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Encyclopedia > Observatory
Molėtai Astronomical Observatory in Lithuania

An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial and/or celestial events. Astrology, astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geology, oceanography and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed. Historically, observatories were as simple as containing a sextant (for measuring the distance between stars) or Stonehenge (which has some alignments on astronomical phenomena). Observatory is a suburb in Cape Town, South Africa, bordered by Mowbray to the south, and Salt River to the north. ... The Observatory is the second album released by the Christian light rock group Cadet. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1668 × 1251 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1668 × 1251 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Molėtai Astronomical Observatory (MAO) is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by the Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy of Lithuania. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological phenomena. ... A sextant is a measuring instrument generally used to measure the angle of elevation of a celestial object above the horizon. ... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers], the self-regulatory body for the entertainment ticket industry in the UK. Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Astronomical observatories

Ground-based observatories

Paranal Observatory, home of the Very Large Telescope, a cluster of four large (8.2 meter diameter) telescopes.
Paranal Observatory, home of the Very Large Telescope, a cluster of four large (8.2 meter diameter) telescopes.

Ground-based observatories, located on the surface of Earth, are used to make observations in the radio and visible lights portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Most optical telescopes are housed within a dome or other similar structure in order to protect the delicate instruments from the elements. Telescope domes contain a slat or other opening in the roof that can be opened during observing and then closed when the telescope is not in use. In most cases, the entire upper portion of the telescope dome can be rotated in order to allow the instrument to observe different sections of the night sky. Radio telescopes usually do not have domes. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3468x1392, 1505 KB) La plate forme du mont Paranal, prise en photo le 25 décembre 2004 Photo prise par F. Millour [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3468x1392, 1505 KB) La plate forme du mont Paranal, prise en photo le 25 décembre 2004 Photo prise par F. Millour [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects... Paranal Observatory is an astronomical observatory located on Cerro Paranal (120 km south of Antofagasta) and operated by the European Southern Observatory. ... One of the four telescopes that make up the VLT, named Kueyen. ... Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... Eight Inch refracting telescope. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ...


Optical observatories

For optical telescopes, most ground-based observatories are located far from major centers of population in order to avoid the effects of light pollution. The ideal locations for modern observatories are sites that have dark skies, a large percentage of clear nights per year, dry air, and are at high elevations. At high elevations, the Earth's atmosphere is thinner thereby minimizing the effects of atmospheric turbulence and resulting in better astronomical "seeing".[1] Sites that meet the above criteria for modern observatories include the southwestern United States, Hawaii, the Andes Mountains, and Australia.[2] Major optical observatories include Mauna Kea, HI, USA, Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in the Canary Islands, Paranal Observatory in Chile and Kitt Peak observatory in the USA. The largest observatory in the equatorial belt is Observatorio Nacional de Llano del Hato in in in in in in in in in in in in in. This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... “Air” redirects here. ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ... Schematic diagram illustrating how optical wavefronts from a distant star may be perturbed by a turbulent layer in the atmosphere. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... See also architecture with non-sequential dynamic execution scheduling (ANDES). ... The Observatories at Mauna Kea are an independent collection of the worlds premier astronomical research facilities, located on the summit of Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii, USA. The facilities are located in a 500-acre special land use zone known as the Astronomy Precinct, which... The seeing statistics for Roque de los Muchachos Observatory make it the third best location for optical and infrared astronomy after Dome C, Antarctica and Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... Paranal Observatory is an astronomical observatory located on Cerro Paranal (120 km south of Antofagasta) and operated by the European Southern Observatory. ... The Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) is located on a 6,875 ft peak of the Quinlan Mountains in the Arizona-Sonoran Desert on the Tohono Oodham Nation, 55 miles southwest of Tucson. ... Observatorio Nacional de Llano del Hato is the main observatory in Venezuela. ...


Radio observatories

Beginning in the 1930's, radio telescopes have been built for use in the field of radio astronomy. Such an instrument, or a collection of them, with outbuildings for such things as control centres, data reduction centers, and maintenance are called radio observatories. Radio observatories are similarly located far from major centers of population in order to avoid electromagnetic interference (EMI) from radio, TV, radar, and other EMI emitting devices. But unlike optical observatories, radio observatories will be placed in valleys to further shield them from EMI. Some of the major radio observatories are at Socorro, in New Mexico, USA, Jodrell Bank in the UK, Arecibo, Puerto Rico and Parkes in New South Wales, Australia. The 64 meter radio telescope at Parkes Observatory A radio telescope is a form of directional radio antenna most often used in radio astronomy and in tracking and collecting data from satellites and space probes (see Deep Space Network), and are also used in the SETI project. ... The Very Large Array, a radio interferometer in New Mexico, USA Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is electromagnetic radiation which is emitted by electrical circuits carrying rapidly changing signals, as a by-product of their normal operation, and which causes unwanted signals (interference or noise) to be induced in other circuits. ... See TV (disambiguation) for other uses and Television (band) for the rock band European networks National In much of Europe television broadcasting has historically been state dominated, rather than commercially organised, although commercial stations have grown in number recently. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... The Very Large Array (VLA) is a radio astronomy observatory located on the Plains of San Augustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, some fifty miles (80 km) west of Socorro, New Mexico, USA. U.S. Route 60 passes through the complex. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... The 76m Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory. ... The Arecibo Observatory is located approximately 9 miles south-southwest from Arecibo, Puerto Rico (near the extreme southwestern corner of Arecibo pueblo). ... The big dish The Parkes Observatory is a radio telescope observatory, 20 kilometres north of the town of Parkes, New South Wales, Australia. ... “NSW” redirects here. ...


