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Encyclopedia > Oboe
Oboe
Classification
Playing range
Related instruments

The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. In English prior to 1770, the instrument was called "hautbois", "hoboy", or "French hoboy".[1] The spelling "oboe" was adopted into English ca. 1770 from the Italian oboè, as close as possible a representation in that language's orthography of the 17th-century pronunciation of the French word hautbois, a compound word made of haut ("high, loud") and bois ("wood, woodwind"). A musician who plays the oboe is called an oboist. Careful manipulation of embouchure and air pressure allows the player to express a large timbral and dynamic range. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ... A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ... A double reed is a type of reed used to produce sound in various wind instruments. ... In music, the range of a musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... The piccolo oboe is the smallest and highest pitched member of the oboe family. ... Baroque oboe damore, Denner copy The oboe damore is a woodwind instrument. ... The cor anglais, or English horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the woodwind family. ... Oboe da caccia The oboe da caccia (literally hunting oboe in Italian) is a double reed woodwind instrument in the oboe family, pitched a fifth below the oboe and used primarily in the Baroque period of European classical music. ... The bass oboe or baritone oboe is a double reed instrument in the woodwind family. ... Heckelphone The heckelphone is a musical instrument invented by Wilhelm Heckel and his sons, introduced in 1904. ... The contrabass oboe is a double reed woodwind instrument in the key of C, sounding two octaves lower than the standard oboe. ... A double reed is a type of reed used to produce sound in various wind instruments. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making music. ... A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ... For the popular-music magazine, see Musician (magazine). ... An oboist is a musician who plays the oboe. ... The embouchure is the use of facial muscles and the shaping of the lips to the mouthpiece of a wind instrument. ...

In comparison to other modern woodwind instruments, the oboe has a clear and penetrating voice. The Sprightly Companion, an instruction book of 1695, describes the voice as "Majestical and Stately, and not much Inferior to the Trumpet." Similarly, the voice is described in the play Angels in America as sounding like that of a duck if the duck were a songbird. The timbre of the oboe is derived from the oboe's conical bore (as opposed to the generally cylindrical bore of flutes and clarinets). As a result, oboes are readily audible over other instruments in large ensembles. A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument in which sound is produced by blowing through a mouthpiece against an edge or by a vibrating reed, and in which the pitch is varied by opening or closing holes in the body of the instrument. ... Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes is an award winning play in two parts by American playwright Tony Kushner. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... The bore of a wind instrument is its interior chamber that defines a flow path through which air travels and is set into vibration to produce sounds. ... The bore of a wind instrument is the interior chamber in which air is set into vibration to produce musical sounds. ... For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ...

The oboe is pitched in concert C and has a mezzo-soprano to soprano range. Orchestras will usually tune by listening to the oboe play a concert A (usually A440, but sometimes higher if the orchestra tunes to a higher pitch). The pitch of the oboe may be adjusted by permanently altering the scrape, removing cane from the reed, or changing the position of the reed in the instrument (although the latter method should only be used as a last resort, because adjusting the position of the reed may cause some notes to warble). Subtle changes in pitch are also possible by adjusting the embouchure. A440 is the 440 Hz tone that serves as the standard for musical pitch. ... A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to make music. ...

## History

### Baroque

Baroque oboe, Stanesby Copy

The baroque oboe first appeared in the French court in the mid-17th century, where it was called hautbois. The basic form of the instrument was derived from the shawm, an instrument widely used in the Medieval and Renaissance periods. Musician and instrument maker Martin Hotteterre was responsible for many of the new instrument's early developments, according to one source[citation needed], while another credits Jean Hotteterre and Michel Philidor, ca. 1657.[2] The instrument quickly spread throughout Europe (including England, where it was called "hautboy", "hoboy", "hautboit", "howboye", and similar variants of the French name).[3] It was the main melody instrument in early military bands, until it was succeeded by the clarinet.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (158x1226, 50 KB)Baroque oboe, Stanesby copy, maker Olivier Cottet. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (158x1226, 50 KB)Baroque oboe, Stanesby copy, maker Olivier Cottet. ... The shawm was a Renaissance musical instrument of the woodwind family, made in Europe from the late 13th century until the 17th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Renaissance music is European music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ...

