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Encyclopedia > Ocarina

The ocarina (IPA: [oːkəˈriːnə]) is an ancient flute-like wind instrument.[1] While several variations exist, an ocarina is typified by an oval-shaped enclosed space with four to twelve finger holes and a mouth tube projecting out from the body. It is often ceramic, but many other materials, such as plastic, wood, glass, clay, and metal, may also be used. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ...

A tenor and an alto ten-hole ocarina.

Contents

A tenor and an alto ten-hole clay ocarina forged by Anitas Ocarinas. ... A tenor and an alto ten-hole clay ocarina forged by Anitas Ocarinas. ...

History

A gemshorn.

Image File history File links GemshornMusicaGetutscht1511. ... Image File history File links GemshornMusicaGetutscht1511. ...

Ancient History

The ocarina is a very old family of instruments, believed to date back some 12,000 years.[2] Ocarina-type instruments have been of particular importance in Chinese and Mesoamerican cultures. For the Chinese, the instrument played an important role in their long history of song and dance. The ocarina has similar features to the Xun, another important Chinese instrument. [3] Different expeditions to Mesoamerica, including the one conducted by Cortés, resulted in the introduction of the ocarina to the courts of Europe. Both the Mayans and Aztecs had produced versions of the ocarina, but it was the Aztecs who brought the song and dance that accompanied the ocarina to Europe. The ocarina went on to become popular in European communities as a toy instrument.[4][5] See 1 E11 s for more remote dates. ... This article is about the culture area. ... The xun is a Chinese ocarina made of clay or ceramic. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ...


Budrio, Italy

Giuseppe Donati, Italian inventor of the classical ocarina, with his work.

Its common use in the Western countries dates to the 19th century in Budrio, a town near Bologna, Italy, where Giuseppe Donati transformed the ocarina from a toy, which only played a few notes, into a more comprehensive instrument (known as the first "classical" ocarinas). The word ocarina is derived from Italian meaning "little goose." The earlier form was known in Europe as a gemshorn; which was made from animal horns. Image File history File links Donati. ... Image File history File links Donati. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... Budrio is a neighborhood of Bologna. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Giuseppe Donati Giuseppe Donati (1836-1925) is credited with being the inventor of the modern Italian-style ocarina, a ceramic wind instrument based on the principle of a Helmholtz resonator. ... “Geese” redirects here. ... The Gemshorn (New German spelling: Gämshorn) receives its name from the German language, and means, literally, a chamois horn. ... Highland cow, a very old long-horned breed from Scotland. ...


Budrio continues its tradition in the form of the Fabio Menaglio ocarina workshops, which produce a full range of professional instruments. Also, Budrio is home of a well-known classical ocarina group, "Gruppo Ocarinistico Budriese" (since 1865).


Recent History

In 1900 Sears, Roebuck and Company began selling ocarinas through their mail-order catalog. It soon developed its American name, the "Sweet Potato", because of its round shape and sweet sound. During World War II, American soldiers were issued plastic ocarinas by the U.S. Army as a morale booster.[4] Sears, Roebuck and Company is an American mid-range chain of international department stores, founded by Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck in the late 19th century. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...


Musical performance

Tone production/Acoustics

How an ocarina works:
1. Air enters through the windway
2. Air strikes the reed, producing sound
3. Air vibrates throughout the inside of the ocarina
4. Covering and uncovering holes lowers and raises the pitch


The ocarina, like other vessel flutes, has the unusual quality of not relying on the pipe length to produce a particular tone. Instead the tone is dependent on the ratio of the total surface area of opened holes to the total cubic volume enclosed by the instrument. This means that, unlike a flute or recorder, sound is created by resonance of the entire cavity and the placement of the holes on an ocarina is largely irrelevant — their size is the most important factor. However, instruments that have toneholes close to the voicing/embouchure should be avoided, because this weakens tonal production. Since an ocarina is a Helmholtz resonator, the frequency of the tone played is: â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Various recorders The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument of the family known as fipple flutes or internal duct flutes — whistle-like instruments which include the tin whistle and ocarina. ... A brass, spherical Helmholtz resonator based on his original design, from around 1890-1900. ...


f = frac{v}{2pi}frac{A}{V}


Where v is the speed of sound, A is the total uncovered area and V is the enclosed volume.


