated that Czechoslovakia must cede Sudeten territory to Germany. German occupation of the Sudetenland would be completed by October 10. An international commission (representing Germany, Britain, France, Italy, and Czechoslovakia) would supervise a plebiscite to determine the final frontier. Britain and France promised to join in an international guarantee of the new frontiers against unprovoked aggression. Germany and Italy, however, would not join in the guarantee until the Polish and Hungarian minority problems were settled. September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years). ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München (pronounced listen) is the state capital of the German state of Bavaria. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years). ... Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 92 days remaining, as the final day of September. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ...


Benes had resigned as president of the Czechoslovak Republic on October 5, 1938 (and later, after start of WWII created a government-in-exile in London). October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... St. ...


In early November 1938, under the first Vienna Award, which was a result of the Munich agreement, Czechoslovakia (and later Slovakia) was forced by Germany and Italy to cede southern Slovakia (1/3 of Slovak territory) to Hungary, and Poland obtained small territorial cessions shortly thereafter. 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vienna Awards or Vienna Arbitration Awards or Vienna Arbitral Awards or Vienna Diktats or Viennese Arbitrals are various names for two arbitral awards (1938 and 1940) by which arbiters of National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy sought to enforce peacefully the territorial claims of Revisionist Hungary, ruled by Regent Admiral...


As a result, Bohemia and Moravia lost about 38 percent of their combined area, as well as about 2.8 million Germans and approximately 750,000 Czechs to Germany. Hungary, in turn, received 11,882 square kilometers in southern Slovakia and southern Ruthenia; only 53 percent of the population in this territory was Hungarian. Poland acquired the town of Těšín with the surrounding area (some 906 km2, some 250,000 inhabitants, mostly Poles) and two minor border areas in northern Slovakia, more precisely in the regions Spiš and Orava. (226 km2, 4,280 inhabitants, only 0.3 % Poles). Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ÄŒechy; German: Böhmen) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Moravia (Czech: Morava, German: Mähren, Polish: Morawy, Hungarian: Morvaország) is the eastern part of the Czech Republic. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Český Těšín is a town in the northeastern Czech Republic, at the Olza river, in Moravian-Silesian Region. ... Zaolzie (Czech Záolší (Zaolží), Slezsko zaolšanské, Polish Zaolzie, Śląsk zaolziański meaning Trans-Olza river) was the area disputed between Poland and Czechoslovakia West of Cieszyn with approximately 906 km² and 258,000 inhabitants. ... Spiš (in Latin: Scepusium, in Polish: Spisz, in German: Zips, in Hungarian: Szepes) is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... This article is about the former Hungarian county. ...

Contents


After Munich and Vienna (The Second Republic, October 1938- March 1939)

The greatly weakened Czechoslovak Republic was forced to grant major concessions to the non-Czechs. The executive committee of the Slovak People's Party met at Zilina on October 5, 1938, and with the acquiescence of all Slovak parties except the Social Democrats formed an autonomous Slovak government under Jozef Tiso. Similarly, the two major factions in Subcarpathian Ruthenia, the Russophiles and Ukrainophiles, agreed on the establishment of an autonomous government, which was constituted on October 8, 1938. Reflecting the spread of modern Ukrainian national consciousness, the pro-Ukrainian faction, led by Volosin, gained control of the local government, and Subcarpathian Ruthenia was renamed Carpatho-Ukraine. October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jozef Tiso Monsignor Jozef Tiso (October 13, 1887–April 18, 1947) was a Roman Catholic priest who became a deputy of the Czechoslovak parliament, a member of the Czechoslovak government, and finally the President of Slovakia during World War II when it was a Nazi puppet state. ...