The baroque oboe was generally made of boxwood and had three keys; a "great", and two side keys. (The side key was often doubled to facilitate use of either the right or left hand on the bottom holes) In order to produce higher pitches, the player had to "overblow," or increase the air stream to reach the next harmonic. Notable oboe-makers of the period are the German Denner and Eichentopf, and the English Stanesby Sr. and Jr. The range for the baroque oboe comfortably extends from c1 to d3. With the resurgence of interest in early music in the mid 20th century, a few makers began producing copies to specifications from surviving historical instruments. This article is about the box tree. ... A key is a small rectangular button on a musical instrument that is depressed to cause the instrument to create a sound of a particular pitch. ... Denner is a supermarket chain in Switzerland. ... Early music is commonly defined as European classical music from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque. ...

Classical oboe, copy by Sand Dalton of an original by Johann Friedrich Floth, c. 1805

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (146x627, 115 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

### Classical

The classical period brought an oboe whose bore was gradually narrowed, and the instrument became outfitted with several keys, among them were those for the notes D♯, F, and G♯. A key similar to the modern octave key was also added called the "slur key," though it was at first used more like the "flick" keys on the modern German bassoon. Only later did French instrument makers redesign the octave key to be used in the manner of the modern key (i.e. held open for the upper register, closed for the lower). The narrower bore allowed the higher notes to be more easily played, and composers began to more often utilize the oboe's upper register in their works. Because of this, the oboe's tessitura in the Classical era was somewhat broader than that found in baroque works. The range for the Classical oboe extends from c1 to f3, though some German and Austrian oboes were capable of playing one half-step lower. Classical-era composers who wrote concertos for oboe include Mozart (both the solo concerto in C major K. 314/285d and the lost Sinfonia Concertante in E-flat major K. 297b), Haydn, (both the Sinfonia Concertante in B-flat Hob. I:105 and the spurious concerto in C major Hob. VIIg:C1), Beethoven (the F major concerto, Hess 12, of which only sketches survive, though the second movement was reconstructed in the late twentieth century), and numerous other composers including Johann Christian Bach, Johann Christian Fischer, Jan Antonín Koželuh, and Ludwig August Lebrun. Innumerable solos exist for the oboe in chamber, symphonic, and operatic compositions from the Classical era. The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor registers and occasionally even higher. ... In music, tessitura (Italian: texture) is a range of pitches compared to the instrument for which it was intended to be used. ... â€œMozartâ€ redirects here. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. ... Johann Christian Bach, painted in London by Thomas Gainsborough, 1776 (Museo Civico, Bologna) Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 â€“ January 1, 1782) was a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach. ... January KoÅ¾eluh Jan AntonÃ­n KoÅ¾eluh (1738-1814) was a renowned Czech composer from Velvary. ... Ludwig August Lebrun (Born 2nd May 1752 in Mannheim â€“ 16th December 1790 in Berlin) was a German oboist and composer. ...

### Viennese oboe

In Vienna, a unique oboe has been preserved with its bore and tonal characteristics remaining relatively unchanged in use to the present day. The Akademiemodel Wiener oboe, developed in the early 20th century by Hermann Zuleger, is now made by several makers, such as André Constantinides, Karl Rado, Guntram Wolf and Yamaha. In their definitive historical work "The Oboe", Geoffrey Burgess and Bruce Haynes write (page 212) "The differences are most clearly marked in the middle register, which is reedier and more pungent, and the upper register, which is richer in harmonics on the Viennese oboe". Apart from its use in the major Viennese orchestras, it is not used elsewhere.

### Modern

The oboe was developed further in the 19th century by the Triebert family of Paris. Using the Boehm flute as a source of ideas for key work, Guillaume Triebert and his sons, Charles and Frederic, devised a series of increasingly complex yet functional key systems. A variant form using large tone holes; the Boehm system oboe, was never in common use, though it was used in some military bands in Europe into the 20th century. F. Lorée of Paris made further developments to the modern instrument. Minor improvements to the bore and key work have continued through the 20th century, but there has been no fundamental change to the general characteristics of the instrument for several decades.[4] F. LorÃ©e is a manufacturer of double reed musical instruments based in Paris, France. ...

The modern oboe is most commonly made from grenadilla wood (African blackwood), though some manufacturers also make oboes out of other members of the dalbergia family of woods, which includes cocobolo, rosewood, and violetwood. Ebony (genus Diospyros) has also been used. Student model oboes are often made from plastic resin, to avoid instrument cracking that wood instruments are prone to, but also to make the instrument more economical. The oboe has an extremely narrow conical bore. The oboe is played with a double reed consisting of two thin blades of cane tied together on a small-diameter metal tube (staple), which is inserted into the reed socket at the top of the instrument. The commonly accepted range for the oboe extends from b♭0 to about g3, over two and a half octaves, though its common tessitura lies from c1 to e♭3. Some student oboes only extend to b0; the key for b♭ is not present, however this variant is becoming less common. Grenadilla is a name given to a number of different African black woods, most commonly Dalbergia melanoxylon (sometimes known as Mpingo). ... Species See text Dalbergia is a large genus of small to medium-size trees, shrubs and lianas in the pea family, Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. ... Cocobolo is a hardwood from Central America yielded by two to four closely related species of the genus Dalbergia. ... Rosewood refers to a number of richly hued timbers, brownish with darker veining. ... For other uses, see Ebony (disambiguation). ... Species 450-500; see text Diospyros is a genus (including what used to be Maba) of about 450-500 species of deciduous and evergreen trees. ... The bore of a wind instrument is the interior chamber in which air is set into vibration to produce musical sounds. ...