The resonator in the ocarina can create overtones, but because of the common "egg" shape, these overtones are many octaves above the keynote scale.[6] In similar Helmholtz resonator instruments with a narrow cone shape, like the Gemshorn or Tonette, some partial overtones are available. The technique of overblowing to get a range of higher pitched notes is not possible with the ocarina because of its vessel shape, so the range of pitches available is limited to a 12th. Some Ocarina makers increase the range by designing double- or triple-chambered ocarinas tuned 1 octave apart. A resonator is a device or part that vibrates (or oscillates) with waves. ... Approximate harmonic overtones on a string An overtone is a natural resonance or vibration frequency of a system. ... The Gemshorn (New German spelling: Gämshorn) receives its name from the German language, and means, literally, a chamois horn. ... The tonette is a small, end-blown flute made of plastic, which was once popular with elementary school children. ... Overblowing is producing a different note in a wind instrument by forcing air harder. ...


Different notes are produced by covering the holes, and by opening and closing more or less of the total hole area. The tone is then produced through the sound hole/embouchure. The tone can also be varied by changing the strength with which one blows through the instrument (pitch bending).


Musical notation/Tabulature

Written music for the ocarina typically makes use of a special form of tablature similar to the ocarina's finger hole pattern with blackened holes representing which holes should be covered. The tablature represents the holes on the top of the ocarina, and, where necessary, the holes on the underside. This enables easy playing, particularly for beginners. The most popular tabulature systems are 1) The John Taylor 4 hole system (Invented in the year of the Dragon,1964, by British Mathematician John Taylor) and 2) The 10 hole sweet potato system (credited to inventor Giuseppe Donati of Budrio Italy). Depending on the artist, some may write a number or figure over the picture to depict how many beats to hold the note.[7]Tre Example of numeric vihuela tablature from the book Orphenica Lyra by Miguel de Fuenllana (1554). ... Giuseppe Donati Giuseppe Donati (1836-1925) is credited with being the inventor of the modern Italian-style ocarina, a ceramic wind instrument based on the principle of a Helmholtz resonator. ...


Types of ocarina

Since the 19th century, multi-chambered ocarinas have been made to create polyphonic pieces. Polyphony is the property of an electronic musical instrument which describes how many notes it can sound at one time. ...


Ocarinas with keys have been produced by several makers, mostly experimentally, beginning in the late 19th century. Keys may be added with the intention of either expanding the instrument's range, or to enable the fingers to reach holes that are widely spaced.