In November 1938, Emil Hacha, succeeding Benes, was elected president of the federated Second Republic, renamed Czecho-Slovakia and consisting of three parts: Bohemia + Moravia, Slovakia, and Carpatho-Ukraine. Lacking its natural frontier and having lost its costly system of border fortification, the new state was militarily indefensible. In January 1939, negotiations between Germany and Poland broke down. Hitler, intent on war against Poland, needed to eliminate Czechoslovakia first. He scheduled a German invasion of Bohemia and Moravia for the morning of March 15. In the interim, he negotiated with the Slovak People's Party and with Hungary to prepare the dismemberment of the republic before the invasion. On March 13, he invited Jozef Tiso to Berlin and On March 14, the Slovak Diet convened and unanimously declared Slovak independence. Carpatho-Ukraine also declared independence, but Hungarian troops occupied it on March 15 and eastern Slovakia on March 23. Hitler summoned President Hacha to Berlin and during the early hours of March 15, he informed Hacha of the imminent German invasion. Threatening a Luftwaffe attack on Prague, Hitler persuaded Hacha to order the capitulation of the Czechoslovak army. On the morning of March 15, German troops entered Bohemia and Moravia, meeting no resistance. The Hungarian invasion of Carpatho-Ukraine did encounter resistance, but the Hungarian army quickly crushed it. On March 16, Hitler went to Czechoslovakia and from Prague's Hradcany Castle proclaimed Bohemia and Moravia a German protectorate (Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia). Emil Hácha (July 12, 1872-June 26, 1945) was a Czech lawyer, the third Czechoslovakian President, taking office in 1938, and the last president of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... Jozef Tiso Monsignor Jozef Tiso (October 13, 1887–April 18, 1947) was a Roman Catholic priest who became a deputy of the Czechoslovak parliament, a member of the Czechoslovak government, and finally the President of Slovakia during World War II when it was a Nazi puppet state. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in Leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... The Luftwaffe (literally, air weapon, pronounced looft-vaaf-feh) is the air force of Germany. ... Prague (Praha in Czech) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ... March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in Leap years). ... Categories: Stub | Castles in Prague | Czech Castles ... The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (in German: Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren, in Czech: Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a German protectorate that arose in central parts of Bohemia and Moravia on March 15, 1939 when Germany invaded the western part of former Czechoslovakia, the former Austrian provinces Bohemia and...


Thus, independent Czechoslovakia collapsed in the wake of foreign aggression and internal tensions. Subsequently, interwar Czechoslovakia has been idealized by its proponents as the only bastion of democracy surrounded by authoritarian and fascist regimes. It has also been condemned by its detractors as an artificial and unworkable creation of intellectuals supported by the great powers. Both views have some validity. Interwar Czechoslovakia was comprised of lands and peoples that were far from being integrated into a modern nation-state. Moreover, the dominant Czechs, who had suffered political discrimination under the Habsburgs, were not able to cope with the demands of other nationalities. In fairness to the Czechs, it should be acknowledged that some of the minority demands served as mere pretexts to justify intervention by Nazi Germany. That Czechoslovakia was able under such circumstances to maintain a viable economy and a democratic political system was indeed a remarkable achievement of the interwar period.


Division of Czechoslovakia

During World War II, Czechoslovakia ceased to exist and was divided into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia of the Third Reich and the newly declared Slovak Republic. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air, August 9, 1945 after the Allied atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. ... The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (in German: Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren, in Czech: Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a German protectorate that arose in central parts of Bohemia and Moravia on March 15, 1939 when Germany invaded the western part of former Czechoslovakia, the former Austrian provinces Bohemia and... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Rationale for Invasion

Czechoslovakia was a major manfucturer of machine guns and had an highly modernized army. Many of these factories continued to produce Czech designs until factories were converted for German machine gun designs. Czechoslovakia also had other major manufacturing concerns. Entire steel and chemical factories were moved from Czechoslovakia and reassembled in Linz, Austria which, incidentally remains a heavily industrialized sector of the country. Germany's invasion was motivated by the plundering of the Czech weapons manufacturing technology and machinery. A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Map of Austria, locating Linz Linz is a city and Statutarstadt in northeast Austria, on the Danube river. ...


Czech Resistance

In exile, Benes—the leader of the Czechoslovak government-in-exile—organized a resistance network. Hacha, Prime Minister Elias, and the Czech resistance acknowledged Benes's leadership. Active collaboration between London and the Czechoslovak home front was maintained throughout the war years.