A modern oboe with the "full conservatory" ("conservatoire" outside the USA) or Gillet key system has 45 pieces of keywork, with the possible additions of a third octave key and alternate (left little finger) F- or C-key. The keys are usually made of nickel silver, and are silver or occasionally gold-plated. Besides the full conservatoire system, oboes are also made using the English thumbplate system. Most have "semi-automatic" octave keys, in which the second octave action closes the first, and some have a fully automatic octave key system, as used on saxophones. Some full conservatory oboes have finger holes covered with rings rather than plates ("open-holed"), and most of the professional models have at least the right hand third key open-holed. Professional oboes used in the UK frequently feature conservatoire system combined with a thumb plate. With this type of mechanism the oboist has the best of both worlds as far as the convenience of fingerings is concerned. For other uses of Alpaca, see Alpaca (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...

## Other members of the oboe family

The oboe has several siblings. The most widely known today is the cor anglais, or English horn, the tenor (or alto) member of the family. A transposing instrument; it is pitched in F, a perfect fifth lower than the oboe. The oboe d'amore, the alto (or mezzo-soprano) member of the family, is pitched in A, a minor third lower than the oboe. J.S. Bach made extensive use of both the oboe d'amore as well as the taille and oboe da caccia, Baroque antecedents of the cor anglais. Even less common is the bass oboe (also called baritone oboe), which sounds one octave lower than the oboe. Delius and Holst both scored for the instrument. Similar to the bass oboe is the more powerful heckelphone, which has a wider bore and larger tone than the bass oboe. Only 165 heckelphones have ever been made, and competent players are hard to find [5]. The least common of all are the musette (also called oboe musette or piccolo oboe), the sopranino member of the family (it is usually pitched in E-flat or F above the oboe), and the contrabass oboe (typically pitched in C, two octaves deeper than the standard oboe). The cor anglais, or English horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the woodwind family. ... A transposing instrument is a musical instrument whose music is written at a pitch different from concert pitch. ... Baroque oboe damore, Denner copy The oboe damore is a woodwind instrument. ... â€œBachâ€ redirects here. ... Oboe da caccia The oboe da caccia (literally hunting oboe in Italian) is a double reed woodwind instrument in the oboe family, pitched a fifth below the oboe and used primarily in the Baroque period of European classical music. ... The bass oboe or baritone oboe is a double reed instrument in the woodwind family. ... Frederick Albert Theodore Delius CH (January 29, 1862, â€“ June 10, 1934) was an English composer born in Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire in the north of England. ... Gustav Holst Gustav Holst (September 21, 1874, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire - May 25, 1934, London) [1] [2] was an English composer and was a music teacher for over 20 years. ... Heckelphone The heckelphone is a musical instrument invented by Wilhelm Heckel and his sons, introduced in 1904. ... The piccolo oboe is the smallest and highest pitched member of the oboe family. ... The contrabass oboe is a double reed woodwind instrument in the key of C, sounding two octaves lower than the standard oboe. ...

Keyless folk versions of the oboe (most descended from the shawm) are found throughout Europe. These include the musette (France) and bombarde (Brittany), the piffaro and ciaramella (Italy), and the xirimia or chirimia (Spain). Many of these are played in tandem with local forms of bagpipe. Similar oboe-like instruments, most believed to derive from Middle Eastern models, are also found throughout Asia as well as in North Africa. Musette can refer to several things: A type of bellows blown bagpipe found in rural France; also called musette de cour). ... Bombardes from Kevrenn an Arvorig The bombarde is a French folk instrument from Brittany. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... Piffaro may refer to: A musical instrument sometimes called a piffero. Piffaro (band), an early music ensemble in Philadelphia. ... A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...

## Notable classical works featuring the oboe

Oboist Albrecht Mayer preparing reeds for use. Oboists scrape their own reeds to achieve the desired tone and response.

