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Encyclopedia > Occitania
A version of the flag frequently used by Occitan activists.
A version of the flag frequently used by Occitan activists.
Map of Occitania (Occitan-speaking territory)
Map of Occitania (Occitan-speaking territory)

Occitania (Occitan: Occitània [utsi'tanjɔ][1][2]) refers to the lands where Occitan is the traditional language in use, generally nowadays as a minority language. Most of Occitania is in Southern France, other parts are in Italy (Occitan Valleys in Piedmont and Liguria), Spain (Aran Valley) and include Monaco (so the main languages in Occitania are nowadays French, Italian and Spanish). Image File history File links Flag_of_Occitania_(with_star). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Occitania_(with_star). ... Image File history File links Occitanie. ... Image File history File links Occitanie. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Location of the Occitan Valleys (blue zone) within Occitania (red line) The Occitan Valleys (Occitan: Valadas Occitanas, Italian: Valli Occitane) are the part of Occitania (the territory of the Occitan language) which is situated within the borders of Italy. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... Province Lleida Capital Vielha Largest city Vielha Demonym aranès () aranesa () Population 7130 (1996) Area 620. ...


Under Roman rule (355), most of Occitania was known as Aquitania[3] while the northern provinces of what is now France were called Gallia (Gaul). The names Occitania and Occitan language themselves appeared in Latin texts from 1290[4] and during the following years of the early 14th century (Patria Linguae Occitanae, Occitana lingua). They derive from the name Lenga d'òc that was used in Italian (Lingua d'òc) by Dante in the late 13th century. Occitan and Lenga d'òc both refer to the centuries-old set of Romance dialects that use òc for "yes". Events November 6 - Julian is promoted to Caesar. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ...

Contents

Geography

Occitania is composed of:

Occitan or langue d'oc (lenga d'òc) is a Latin-based Romance language in the same way as Spanish, Italian or French. There are six main regional varieties with easy intercomprehension among them: Provençal (including Niçard spoken in the vicinity of Nice), Vivaroalpenc, Auvernhat, Lemosin, Gascon (including Beranés spoken in Béarn) and Lengadocian. All these varieties of the Occitan language are written and valid. Standard Occitan is a synthesis which respects soft regional adaptations. See also Northern Occitan and Southern Occitan. Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... Drôme is a département in southeastern France named after the Drôme River. ... Vivarais (Occitan: Vivarés) refers to a part of France: a traditional region in the south-est of the country, covering the département of Ardèche, named after its capital Viviers on the river Rhône. ... Auvergne coat of arms Auvergne (Occitan: Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a province of France. ... Coat of arms of Limousin Limousin (Occitan: Lemosin) is a former province of France around the city of Limoges in central France. ... Aquitaine (or Guyenne or Guienne) now forms a région in south-western France along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the language called Langue doc, see Occitan language. ... Location of the Occitan Valleys (blue zone) within Occitania (red line) The Occitan Valleys (Occitan: Valadas Occitanas, Italian: Valli Occitane) are the part of Occitania (the territory of the Occitan language) which is situated within the borders of Italy. ... “Italian Republic” redirects here. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Cuneo is a province in the Piedmont region of Italy. ... Turin (It. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... Imperia (It. ... Guardia Piemontese (Occitan: La Gàrdia; Arpitan: La Gouardia) is town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of southern Italy. ... For other uses, see Calabria (disambiguation). ... Cosenza (It. ... Province Lleida Capital Vielha Largest city Vielha Demonym aranès () aranesa () Population 7130 (1996) Area 620. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Monégasque may refer to: The Monégasque language, the local dialect of Monaco; or, People or things associated with Monaco. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Provençal (Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Nicard (Niçois - French, Nissart - Niçard) is a distinct dialect of the Provençal language spoken in and around the city of Nice, or Nissa in Niçard, and the historical region Le Comté de Nice/Lou Coumtat de Nissa which is almost equivalent to the current French d... Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Alpes-Maritimes (06) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration Nice Côte dAzur Mayor Jacques Peyrat  (UMP) (since 1995) Statistics Land area¹ 71. ... Vivaro-Alpine (English name) or Vivaroalpenc, Vivaroaupenc (native name) is the northeastern dialect of the Occitan language. ... Auvergnat (French name) or Auvernhat (native name) is one of several dialects of the Occitan language spoken in Auvergne, which is a historical province in the northern part of Occitania. ... The Limousin dialect is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken or understood by about 400 000 people in the part of southern France known as Limousin. ... Gascon (Gascon, ; French, ) is a dialect of the Occitan language. ... Béarnais is the French name given to the language spoken in the former French province of Béarn in the south-west of the country. ... Coat of arms of the viscounts of Béarn. ... Languedocien (French name) or Lengadocian (native name) is an Occitan dialect spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc, Rouergue, Quercy, Agenais and Southern Périgord. ... Northern Occitan is a group of Occitan dialects mostly spoken in Southern France. ... Southern Occitan is a group of Occitan dialects mostly spoken in Southern France. ...