The Czech resistance comprised four main groups:

  • The army command coordinated with a multitude of spontaneous groupings to form the Defense of the Nation (Obrana národa--ON) with branches in Britain and France.
  • Benes's collaborators, led by Prokop Drtina, created the Political Center (Politicke ústredí--PU). The PU was nearly destroyed by arrests in November 1939, after which younger politicians took control.
  • Social democrats and leftist intellectuals, in association with such groups as trade-unions and educational institutions, constituted the Committee of the Petition We Remain Faithful (Peticni vybor Verni zustanme--PVVZ).
  • The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSC) was the fourth resistance group. The KSC had been one of over twenty political parties in the democratic First Republic, but it had never gained sufficient votes to unsettle the democratic government. After the Munich Agreement the leadership of the KSC moved to Moscow and the party went underground. Until 1943, however, KSC resistance was weak. The Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact in 1939 had left the KSC in disarray. But ever faithful to the Soviet line, the KSC began a more active struggle against the Nazis after Germany's attack on the Soviet Union in June 1941.

The democratic groups--ON, PU, and PVVZ--united in early 1940 and formed the Central Committee of the Home Resistance (Ustredni vybor odboje domaciho--UVOD). Involved primarily in intelligence gathering, the UVOD cooperated with a Soviet intelligence organization in Prague. Following the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, the democratic groups attempted to create a united front that would include the KSC. Heydrich's appointment in the fall thwarted these efforts. By mid-1942 the Nazis had succeeded in exterminating the most experienced elements of the Czech resistance forces. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana Československa (KSČ) was a political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992. ... Molotov (lower left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin (far right) The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact and formally known as the Treaty of Nonaggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression treaty between the German...


Czech forces regrouped in 1942 and 1943. The Council of the Three (R3), in which the communist underground was strongly represented, emerged as the focal point of the resistance. The R3 prepared to assist the liberating armies of the United States and the Soviet Union. In cooperation with Red Army partisan units, the R3 developed a guerrilla structure.


Guerrilla activity intensified after the formation of a provisional Czechoslovak government in Kosice on April 4, 1945. "National committees" took over the administration of towns as the Germans were expelled. Under the supervision of the Red Army, more than 4,850 such committees were formed between 1944 and the end of the war. On May 5 a national uprising began spontaneously in Prague, and the newly formed Czech National Council (Ceska narodni rada) almost immediately assumed leadership of the revolt. Over 1,600 barricades were erected throughout the city, and some 30,000 Czech men and women battled for three days against 37,000 to 40,000 German troops backed by tanks and artillery. On May 8 the German Wehrmacht capitulated; Soviet troops arrived on May 9. Košice (German: Kaschau, Hungarian: Kassa) is Slovakias second largest city. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Wehrmacht   listen? was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ...


Slovak National Uprising

The Slovak National Uprising or 1944 Uprising was an armed struggle between German Wehrmacht forces and rebel Slovak troops at the end of WWII in August to October 1944. It was centered at Banská Bystrica. The Slovak National Uprising (Slovak: Slovenské národné povstanie, abbr. ... Banská Bystrica, SNP Square, town centre Banská Bystrica, SNP Square, town centre Banská Bystrica (Hungarian: Besztercebánya, German: Neusohl) is a town in central Slovakia at the Hron river and at the Lower Tatra mountains. ...


The rebel Slovak Army, formed to fight the Nazis, had an estimated 18,000 soldiers in August, a total which first increased to 47,000 after mobilisation on 9 September 1944, and later to 60,000, plus 20,000 partisans. However, in late August German troops were able to disarm the Eastern Slovak Army, which was the best equipped, and thus significantly decreased the power of Slovak Army. Many members of this force were sent to camps in the Third Reich, others escaped and joined partisan units or returned home. September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ...


The Slovaks were aided in the Uprising by soldiers and partisans from the Soviet Union, France, Czechia and Poland. In total, 32 nations were involved in the Uprising.