A number of concertos (as well as non-concerto works) have been written for the oboe, both as a solo instrument as well as in conjunction with other solo instrument(s), and accompanied by string orchestra, chamber orchestra, full orchestra, band, or similar large ensemble. ... â€œMozartâ€ redirects here. ... Vivaldi redirects here. ... â€œBachâ€ redirects here. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... Tomaso Giovanni Albinoni (June 8, 1671, Venice, Italy â€“ January 17, 1751, Venice) was an Italian baroque composer. ... â€œHandelâ€ redirects here. ... Georg Philipp Telemann. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Haydn redirects here. ... Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (November 3, 1801 â€“ September 23, 1835) was an Italian opera composer. ... Luciano Berio (October 24, 1925 â€“ May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer. ... Sequenza is the name borne by several pieces of music for solo instruments by Luciano Berio. ... Domenico Cimarosa (December 17, 1749-January 11, 1801), Italian opera composer, was born at Aversa, in the kingdom of Naples. ... Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (IPA: ) (January 7, 1899 - January 30, 1963) was a French composer and a member of the French group Les Six. ... Francis Poulencs Oboe Sonata for oboe and piano dates from 1962. ... Britten redirects here. ... English composer Benjamin Britten composed the program music Six Metamorphoses after Ovid (Op. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Edmund Rubbra (23 May 1901â€“14 February 1986) was a British composer. ... Carl Nielsen Carl August Nielsen (June 9, 1865, Sortelung â€“ October 3, 1931, Copenhagen) was a conductor, violinist, and the most internationally known composer from Denmark. ... Alessandro Marcello (August 24, 1669 - June 19, 1747) was a Italian nobleman who dabbled in various areas, including poetry, philosophy, mathematics and, perhaps most notably, music. ... The Concerto for Oboe and Strings in D minor was written by Alessandro Marcello in the early 1700s, and has become his most famous work. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Ralph Vaughan Williams wrote his Concerto in A Minor for Oboe and Strings for soloist Leon Goosens in 1944. ... Charles Camille Saint-SaÃ«ns () (9 October 1835 â€“ 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor, and pianist, known especially for his large-scale orchestral works The Carnival of the Animals, Danse Macabre, Samson et Dalila, and Symphony No. ... Portrait of MartinÅ¯ Bohuslav MartinÅ¯ ( ; December 8, 1890â€”August 28, 1959) was a Czech composer. ... Darius Milhaud (IPA: ) (September 4, 1892 â€“ June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... Bernd Alois Zimmermann (Bliesheim, March 20, 1918 - Grosskönigsdorf, August 10, 1970) is a German composer. ... Carlos ChÃ¡vez photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Carlos Antonio de Padua ChÃ¡vez y RamÃ­rez (June 13, 1899 â€“ August 2, 1978) was a Mexican composer, conductor, teacher, journalist, and the founder and director of the Mexican Symphonic Orchestra. ... John Barnes Chance (November 20, 1932â€“August 16, 1972) was an American composer. ... Variations on a Korean Folk Song is a musical piece written for concert band by John Barnes Chance in 1965. ... Hans Werner Henze (born July 1, 1926 in GÃ¼tersloh, Westphalia, Germany) is a composer well known for his left-wing political beliefs. ... Bruno Maderna (April 21, 1920 - November 13, 1973) was an Italian-German conductor and composer. ... Witold LutosÅ‚awski at his home. ... Ellen Taaffe Zwilich (born April 30, 1939) is an American post-modernist composer. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Ennio Morricone (born November 10, 1928; sometimes also credited as Dan Savio or Leo Nichols) is an Italian composer especially noted for his film scores. ... The Mission can refer to: The Mission Church (Fellowship), A Student Church/Fellowship in Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas. ... Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Samuel Osborne Barber II (March 9, 1910 â€“ January 23, 1981) was an American composer of classical music ranging from orchestral, to opera, choral, and piano music. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Elliott Cook Carter, Jr. ... Heinz Holliger (born May 21, 1939) is a Swiss oboist and composer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Albrecht_Mayer_04. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Albrecht_Mayer_04. ... Albrecht Mayer is principal oboist for the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. ...

## Use outside of classical music

While the oboe is rarely used in musical genres other than Western classical, there have been a few notable exceptions.