Catalan is a language very similar to Occitan and there are quite strong historical and cultural links between Occitania and Catalonia. Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia , and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ...


Occitan history

Written texts in Occitan appeared in the 10th century: it was used at once in legal then literary, scientific and religious texts. The spoken dialects of Occitan are centuries older and appeared as soon as the 8th century, at least, revealed in toponyms or in Occitanized words left in Latin manuscripts, for instance. A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος) is a variant, or variety, of a language spoken in a certain geographical area. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Occitania was often politically united during the Early Middle Ages, under the Visigothic Kingdom and several Merovingian and Carolingian sovereigns. In Thionville, nine years before he died (805), Charlemagne vowed that his empire be partitioned into three autonomous territories according to nationalities and mother tongues: along with the Franco-German and Italian ones, was roughly what is now modern Occitania from the reunion of a broader Provence and Aquitaine [5]. But things didn't go according to plan and at the division of the Frankish Empire (9th century), Occitania was split into different counties, duchies and kingdoms, bishops and abbots, self-governing communes of its walled cities. Since then the country was never politically united again, though Occitania was united by a common culture which used to cross easily the political, constantly moving boundaries. Occitania suffered a tangle of varying loyalties to nominal sovereigns: from the 9th to the 13th centuries, the dukes of Aquitaine, the counts of Foix, the counts of Toulouse and the Catalan kings rivalled in their attempts at controlling the various pays of Occitania. Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... For other uses, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... Thionville (German: , Luxembourgish: Diedennuewen), is a town and commune in the Moselle département, in the Lorraine région, France. ... Events Emperor Nicephorus I of Byzantium suffers a major defeat against the Saracens at Crasus. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... Abbots coat of arms The word abbot, meaning father, has been used as a Christian clerical title in various, mainly monastic, meanings. ... [Note : The Roman numerals after the names indicate which duke of that name they were and are not necessarily the same as their ordinals for their other titles. ... House of Foix The counts of Foix flourished from the 11th to the 15th century. ... After the Visigothic Kings of Aquitaine (409-508), the Merovingian kings were kings and dukes in Aquitaine and dukes of Toulouse. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Muslim Conquest of Iberia Timeline of Muslim Occupation Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Occitan literature was glorious and flourishing at that time: in the 12th and 13th centuries, the troubadours invented courtly love (fin'amor) and the Lenga d'Òc spread throughout all European cultivated circles. Actually, the terms Lenga d'Òc, Occitan, and Occitania appeared at the end of the 13th century. Occitan literature — which was erroneously called Provençal literature some decades ago — is a body of works written in Occitan in what is nowadays the South of France. ... A troubadour composing lyrics, Germany c. ...


But from the 13th to the 17th centuries, the French kings gradually conquered Occitania, sometimes by war and slaughtering the population, sometimes by annexation with subtle political intrigue. From the end of the 15th century, the nobility and bourgeoisie started learning French while the people stuck to Occitan (this process began from the 13th century in two northernmost regions, northern Limousin and Bourbonnais). In 1539, Francis I issued the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts that imposed the use of French in administration. Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts expanded the central control of the French state The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by François I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts. ...


In 1789, the revolutionary committees tried to re-establish the autonomy of the «Midi» regions: they used the Occitan language but the Jacobin power neutralized them. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... In the context of the French Revolution, a Jacobin originally meant a member of the Jacobin Club (1789-1794), but even at that time, the term Jacobins had been popularly applied to all promulgators of extreme revolutionary opinions: for example, Jacobin democracy is synonymous with totalitarian democracy. ...


The 19th century witnessed a strong revival of the Occitan literature and the writer Frédéric Mistral was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1904. Frédéric Mistral (September 8, 1830 - March 25, 1914) was a French poet who led the 19th century revival of Occitan (Provençal) language and literature. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ...


But from 1881 onwards, children who spoke Occitan at school were punished in accordance with minister Jules Ferry's recommendations. That led to a deprecation of the language known as la vergonha (the shaming): everyone spoke Occitan in 1914, but French gained the upper hand during the 20th century. The situation got worse with the media excluding the use of the langue d'oc. In spite of that decline, the Occitan language is still alive and trying to gain fresh impetus. A minister or a secretary is a politician who heads a government ministry or department (e. ... Jules Ferry, French statesman Jules François Camille Ferry (April 5, 1832 – March 17, 1893) was a French statesman. ... La vergonha (Occitan for shame/shaming, humiliation, IPA [berguɲo]) — sometimes lo vergonhament [berguɲomen], — is what Occitans call the nefarious effects of various governmental policies in France on French children and citizens whose mother tongue was one of so-called patois — better referred to as unofficial languages...