Czechoslovak Government-in-Exile

Benes had resigned as president of the Czechoslovak Republic on October 5, 1938. In London he and other Czechoslovak exiles organized a Czechoslovak government-in-exile and negotiated to obtain international recognition for the government and a renunciation of the Munich Agreement and its consequences. Benes hoped for a restoration of the Czechoslovak state in its pre-Munich form after the anticipated Allied victory. In the summer of 1941, the Allies recognized the exiled government. In 1942 Allied repudiation of the Munich Agreement established the political and legal continuity of the First Republic and Benes's presidency. October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about the year. ...


The Munich Agreement had been precipitated by the subversive activities of the Sudeten Germans. During the latter years of the war, Benes worked toward resolving the German minority problem and received consent from the Allies for a solution based on a postwar transfer of the Sudeten German population. The First Republic had been committed to a Western policy in foreign affairs. The Munich Agreement was the outcome. Benes determined to strengthen Czechoslovak security against future German aggression through alliances with Poland and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union, however, objected to a tripartite Czechoslovak-Polish-Soviet commitment. In December 1943, Benes's government concluded a treaty with the Soviets. 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ...


Benes's interest in maintaining friendly relations with the Soviet Union was motivated also by his desire to avoid Soviet encouragement of a postwar communist coup in Czechoslovakia. Benes worked to bring Czechoslovak communist exiles in Britain into active cooperation with his government, offering far-reaching concessions, including nationalization of heavy industry and the creation of local people's committees at the war's end. In March 1945, he gave key cabinet positions to Czechoslovak communist exiles in Moscow. Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow (Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, IPA:   listen?) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097. ...


End of the War

On May 8, 1944, Benes signed an agreement with Soviet leaders stipulating that Czechoslovak territory liberated by Soviet armies would be placed under Czechoslovak civilian control May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


On September 21, Czechoslovak troops formed in the Soviet Union liberated vilage Kalinov, liberated the first settlement of Czechoslovakia near the Dukla Pass in northeastern Slovakia. Czechoslovakia was liberated mostly by Soviet troops (the Red Army), supported by Czech and Slovak resistance, from the east to the west, only southwestern Bohemia was liberated by other Allied troops from the west. Except for the brutalities of the German occupation in Bohemia and Moravia (after the August 1944 Slovak National Uprising also in Slovakia), Czechoslovakia suffered relatively little from the war. September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... The Dukla Pass is a strategically significant mountain pass in the Carpathian mountains on the border between modern Poland and Slovakia, and close to the western border of Ukraine. ... The Slovak National Uprising (Slovak: Slovenské národné povstanie, abbr. ...


A provisional Czechoslovak government was established in the eastern Slovak town of Kosice on April 4, 1945. "National committees" (supervised by the Red Army) took over the administration of towns as the Germans were expelled. Bratislava was taken over on April 4, 1945, and Prague on May 9, 1945 by Soviet troops. Both Soviet and Allied troops were withdrawn in the same year. (The Soviet troops, however, came back in 1968 (see Prague Spring) and were withdrawn only in the early 1990s). April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bratislava (Pozsony in Hungarian; until 1919 PreÅ¡porok in Slovak and Pressburg in German [also used in English]) is the capital of Slovakia and the countrys largest city, with a population of some 430,000. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Prague (Praha in Czech) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: (СССР)   listen?; tr. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Czechs in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech, Pražské jaro) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968, and running until August 20 of that year when the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies (except for Romania) invaded the country. ... // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but keeping the same mind-set. ...


Annexation of Carpatho-Ukraine (Subcarpathian Ruthenia) by the Soviet Union

In October 1944, Carpatho-Ukraine was taken by the Soviets. A Czechoslovak delegation under František Nemec was dispatched to the area. The delegation was to mobilize the liberated local population to form a Czechoslovak army and to prepare for elections in cooperation with recently established national committees. Loyalty to a Czechoslovak state was tenuous in Carpatho-Ukraine. Benes's proclamation of April 1944 excluded former collaborationist Hungarians, Germans, and the Russophile Ruthenian followers of Andrej Brody and the Fencik Party (who had collaborated with the Hungarians) from political participation. This amounted to approximately one-third of the population. Another one-third was communist, leaving one-third of the population presumably sympathetic to the Czechoslovak Republic. Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ...