Although keyless folk oboes are still used in many European folk music traditions, the modern oboe has been little used in folk music. One exception was Derek Bell, harpist for the Irish group The Chieftains, who used the instrument in some performances and recordings. The U.S. contra dance band Wild Asparagus, based in western Massachusetts, also uses the oboe, played by David Cantieni. The folk musician Paul Sartin plays the oboe in several English folk bands including Faustus and Bellowhead. The bagpipe player and bagpipe maker Jonathan Shorland plays the oboe with the bands Primeaval and Juice, and formerly played with Fernhill, which play traditional British Isles music. Derek Bell (October 21, 1935 - October 17, 2002) was an Irish harpist and composer. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic politically divided between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... The Chieftains are a Grammy-winning Irish musical group founded in 1963, known for performing and popularizing Irish traditional music. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Contredanse redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Juice (disambiguation). ... Fernhill is a residential district in the Scottish town of Rutherglen in the south-west of the Glasgow urban area. ...

### Jazz

Although the oboe has never been featured prominently in jazz music, some early bands, most notably that of Paul Whiteman, included it for coloristic purposes. The multi-instrumentalist Garvin Bushell (1902-1991) played the oboe in jazz bands as early as 1924 and used the instrument throughout his career, eventually recording with John Coltrane in 1961.[1] Gil Evans scored for the instrument in his famous Miles Davis collaboration Sketches of Spain. Though primarily a tenor saxophone and flute player, Yusef Lateef was among the first (in 1963) to use the oboe as a solo instrument in modern jazz performances and recordings. Composer and double bassist Charles Mingus gave the oboe a brief but prominent role (played by Dick Hafer) in his composition "I.X. Love" on the 1963 album Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... 1928 Columbia Records label with caricature of Paul Whiteman Paul Whiteman (March 28, 1890 â€“ December 29, 1967) was a popular american orchestral leader. ... Garvin Bushell (b. ... Coltrane redirects here. ... Gil Evans (13 May 1912 in Toronto Canada â€“ 20 March 1988 in Cuernavaca, Mexico) was a jazz pianist, arranger, composer, and bandleader, active in the United States. ... Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 â€“ September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... Sketches of Spain was a 1960 album by Miles Davis, pairing him again with arranger and composer Gil Evans. ... The tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the saxophone family, a group of instruments invented by Adolphe Sax. ... For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ... Album cover of Eastern Sounds Dr. Yusef Lateef (born William Emanuel Huddleston, October 9, 1920) is an American jazz musician. ... Charles Mingus (April 22, 1922 â€“ January 5, 1979) was an American jazz bassist, composer, bandleader, and occasional pianist. ... Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus Mingus is a 1963 (see 1963 in music) album by jazz composer and bassist Charles Mingus. ...

With the birth of Jazz fusion in the late 1960s, and its continuous development through the following decade, the oboe started to fulfil a more important role in composition, replacing on some occasions the saxophone as the focal point. The oboe was used with great success by the Welsh multi-instrumentalist Karl Jenkins in his work with the groups Nucleus and Soft Machine, and by the American woodwind player Paul McCandless, co-founder of the Paul Winter Consort and later Oregon. Romeo Penque also played the oboe on Roland Kirk's 1975 album Return of the 5000 Lb. Man, in the song "Theme for the Eulipions." Jazz fusion (or jazz-rock fusion or fusion) is a musical genre that merges elements of jazz with other styles of music, particularly pop, rock, folk, reggae, funk, metal, country, R&B, hip hop, electronic music and world music. ... In a Silent Way is a 1969 album by jazz trumpeter Miles Davis. ... -1... Musical composition is a phrase used in a number of contexts, the most commonly used being a piece of music. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... A multi-instrumentalist is a musician who plays a number of different instruments. ... Karl William Jenkins OBE (born February 17, 1944) is a Welsh musician and composer. ... Nucleus were a pioneering British jazz-rock band that continued in different incarnations from 1969-85. ... For the book by William S. Burroughs, see The Soft Machine. ... A woodwind instrument is an instrument in which sound is produced by blowing against an edge or by a vibrating with air a thin piece of wood known as a reed. ... Paul McCandless is an American jazz woodwind player and composer. ... Paul Winter Consort is an American musical group led by the soprano saxophonist Paul Winter. ... Oregon is an American jazz and world music group, with core members Ralph Towner (guitar, piano, synthesizer, trumpet), Paul McCandless (woodwind instruments), and Glen Moore (double bass, violin, piano). ... Rahsaan Roland Kirk (1935-1977) was a blind jazz saxophonist, perhaps best known for his ability to play more than one saxophone at once. ...

The 1980s saw an increasing number of oboists try their hand at non-classical work, and many players of note have recorded and performed alternative music on oboe. Some present-day jazz groups influenced by classical music, such as the Maria Schneider Orchestra, feature the oboe. Maria Schneider (born November 27, 1960) is a U.S. conductor and composer. ...