Colonies

Although not really a colony in a modern sense, there was an enclave in the County of Tripoli. Raymond IV of Toulouse founded it in 1102 during the Crusades north of Jerusalem. Most people of this county came from Occitania and Italy and so the Occitan language was spoken. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ... Raymond IV of Toulouse (c. ... Events Valencia is captured by the Almoravids. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Occitania today

There are fourteen to fifteen million inhabitants in Occitania today. According to the 1999 census, there are 610,000 native speakers and another million persons with some exposure to the language. Native speakers of Occitan are to be found mostly in the older generations. The Institut d'Estudis Occitans (IEO) has been modernizing the Occitan language since 1945, and the Conselh de la Lenga Occitana (CLO) since 1996. Nowadays Occitan is used in the most modern musical and literary styles such as rock 'n roll, detective stories or science-fiction. It is represented on the internet. Association schools (Calandretas) teach children in Occitan. The Institut dEstudis Occitans (IPA [istityd destyðiz utsitas]), or IEO, or Occitan Studies Institute, or Institute for Occitan Studies, is a cultural association that was created in 1945. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Occitan political movement for self-government has existed since the beginning of the 20th century and particularly since post-war years (Partit Occitan and many others). The movement remains negligible in electoral and political terms. At a time of Europe's emerging Regions, it wishes Occitania to become a federation of strong regions, with a lively culture and open to the world.[citation needed] Major demonstrations in Carcassonne [1] (2005) and Béziers [2] (2007) and the week-long Estivada festival in Rodez [3] (2006) suggest that there is a revival of Occitan language and culture. However, in France, Occitan is still not recognized as an official language, as the status of French is constitutionally protected. Partit Occitan (or Occitan Party) is a political party in France. ... This article is on the political entity. ... Carcassonne (Carcassona in Occitan) is a fortified French town, in the Aude département of which it is the préfecture, in the former province of Languedoc. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Béziers (Besièrs in Occitan, and Besiers in Catalan) is a town in Languedoc, in the southwest of France. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... Rodez is a city in southern France in département of Aveyron. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is an article about language policy in France. ...