Appearance in works

  • In the late 1930s a group of older boys began building wooden ocarinas. They formed a popular ocarina ensemble called the Potato Bugs, performing on Broadway, radio, and later television, into the 1950s. Irving Berlin wrote a popular song, inspired by them, entitled Dance to the Music of the Ocarina for the musical Call Me Madam.[8]
  • The Sweet Potato Pipers, a 1930s-1940s ocarina group that toured with the Glenn Miller Orchestra, featured the ocarina, prominently on screen, in Hollywood musicals such as Girl Crazy (1943).
  • A memorable part in the Bernardo Bertolucci movie 1900, set in the Emilia region of northern Italy during the early 20th century, features a scene in which a group of farmers in a forest play a tune in harmony on ocarinas of various sizes.
  • An ocarina part also features prominently in the theme from the 1966 spaghetti western The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. The ocarina, along with the jaw harp and the electric guitar, was used widely in the soundtracks of 1960s European-made westerns, to develop a distinctive style.
  • The instrumental break in The Troggs's 1966 hit song "Wild Thing" contains a lively ocarina solo played by group leader Reg Presley and an ocarina is heard in the Simon and Garfunkel song "Feeling Groovy/The 59th Street Bridge song".
  • The 1965 song "Pass Me By," by Peggy Lee, includes a happy-sounding passage played on an ocarina.
  • "Going Up The Country" by Canned Heat features an ocarina.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Irving Berlin (May 11, 1888 – September 22, 1989) was an American composer and lyricist, one of the most prodigious and famous American songwriters in history. ... The Black Crook (1866) is considered the first musical comedy Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... Call Me Madam is one of Irving Berlins last musical comedies. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... ... Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theater combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... Girl Crazy is a theater musical with music by George Gershwin, lyrics by Ira Gershwin and book by Guy Bolton and John McGowan. ... Bernardo Bertolucci (born March 16, 1940) is an Italian writer and Academy Award winning film director. ... 1900 (also called Novecento) is a 1976 epic film starring Robert de Niro, Gérard Depardieu, Dominique Sanda, Donald Sutherland, Alida Valli and Burt Lancaster, directed by Bernardo Bertolucci. ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Clint Eastwood as the Man with No Name in A Fistful of Dollars Once Upon a Time in the West, in true Sergio Leone style, ends with an extended shootout scene between Harmonica (Charles Bronson) and Frank (Henry Fonda). ... The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (Italian: ) is a 1966 Italian epic spaghetti Western directed by Sergio Leone, starring Clint Eastwood, Lee Van Cleef and Eli Wallach in the title roles. ... Jews harp, from an American Civil War camp near Winchester, Virginia Jews harp, Slovakia, Central Europe The Jews harp is one of the oldest musical instruments in the world. ... An electric guitar is a type of guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into electrical current, which is then amplified. ... Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... The Troggs were a successful English rock band of the 1960s, who had a number of hits in Britain and America, including their most famous song, Wild Thing. The Troggs were from the town of Andover in southern England. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Wild Thing is a hit song from 1966 originally performed by the English band The Troggs, and written by New York-born songwriter Chip Taylor. ... Reg Presley (born Reginald Maurice Ball on June 12, 1943[1], in Andover, Hampshire) is an English singer/songwriter. ... The duo of Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel are American popular musicians known collectively as Simon and Garfunkel. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Peggy Lee (May 26, 1920 – January 21, 2002) was an American jazz and traditional pop singer and songwriter and Oscar-nominated performer. ...

Ocarinas in popular culture

  • The 1953 film Stalag 17 includes Joey, a prisoner suffering from apparent shellshock, who obsessively plays the ocarina.
  • In Captain Harlock, the original series (1978), the main instruments were the ocarina and harp. The ocarina was used by Mayu Oyama to let Harlock know where she was.
  • In The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, a video game released in 1998 for the Nintendo 64 console, an Ocarina with numerous magical powers is used by the game's main character Link. It also appears in several other The Legend of Zelda games. In the English version of A Link to the Past, the ocarina is incorrectly named a flute.
  • The main character in the video game Growlanser II: The Sense of Justice, named Wein Cruz, plays the ocarina to remind himself of a Growsian maiden he met when he was a young boy.
  • In Robert Rankin's novel The Dance of the Voodoo Handbag, the story refers to a character who 'reinvented the ocarina', and its shape turns out to be a map of the entrances to an alternate universe.
  • Tapion from the Dragonball Z movie Wrath of the Dragon plays an enchanted ocarina.
  • In the anime .Hack//Sign, the characters use "sprite ocarinas" to travel from place to place in The World.
  • In Pokemon the Movie : 2000, Melody plays a unique ocarina, as part of her people's legend. When played in conjunction with the three treasures it allows Lugia to quell the beasts.
  • In the 1988 Anime film "My Neighbor Totoro": when the sun goes down, from the top of a Camphor Tree Totoro usually plays an Ocarina.
  • The main character in the video game Lunar Silver Star Story, Alex, has an ocarina that can later be used to listen to the game's soundtrack. It also appears in the game's sequel, Lunar 2 Eternal Blue.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Stalag 17 is a 1953 war film which tells the story of a group of American G.I.s held in a German World War II prisoner of war camp who come to believe one of their number is a traitor. ... The military term combat stress reaction (CSR) comprises the range of adverse behaviours in reaction to the stress of combat and combat related activities. ... Captain Harlock , lit. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time was a video game released in 1998, and the first Zelda game for the Nintendo 64. ... “Computer and video games” redirects here. ... The Nintendo 64 ), often abbreviated as N64, was Nintendos third home video game console for the international market. ... Link ) is the protagonist of Nintendos The Legend of Zelda video game series, created by Shigeru Miyamoto. ... A Legend of Zelda series logo The Legend of Zelda series (often shortened to Zelda, TLoZ, or LoZ), by Nintendo, is a series of video games created by celebrated game designer Shigeru Miyamoto. ... Robert Rankin Robert Fleming Rankin (born July 27, 1949) is a prolific British humorous novelist. ... The Dance of the Voodoo Handbag is a novel by the British author Robert Rankin that incorporates elements of fantasy and science fiction. ... Tapion is a fictional character from Dragon Ball Z Movie 13: Wrath of the Dragon He acts as the protagonist of this film and is described as a Legendary Hero from the planet Konats (Konnatsuu). This makes his race the Konnatsuu-jin (Konats Race). ... Dragon Ball Z logo (English manga). ... Dragon Fist Explosion!! If GokÅ« Cant Do It, Who Will? ) is the 13th and final movie in the Dragon Ball Z series. ... Original run 2002-04-04 – 2002-09-25 No. ... My Neighbor Totoro ), or My Neighbour Totoro on UK DVD box titles, is a 1988 film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki and produced by Studio Ghibli. ...