### Rock and pop

The oboe has been used sporadically in rock recordings, generally by studio musicians on recordings of specific songs.

In the late 1960s and 1970s, several bands emerged that featured oboists as members, including The Moody Blues (Ray Thomas), Henry Cow (Lindsay Cooper), New York Rock & Roll Ensemble (Martin Fulterman and Michael Kamen), Roxy Music (Andy Mackay), Electric Light Orchestra (Roy Wood), Wizzard (Roy Wood), and Japan (Mick Karn). The oboists in these bands generally used the oboe as a secondary instrument, not playing it on every song. Japan and Roxy Music, however, did use the oboe quite frequently. The Moody Blues are a British rock band originally from Birmingham, England. ... Ray Thomas (born on 29 December 1941, in Stourport-on-Severn, England) is an English musician best known as the flutist and a composer in the rock band The Moody Blues. ... Henry Cow was an English avant-garde rock group, founded at Cambridge University in 1968 by multi-instrumentalists Fred Frith and Tim Hodgkinson. ... Lindsay Cooper (born 3 March 1951) is a British bassoon and oboe player, composer and political activist. ... The New York Rock & Roll Ensemble was a rock band of the late 60s and early 70s described as playing classical baroque rock. // History/Biography The band was formed by three Julliard students (Michael Kamen, Marty Fulterman ---now known as Mark Snow--- and Dorian Rudnytsky). ... Mark Snow (born Martin Fulterman on 26 August 1946 in New York City) is a prolific composer for film and television. ... Michael Kamen (April 15, 1948 â€“ November 18, 2003) was an American composer (especially of film scores), orchestral arranger, orchestral conductor, song writer, and session musician. ... Roxy Music are an English art rock group founded in the early 1970s by art school graduate Bryan Ferry (vocals and keyboards). ... Andy Mackay (July 23, 1946â€”) is a British musician, best known as the saxophonist for the group Roxy Music. ... ELO redirects here. ... Roy Adrian Wood (sometimes erroneously thought to be born as Ulysses Adrian Wood, from a offhand interview comment in the 1960s) (born 8 November 1946 in Birmingham), is a songwriter, guitarist and multi-instrumentalist. ... This article refers to the 1970s rock and roll band. ... Roy Adrian Wood (sometimes erroneously thought to be born as Ulysses Adrian Wood, from a offhand interview comment in the 1960s) (born 8 November 1946 in Birmingham), is a songwriter, guitarist and multi-instrumentalist. ... Mick Karn (born July 24, 1958) is an English musician, multi-instrumentalist and songwriter, most noted as the bassist for the 1980s art rock band Japan, from 1974 to 1982. ...

Since the 1990s, the oboe has been used in rock most notably by Sigur Rós (played by Kjartan Sveinsson), as well as by indie rock musician Sufjan Stevens (who also plays cor anglais and often overdubs both instruments on his albums). Jarlaath, the vocalist of the French gothic metal band Penumbra, plays the oboe in a number of the band's songs, as does Robbie J. de Klerk, the vocalist of the Dutch melodic doom/death metal band Another Messiah. Sigur RÃ³s ( ) is an Icelandic post-rock band with melodic, classical, experimental, and minimalist elements. ... Introduction Kjartan (Kjarri) Sveinsson Kjartan (Kjarri) Sveinsson (January 2, 1978) is a keyboardist of the Icelandic Post-Rock band Sigur Ros Kjartan has also performed under the pseudonym the lonesome traveler with Sigur RÃ³s band mate Orri PÃ¡ll DÃ½rason and Amina violinist Maria Huld Markan SigfÃºsd... Sufjan Stevens (IPA pronunciation: ) (born July 1, 1975) is an American singer-songwriter and musician from Petosky, Michigan. ... The cor anglais, or English horn, is a double reed woodwind musical instrument in the woodwind family. ... Gothic metal is a genre of heavy metal music. ... Penumbra is a French gothic metal band. ... Doom metal is a form of extreme metal music that emerged as a recognized sub-genre during the first half of the 1980s. ... This article is about the musical genre. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ...

A historical sampling of uses of oboe in rock:

1964 - Peter and Gordon's "I don't want to see you again" has an oboe solo. Peter & Gordon were a British Invasion-era performing duo, formed by Peter Asher and Gordon Waller, that rocketed to fame with 1964s A World Without Love. Peter Ashers sister (the actress Jane Asher) was dating Paul McCartney (of the Beatles), and so Peter & Gordon recorded several songs written...