Famous people from Occitania

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Emmanuelle Béart at Cannes in 2000 Emmanuelle Béart (born August 14, 1963) is a French actress. ... Joan Bodon, who was born in Crespin, Aveyron, Occitania on December 11, 1920 and died on February 24, 1975 in Algeria, is an author who wrote exclusively in Occitan although he is credited as being called Jean Boudou in the French translations of his works. ... Pierre Bayle. ... François Bayrou François Bayrou (IPA: ) is a leading candidate for the French Presidental election of 2007. ... Pierre Bourdieu (August 1, 1930 – January 23, 2002) was an acclaimed French sociologist whose work employed methods drawn from a wide range of disciplines: from philosophy and literary theory to sociology and anthropology. ... Francis Cabrel (born 23 November 1953 in Agen, France) is a French singer-songwriter and guitarist. ... Albert Camus (IPA: ) (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) was a French author and philosopher. ... Éric Daniel Pierre Cantona (born May 24, 1966 in Marseille) is a French former footballer of the late 1980s and 1990s. ... “Cezanne” redirects here. ... For the Champollion comet rendezvous spacecraft, see Champollion (spacecraft). ... Daniel Cohn-Bendit, Ash Wednesday 2004 at Biberach/Riss Daniel Marc Cohn-Bendit (born Montauban, France, April 4, 1945) is a European politician and was a leader of the student protesters during the May 1968 riots in France. ... Auguste Comte (full name: Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; January 17, 1798 - September 5, 1857) was a French thinker who coined the term sociology. ... François Darlan (August 7, 1881 – December 24, 1942) was a French naval officer. ... Jean-Louis Debré, President of Constitutional Council of France Jean-Louis Debré (born September 30, 1944 in Toulouse) is a conservative French politician. ... Marcela Delpastre (sometimes Marcèla, IPA [marsÉ›la delpastre]) was an Occitan- and French-language author from Limousin. ... Lafayette, LaFayette, or La Fayette may refer to: // Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette (Marquis de Lafayette), French general and revolutionary (sometimes referred to as the Marquis de la Fayette) Marie-Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de la Fayette (Madame de Lafayette), French author Elliston-Lafayette, Virginia La... Michel Eyquem de Montaigne-Delecroix (IPA pronunciation: []) (February 28, 1533–September 13, 1592) was one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance. ... “Descartes” redirects here. ... Gabriel Urbain Fauré (May 12, 1845 – November 4, 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist, and teacher. ... Pierre de Fermat Pierre de Fermat (August 17, 1601 – January 12, 1665) was a French lawyer at the Parliament of Toulouse and a mathematician who is given credit for the development of modern calculus. ... Daniel Goossens, or Goossens, is a French strip cartoonist born in Salon-de-Provence on May 16, 1954. ... Jean Jaurès. ... Yves Klein (28 April 1928 - 6 June 1962) was a French artist and is considered an important figure in post-war European neo-Dadaism. ... Robèrt Lafont (IPA [rruβɛrt lafun]) (born in Nîmes on March 16, 1923) is an Occitan intellectual from Provence and more specifically a linguist, an author, a historian, an expert in literature and a political theoretician. ... Serge Lama is a French singer. ... Bernard Laporte (born 1 July 1964 in Rodez) is the current head coach of the France national rugby union team, taking over in 1999. ... François Mauriac (October 11, 1885 – September 1, 1970) was a French author, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature. ... Frédéric Mistral (September 8, 1830 - March 25, 1914) was a French poet who led the 19th century revival of Occitan (Provençal) language and literature. ... Noir Désir is a French rock band, currently on hiatus. ... Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was President of France from 1969 until his death in 1974. ... Ives Roqueta (IPA [iβes rruketo]) was born in Sète, Occitania, in 1936 and is an Occitan author. ... Max Roqueta (Argeliers, December 8, 1908 - June 22, 2005) was one of the most famous contemporary Occitan writers. ... “Montesquieu” redirects here. ... Nostradamus: original portrait by his son Cesar Michel de Nostredame (December 14, 1503 – July 2, 1566), usually Latinized to Nostradamus, was a French apothecary and reputed seer who published collections of prophecies that have since become famous world-wide. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec [äNrÄ“ du tOOlOOz lōtrek] (November 24, 1864 – September 9, 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the decadent and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an oeuvre of provocative images of modern life. ... Claude Puel (born September 2, 1961 in Castres, France) is a former French footballer, now a manager, currently coach of Lille Olympique Sporting Club. ... Audrey Tautou (IPA: ; , born August 9, 1978) is a French film actress, known to worldwide audiences for playing the title character in the award-winning French film Amélie (2001, Le Fabuleux Destin dAmélie Poulain) and also Sophie Neveu in The Da Vinci Code (2006). ... Simone Veil Simone Veil (born Simone Annie Jacob, July 13, 1927) is a French lawyer and politician who currently serves as a member of the Constitutional Council of France. ... Bernadette Soubirous Statue of Our Lady of Lourdes in Lourdes, France. ... A medieval depiction of Bernart de Ventadorn. ... Bertran de Born (1140s – by 1215) was a baron from the Limousin in France, and one of the major Occitan troubadours of the twelfth century. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ...

See also

The Occitan cross — also cross of Occitania, cross of Languedoc, Cathar cross and Toulouse cross,— is the symbol of Occitania. ... La vergonha (Occitan for shame/shaming, humiliation, IPA [berguɲo]) — sometimes lo vergonhament [berguɲomen], — is what Occitans call the nefarious effects of various governmental policies in France on French children and citizens whose mother tongue was one of so-called patois — better referred to as unofficial languages...

References

  1. ^ Regional pronunciations: Occitània = [u(k)si'tanjɔ, ukʃi'tanjɔ, u(k)si'tanja].
  2. ^ When speaking Occitan, Occitania can be easily referred to as lo país, i.e. 'the country'.
  3. ^ Jean-Pierre JUGE (2001) Petit précis - Chronologie occitane - Histoire & civilisation, p. 14
  4. ^ Robèrt LAFONT (1986) "La nominacion indirècta dels païses", Revue des langues romanes nº2, tome XC, pp. 161-171
  5. ^ Jean-Pierre JUGE (2001) Petit précis - Chronologie occitane - Histoire & civilisation, p. 19

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Occitania - definition of Occitania in Encyclopedia (599 words)
Occitania refers to the land of the Occitan language.
Occitania in the Middle Ages was a free country, united by its culture, but divided between its sovereigns: from the 11th to the 13th century, the dukes of Aquitaine, the counts of Toulouse and the Catalan kings rivalled in their attempts at unifying the country.
The Occitan literature was glorious and flourishing at that time: in the 12th and 13th century, the troubadours invented courtly love (fin'amor) and the langue d'oc spread throughout all European cultivated circles.
Occitania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (645 words)
Occitania refers to the lands where the Occitan language is spoken.
Written texts in Occitan appeared in the 9th century: it was used at once in legal then literary, scientific and religious texts.
At the time of Europe's emerging Regions, it wishes Occitania to become a federation of strong regions, with a lively culture and open to the world.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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