Gallery

Similar instruments

Other vessel flutes include the Chinese xun and African globe flutes. The xun (simplified Chinese: 埙; traditional: 塤; pinyin: xūn) is a Chinese vessel flute made of clay or ceramic. It is one of the oldest Chinese instruments. Shaped like an egg, it differs from the ocarina in being side-blown, like the Western concert flute, rather than having a recorder-like mouthpiece (a fipple or beak). Similar instruments exist in Korea (the hun) and Japan (the tsuchibue). The xun is a Chinese ocarina made of clay or ceramic. ... The term flute most commonly applies to the popular transverse side-blown musical instrument made of metal. ... Various recorders The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument of the family known as fipple flutes or internal duct flutes — whistle-like instruments which include the tin whistle and ocarina. ... The hun (hangul: 훈; hanja: 塤) is a Korean ocarina made of baked clay or ceramic. ...


A related family of instruments is the closed-pipe family, which includes the panpipes and other instruments which produce their tone by vibrating a column of air within a stopped cylinder. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ...


The old fashioned jugband jug also has similar properties. A jug band is a band employing a jug player and other traditional and homemade instruments, such as rhythm guitar, washtub bass, washboard, jug, mandolin, and kazoo. ... The jug as a musical instrument reached its height of popularity in the 1920s, when jug bands, such as Cannons Jug Stompers were popular. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ocarina

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... â™  This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Native American flute crafted by Chief Arthur Two-Crows, 1987 The Native American flute has achieved some measure of fame for its distinctive sound, used in a variety of New Age and world music recordings. ... Soorjo Alexander William Oliphant Chuckerbutty (1884-1960) (A.K.A. Wilson Oliphant) was an Anglo-Indian composer and a cinema and church organist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ History of Ocarina. www.ocarina-vale.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  2. ^ Ocarina. Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  3. ^ History of the Ocarina. STL Ocarina. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  4. ^ a b History of the Ocarina. Song Bird Ocarina. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  5. ^ A Brief History. Terry Riley Vessel Flutes. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  6. ^ Fundamentals of Musical Acoustics. Arthur H. Benade pp.473–476
  7. ^ Ocarina Fingering Charts. www.hindocarina.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  8. ^ Potato Bugs Tracks. www.hindocarina.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Ocarinas United - A lively discussion board of ocarinists worldwide with monthly group songs to play.
  • The Chuckerbutty Ocarina Quartet – British ocarina quartet, with sound samples.
  • Ocarina Room – Information on making and playing, and mp3.
  • Free Ocarina Sample Library
  • Ocarina Festivals – Mp3 of several groups.
  • Oc-Land – Fingering charts and information on ocarinas.

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