Space-based observatories

Main article: Space observatory
The Hubble Space Telescope, a space-based observatory
The Hubble Space Telescope, a space-based observatory

Space-based observatories are telescopes or other instruments that are located in outer space, many in orbit around the Earth. Space-based observatories can be used to observe astronomical objects at wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum that cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and are thus impossible to observe using ground-based telescopes. The Earth's atmosphere is opaque to ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays and is partially opaque to infrared radiation so observations in these portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are best carried out from a location above the atmosphere of our planet.[3] Another advantage of space-based telescopes is that, because of their location above the Earth's atmosphere, their images are free from the effects of atmospheric turbulence that plague ground-based observations.[4] As a result, the angular resolution of space telescopes such as the Hubble Space Telescope is often much smaller than a ground-based telescope with a similar aperture. However, all these advantages do come with a price. Space telescopes are much more expensive to build than ground-based telescopes. Due to their location, space telescopes are also extremely difficult to maintain. The Hubble Space Telescope can be serviced by the Space Shuttle while many other space telescopes can not be serviced at all.[5] Space telescopes A space observatory is any instrument in outer space which is used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x766, 76 KB) Hubble Space Telescope as seen from the Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-82. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x766, 76 KB) Hubble Space Telescope as seen from the Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-82. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... “Air” redirects here. ... A substance or object that is opaque is neither transparent nor translucent. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... Angular resolution describes the resolving power of any optical device such as a telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... a big (1) and a small (2) aperture For other uses, see Aperture (disambiguation). ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ...


Oldest astronomical observatories

Far East's oldest astrological observatory constructed between 632 - 646 in Cheomseongdae
Far East's oldest astrological observatory constructed between 632 - 646 in Cheomseongdae

Some of the oldest observatories include: Image File history File linksMetadata Cheomseongdae. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Cheomseongdae. ... Cheomseongdae is a stone tower that seems to have been built in the middle 7th century in Gyeongju by Silla. ...

Chankillo or Chanquillo is an ancient monument complex in the Peruvian coastal desert. ... Model showing the relative positions of the Abu Simbel temples before and after relocation Categories: Ancient Egypt stubs | Wonders of the World ... For other uses, see Stonehenge (disambiguation). ... Kokino (Macedonian: Кокино) is an important megalithic observatory site discovered in 2001 by archeologist Jovica Stankovski in the northeastern Republic of Macedonia, approximately 30 km from the town of Kumanovo, near the village of Staro Nagorichane. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Goseck is a municipality lying on the Saale River, in the Weißenfels district of the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... Cheomseongdae is a stone tower that seems to have been built in the middle 7th century in Gyeongju by Silla. ... Aerial view of Angkor Wat The main entrance to the temple proper, seen from the eastern end of the Naga causeway Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built for King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

Volcano observatories

Main article: Volcano observatory

A Volcano observatory is an institution that conducts research and monitoring of a volcano. Mobile volcano observatories exist with the USGS VDAP (Volcano Disaster Assistance Program), to be deployed on demand. A volcano observatory is an institution that conducts research and monitoring of a volcano. ... A volcano observatory is an institution that conducts research and monitoring of a volcano. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ...


See also

Look up Observatory in
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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Space telescopes A space observatory is any instrument in outer space which is used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects. ... Timeline of telescopes, observatories, and observing technology. ... This is a list of astronomical observatories ordered by name, along with initial dates of operation (where an accurate date is available) and location. ... Observatories are locations used for observing terrestrial and/or celestial events. ... Space-Themed Music is any music, from any genre or style, with lyrics or titles relating to outer space or space travel. ...

References

  1. ^ Chaisson, Eric; McMillan, Steve (2002). Astronomy Today, Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall, 116-119. 
  2. ^ Chaisson, Eric; McMillan, Steve (2002). Astronomy Today, Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall, 119. 
  3. ^ Chaisson, Eric; McMillan, Steve (2002). Astronomy Today, Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall. 
  4. ^ A Brief History of the Hubble Space Telescope: Why a Space Telescope?. NASA. Retrieved on 2006-08-14.
  5. ^ A Era of Space Telescopes. Space Telescope Science Institute. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.

Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ... Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ... Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


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