1965 - Sonny and Cher's "I Got You Babe" features oboe hook (ob. Harold Battiste). http://www.musicweb-international.com/encyclopaedia/s/S155.HTM

1967 - Turtles Happy Together Turtles and terapins may mean: plural of turtle Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles The Turtles band Turtles band Turtles Music stores See also: Turtle (disambiguation) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...

1969 - Ray Thomas of The Moody Blues on the albums In Search of the Lost Chord (1968) and On the Threshold of a Dream. The Moody Blues are a British rock band originally from Birmingham, England. ... In Search of the Lost Chord, released in 1968, was The Moody Blues third album, and their second album to feature Justin Hayward and John Lodge. ... On the Threshold of a Dream is an album by The Moody Blues released on the Polydor record label. ...

1970, 1971 - The Move's album's "Looking On" and "Message from the Country" (e.g. "It Wasn't My Idea to Dance") -- (ob. Roy Wood) Roy Adrian Wood (sometimes erroneously thought to be born as Ulysses Adrian Wood, from a offhand interview comment in the 1960s) (born 8 November 1946 in Birmingham), is a songwriter, guitarist and multi-instrumentalist. ...

1974 - "Hergest Ridge" by Mike Oldfield (ob. Lindsay Cooper) Hergest Ridge is a record album, written and mostly performed by Mike Oldfield. ... Michael Gordon Oldfield (born May 15, 1953 in Reading, England) is a multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, working a style that blends progressive rock, folk, ethnic or world music, classical music, electronic music and more recently dance. ... Lindsay Cooper (born 3 March 1951) is a British bassoon and oboe player, composer and political activist. ...

1983 - China Crisis album Working with fire and steel, Possible pop songs volume two (guest artist, ob. Steve Levy) China Crisis is an British rock group formed in 1979 in Kirkby on Merseyside, with a core band of vocalist/keyboardist Gary Daly and guitarist Eddie Lundon. ...

1985 - Madonna's "Crazy for You" (ob. George Marge) http://mlvc.org/archives/?a=mir&y=2001&m=February&i=27.txt

1987 - The Go-Betweens "Bye Bye Pride" (ob. Amanda Brown ) from Tallulah The Go-Betweens during recording of Oceans Apart: l-r Robert Forster and Grant McLennan The Go-Betweens were an internationally influential indie rock band from Australia, formed by guitarists Robert Forster and Grant McLennan in Brisbane in 1977. ... Amanda Brown is an American voice actor & full time novelist, who works on the properties of 4Kids Entertainment & Novel Reading Corp. ... Tallulah is a Choctaw name(a first nations group fron south eastern north america). ...

1988 - The Go-Betweens "Clouds" (ob. Amanda Brown ) from 16 Lovers Lane The Go-Betweens during recording of Oceans Apart: l-r Robert Forster and Grant McLennan The Go-Betweens were an internationally influential indie rock band from Australia, formed by guitarists Robert Forster and Grant McLennan in Brisbane in 1977. ... Amanda Brown is an American voice actor & full time novelist, who works on the properties of 4Kids Entertainment & Novel Reading Corp. ... 16 Lovers Lane was the sixth album by Australian indie pop group the Go-Betweens. ...

1988 - Twist in My Sobriety by Tanita Tikaram (ob. Malcolm Messiter) Twist in My Sobriety is a song recorded by Tanita Tikaram Category: ... Tanita Tikaram (born August 12, 1969) is an English pop/folk singer/songwriter best known for the enigmatic hits Twist in My Sobriety and Good Tradition from her 1988 debut album, Ancient Heart (see 1988 in music). ...

1991 - REM's "Endgame" from Out of Time, R.E.M. is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 by Bill Berry (drums), Peter Buck (guitar), Mike Mills (bass guitar), and Michael Stipe (vocals). ... Alternate cover Artwork from the flip side of the booklet insert This article is about the album by R.E.M.. For other uses of the term, see Out of Time. ...

1992 - REM Automatic for the People (ob. Deborah Workman). R.E.M. is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 by Bill Berry (drums), Peter Buck (guitar), Mike Mills (bass guitar), and Michael Stipe (vocals). ... Automatic for the People is R.E.M.s eighth album, and their third major label release for Warner Bros. ...

1992-1994 - Portastatic's recordings feature oboe. This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ...

1995 - Queen's song "It's A Beautiful Day," from the album Made in Heaven, contains an oboe part conceived by bassist John Deacon. Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, lead vocalist Freddie Mercury, and drummer Roger Taylor, with bassist John Deacon joining the following year. ... For the film, see Made in Heaven (film). ... For the film, see Made in Heaven (film). ... For the motorcyclist, see John Deacon (motorcyclist). ...