Upon arrival in Carpatho-Ukraine, the Czechoslovak delegation set up headquarters in Khust and on October 30 issued a mobilization proclamation. Soviet military forces prevented both the printing and the posting of the Czechoslovak proclamation and proceeded instead to organize the local population. Protests from Benes's government went unheeded. Soviet activities led much of the local population to believe that Soviet annexation was imminent. The Czechoslovak delegation was also prevented from establishing a cooperative relationship with the local national committees promoted by the Soviets. On November 19, the communists, meeting in Mukachevo, issued a resolution requesting separation of Carpatho-Ukraine from Czechoslovakia and incorporation into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. On November 26, the Congress of National Committees unanimously accepted the resolution of the communists. The congress elected the National Council and instructed that a delegation be sent to Moscow to discuss union. The Czechoslovak delegation was asked to leave Carpatho-Ukraine. Negotiations between the Czechoslovak government and Moscow ensued. Both Czech and Slovak communists encouraged Benes to cede Carpatho-Ukraine. The Soviet Union agreed to postpone annexation until the postwar period to avoid compromising Benes's policy based on the pre-Munich frontiers. October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Mukacheve (Мукачеве, Ruthenian: Мукачів (Mukachiv), Russian: Мукачево (Mukachevo), Hungarian: Munkács, Slovak and Czech: Mukačevo, German: Munkatsch, Yiddish: Munkacz) is a city in Zakarpattya region of southwestern Ukraine. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The treaty ceding Carpatho-Ukraine to the Soviet Union was signed in June 1945. Czechs and Slovaks living in Carpatho-Ukraine and Ukrainians (Ruthenians) living in Czechoslovakia were given the choice of Czechoslovak or Soviet citizenship.


Minorities and Population Transfers

The Czechoslovak National Front coalition government, formed at Kosice in April 1945, issued decrees providing for the expulsion of all Sudeten Germans with the exception of those who had demonstrated loyalty to the republic. German property would be confiscated without compensation. All officials of the SdP, or the Sudeten Nazis, and all members of the Nazi Security Police would be prosecuted.


In May 1945, Czechoslovak troops took possession of the Sudetenland. A Czechoslovak administrative commission composed exclusively of Czechs was established. Sudeten Germans were subjected to restrictive measures and conscripted for compulsory labor to repair war damages. Individual acts of retaliation against Germans and precipitous expulsion under harsh conditions characterized the immediate aftermath of the occupation. On June 15, however, Benes called Czechoslovak authorities to order. In July Czechoslovak representatives addressed the Potsdam Conference (the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union) and presented plans for a humane and orderly transfer of the Sudeten German population. June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... Attlee, Truman, and Stalin at Potsdam The Potsdam Conference was a conference held in Potsdam, Germany (near Berlin), from July 17 to August 2, 1945. ...


The Potsdam Agreement provided for the resettlement of Sudeten Germans in Germany under the supervision of the Allied Control Council. The transfer began in January 1946. By December 31, 1946, some 1.7 million Germans had been resettled in the American Zone and 750,000 in the Soviet Zone. Approximately 225,000 Germans remained in Czechoslovakia, of whom 50,000 emigrated or were expelled soon after. The Potsdam Agreement was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


The Potsdam Agreement pertained to Germans only. Decisions regarding the Hungarian minority reverted to the Czechoslovak government. The resettlement of about 700,000 Hungarians was envisaged at Kosice and subsequently reaffirmed by the National Front. Budapest, however, opposed a unilateral transfer. In February 1946, the Hungarian government agreed that Czechoslovakia could expatriate as many Hungarians as there were Slovaks in Hungary wishing to return to Czechoslovakia. As a result, 89,660 people were resettled from Czechoslovakia to Hungary, and 71,787 in the opposite direction, by 1948. 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Territory ceded to Poland in 1938 and restored to Slovakia after the Nazi invasion of Poland, in accordance with the terms of the German-Slovak agreement of November 21, 1939, became part of the restored Czechoslovak state in 1945. The Polish minority (100,000) were declared full civil liberties. However, the minority organisations were restricted and their property confiscated. November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...