2001 - Stereophonics' cover of "Handbags and Gladrags" by Rod Stewart features oboe. Stereophonics are a rock band from Wales with members Kelly Jones, Richard Jones (no relation to Kelly) and Javier Weyler. ... Rod Stewart CBE (born January 10, 1945), is a singer and songwriter born and raised in London, England, with Scottish parentage. ...

### Film music

The oboe is frequently featured in film music, often to underscore a particularly poignant or sad scene. One of the most prominent uses of the oboe in a film score is Ennio Morricone's "Gabriel's Oboe" theme from the 1986 film The Mission. Ennio Morricone (born November 10, 1928; sometimes also credited as Dan Savio or Leo Nichols) is an Italian composer especially noted for his film scores. ... The Mission is a 1986 British film about the experiences of a Jesuit missionary in eighteenth century South America. ...

It is also featured as a solo instrument in the theme "Across the Stars" from the John Williams score to Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones. For other persons named John Williams, see John Williams (disambiguation). ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002) is the fifth Star Wars science fiction movie released and the second part of the prequel trilogy which began with Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. ...

## Famous oboists

See this list of oboists. Two musette players from the Cantigas de Santa Maria, 13th century An oboist is a musician who plays the oboe or any oboe family instrument, including cor anglais, oboe damore, shawm, and oboe musette. ...

## Oboe manufacturers

 Buffet Dupin Bulgheroni Covey Fossati Fox Frank Hiniker Howarth A. Laubin Linton F. Lorée Cabart ( A Division of F. Lorée ) Louis Marigaux Miraphone Musik Josef Mönnig Patricola Püchner Rigoutat Selmer Tom Sparkes Yamaha Tony Ward (South Australia)

A. Laubin, Inc The first Laubin oboe was made in 1931. ... The Musik Josef is a Japanese manufacturer of musical instruments. ... The Selmer Company was a manufacturer of musical instruments started in Paris, France in the early 1900s. ... The headquarters of Yamaha Corporation Yamaha redirects here. ...

## Sources

• Baines, Anthony. 1967. Woodwind Instruments and Their History. Third edition, with a foreword by Sir Adrian Boult. London: Faber and Faber.
• Burgess, Geoffrey, and Bruce Haynes. 2004. The Oboe. The Yale Musical Instrument Series. New Haven, Conn. and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300093179
• Carse, Adam. 1965. Musical Wind Instruments: A History of the Wind Instruments Used in European Orchestras and Wind-Bands from the Later Middle Ages up to the Present Time. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80005-5.
• Harris-Warrick, Rebecca. 1990. "A Few Thoughts on Lully's hautbois." Early Music 18, no. 1 (February, "The Baroque Stage II"): 97-98+101-102+105-106.
• Haynes, Bruce. 1985. Music for Oboe, 1650-1800: A Bibliography. Fallen Leaf Reference Books in Music, 8755-268X; no. 4. Berkeley, Calif.: Fallen Leaf Press. ISBN 0914913034
• Haynes, Bruce. 1988. "Lully and the Rise of the Oboe as Seen in Works of Art." Early Music 16, no. 3 (August): 324–38.
• Haynes, Bruce. 2001. The Eloquent Oboe: A History of the Hautboy 1640–1760. Oxford Early Music Series. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 019816646X
• Howe, Robert. 2003. "The Boehm System Oboe and its Role in the Development of the Modern Oboe". Galpin Society Journal 56:27–60 +plates on 190–92.
• Howe, Robert, and Peter Hurd. 2004. "The Heckelphone at 100". Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society 30:98–165.
• Marcuse, Sybil. 1975. Musical Instruments: A Comprehensive Dictionary. Revised edition. The Norton Library. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-00758-8.

## References

1. ^ Marcuse 1975, 371.
2. ^ Marcuse 1975, 371.
3. ^ Carse 1965, 120.
4. ^ Howe 2003.
5. ^ Howe and Hurd 2004.

Results from FactBites:

 Oboe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1630 words) Orchestras usually set the pitch by listening to the oboe playing concert A. Setting the pitch of the oboe is achieved by changing the position of the reed in the instrument, or by permanently altering the scrape of the reed itself. The oboe d'amore, the alto (or mezzo soprano) member of the family, is pitched in A, a minor third lower than the oboe. 1 and 2, Concerto for Violin and oboe
 Oboe (383 words) The oboe is a soprano-range, double-reed woodwind instrument of length 62 cm. The English horn is a woodwind instrument of the oboe family, sounding a fifth lower than the oboe. The double reed of the oboe is fashioned from cane which is grown on the east coast of Spain, which is usually dried and aged for several years.
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