US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor Military rule may mean several things in modern terms: When a country or area is conquered after invasion and placed under Belligerent occupation, also known as Military occupation (see list of military occupations). ...

From creation to dissolution – Overview

Czecho-Slovakia or Czechoslovakia (1918 - 1939; 1945 - 1992) Czecho-Slovakia (in Czech and in Slovak ÄŒesko-Slovensko) was the official short name of the country of Czechoslovakia used instead of the form Czechoslovakia: until 1920 (according to some sources until 1923) then again from late 1938 to early 1939 finally again from April 1990 to the Velvet Divorce...

Austria-Hungary
(until 1918) Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


(Bohemia, Moravia, a part of Silesia, northern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary (Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia) Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ÄŒechy; German: Böhmen) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Moravia (Czech: Morava, German: Mähren, Polish: Morawy, Hungarian: Morvaország) is the eastern part of the Czech Republic. ... Silesia (Polish ÅšlÄ…sk, German Schlesien, Czech Slezsko) is a historical region in central Europe. ... The Kingdom of Hungary is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukrainian Карпатська Русь, Karpatska Rus ) or Carpatho-Ukraine or Carpathian Ukraine is a name for a small part of Central Europe that was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (since 1526 under Habsburg rule). ...

Czecho-Slovak/Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR)
(1918-1938) 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...

County Sudetenland + other German terrirories
(1938-1945) The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


"Highland territories" of Hungary
(1938-1945)
The First Vienna Award was the result of the First Vienna Arbitration (November 2, 1938), which took place at Viennas Belvedere Palace on the eve of World War II. By the award, arbiters from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy sought a non-violent way to enforce the revanchist territorial... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR)
(1945-1960) 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ČSSR)
(1960-1990) Czech Socialist Republic
Slovak Socialist Republic
1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Czech and Slovak Federal Republic (ČSFR)
(1990-1992) Czech Republic
Slovak Republic
1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Czech Republic
(since 1993) 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


Slovakia
(since 1993) 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...

Czecho-Slovak Republic (ČSR) incl. autonomous Slovakia and Transcarpathian Ukraine
(1938-1939)

Protectorate
(1939-1945) Carpathian Ruthenia (Ukrainian Карпатська Русь, Karpatska Rus ) or Carpatho-Ukraine or Carpathian Ukraine is a name for a small part of Central Europe that was part of the Kingdom of Hungary (since 1526 under Habsburg rule). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (in German: Reichsprotektorat Böhmen und Mähren, in Czech: Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a German protectorate that arose in central parts of Bohemia and Moravia on March 15, 1939 when Germany invaded the western part of former Czechoslovakia, the former Austrian provinces Bohemia and... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


WWII Slovak Republic
(1939-1945) This is the history of Slovakia. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...

(further) "Highland territories" of Hungary
(1939-1945) The First Vienna Award was the result of the First Vienna Arbitration (November 2, 1938), which took place at Viennas Belvedere Palace on the eve of World War II. By the award, arbiters from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy sought a non-violent way to enforce the revanchist territorial... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...

part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
(1945/1946-1991) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: (СССР)   listen?; tr. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Zakarpats'ka oblast' of Ukraine
(from 1991) Zakarpattya or Transcarpathia (Закарпатська область, Zakarpats’ka oblast’ in Ukrainian) or Kárpátalja in Hungarian is an oblast ( region) of Ukraine. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

nazism The term National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism. ...

1948-1989
a satellite of the Soviet Union 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term satellite state, by analogy to stellar objects orbiting a larger object, such as planets revolving around the sun, refers to a country that is formally sovereign but that is in fact dominated by a larger hegemonic power. ...

govern. in exile A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ...


 
 

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