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Encyclopedia > Oblast

Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasť, Russian and Ukrainian: о́бласть, Belarusian: во́бласьць, Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. Possible English translations of the word are area, zone, province or region. In terms of administrative subdivisions, the latter two translations may be inaccurate or confusing. Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... -1... Zone An area allocated to a particular purpose; see zoning. ... This article is about political regions. ... A region can be either: an administrative subdivision of a country a sometimes vaguely-defined geographical area of a country or continent It is important to realize that regions are found in the minds of humans and so regions can be of any size and that each region is unique...


The oblast in Eastern Europe and Russian Federation geographic context is a subnational entity of Bulgaria, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and the now-defunct Soviet Union. Official terms in other successor states of the Soviet Union differ, but some still use a cognate of the Russian term, e.g. voblast (voblasts, voblasts' ) is used for provinces of Belarus, and oblys (plural: oblystar) for provinces of Kazakhstan. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... The succession of states theory asserts that all possessions and territory held by a state are automatically transferred to the successor state, the state which succeeds it. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... At the higher administrative level, Belarus is divided into 6 voblasts. ... Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces oblystar (singular - oblys): Note: in 1995 the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Bayqongyr (Baykonur) space launch facilities and the city of...

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Oblasts in Bulgaria

Since 1999, Bulgaria has been divided into 28 oblasti, usually translated as regions. Before, the country was divided into 9 bigger units, also called oblast. See Regions of Bulgaria. From 1987 until 1999 Bulgaria was divided into 9 regions-oblasts. ...


Oblasts in Soviet Union and its successor countries

In the mentioned post-Soviet republics, oblasts are one step below the national level and further subdivided into districts called raions (Russian: райо́ны; Ukrainian: райони). A big city may also be a constituent part of oblast (Russian official: город областного подчинения; Ukrainian official: місто обласного підпорядкування) - being at the same level as raion. Districts are a form of local government in several countries. ... See rayon for the textile made of processed cellulose. ... Sydney, Australia at Night. ...


In the now-extinct Soviet Union, oblasts were two steps below the national level (the higher step being the Soviet Republics). Some oblasts of the Russian SFSR have had a complicated structure including not only raions and cities, but also autonomous entities. Soviet Republic may refer to one of the following states. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ...


The oblasts in other post-Soviet countries are officially called:

Viloyat and welayat are derived from the Arabic language term wilayah. At the higher administrative level, Belarus is divided into 6 voblasts. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Kazakhstan is divided into 14 provinces oblystar (singular - oblys): Note: in 1995 the Governments of Kazakhstan and Russia entered into an agreement whereby Russia would lease for a period of 20 years an area of 6,000 sq km enclosing the Bayqongyr (Baykonur) space launch facilities and the city of... Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, variously transliterated), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and sometimes known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. ... Tajikistan is divided into regions, or provinces (singular: viloyat, plural: viloyatho) (capitals in parentheses)- Khatlon Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa) Sughd Viloyati Sughd (Khujand) Karotegin (Kofarnihon) and one autonomous province (viloyati mukhtor)- Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region (GBAR) Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon (Khorugh). ... Turkmenistan is divided into 5 provinces or welayatlar (singular - welayat): Ahal (capital Ashgabat) Balkan (capital Nebitdag) Dashhowuz (formerly Tashauz, capital Dashhowuz) Lebap (capital Turkmenabat, formerly known as Charjew) Mary (capital Mary). ... Uzbekistan is divided into twelve provinces (singular: viloyat, plural: viloyatlar) (capitals in parentheses)- Andijon Province (Andijon) Buxoro Province (Buxoro) Fargona Province (Fargona) Jizzakh Province (Jizzakh) Namangan Province (Namangan) Navoiy Province (Navoiy) Qashqadaryo Province (Qarshi) Samarqand Province (Samarqand) Sirdaryo Province (Guliston) Surxondaryo Province (Termiz) Toshkent Province (Toshkent) Xorazm Province... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... A wilayah is an administrative subdivision. ...


Names of particular oblasts

One should note that a name of an oblast does not usually correspond with the name of the respective historical region. Oblasts are purely administrative units without any significant history: all of them have been formed in the middle of the 20th century. Typically, the Soviet/post-Soviet oblasts are named after their capital cities, officially called "oblast centers". The name of each oblast' is usually a relative adjective, formed by adding a feminine suffix to the name of respective center city. E.g. Poltava is the center of the Poltavs'ka oblast'. A region can be either: an administrative subdivision of a country a sometimes vaguely-defined geographical area of a country or continent It is important to realize that regions are found in the minds of humans and so regions can be of any size and that each region is unique... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually describing it or making its meaning more specific. ... Suffix has meanings in linguistics, nomenclature and computer science. ... Poltava (Ukrainian: Полта́ва) is a city and oblast center in Poltava Oblast in central Ukraine with some 2,313,400 inhabitants (2004). ... Poltavs’ka oblast’ (Полтавська область in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine. ...


Exceptions to this rule include:

Leningrad Oblast (Russian: Ленингра́дская о́бласть; tr. ... Sverdlovsk Oblast (Russian: , tr. ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... The Neva river has been called the main street of St Petersburg. ... Photograph of snow-covered Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ... Volyn Region or Volynia (Волинська область, Volynska oblast in Ukrainian) is the most northwestern administrative district of Ukraine, bordering Belarus to the north and Poland to the west. ... Zakarpattya or Transcarpathia (Закарпатська область, Zakarpats’ka oblast’ in Ukrainian) or Kárpátalja in Hungarian is an oblast ( region) of Ukraine. ... Volhynia (Wołyń in Polish; Волинь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian; also called Volynia, Volyň in Czech) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug. ... Zakarpattya or Transcarpathia (Закарпатська область, Zakarpats’ka oblast’ in Ukrainian) is an oblast (region) of Ukraine. ... Lutsk (Луцьк in Ukrainian, Łuck in Polish) is the capital of the Volyn region, Ukraine. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Political aspects of oblast subdivision

Generally, oblast is the typical subnational entity of a highly-centralized unitary state. Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... A map showing the unitary states. ...


Experts believe that Soviet government was applying not only the objective (socio-economic and geographic), but also particular political criteria in forming the oblasts. The administrative borders of several oblasts have sometimes been changed in order to reshuffle the local Communist Party organization, secure "the right" local administration for an industrial company, limit an ethnic activism etc. Such decisions were a Soviet version of the gerrymandering method of affecting a vote. State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics/ Communist state Area  - Total  - % water Largest on the planet 22,402,200 km² ?% Population  - Total  - Density 3rd before collapse 293,047,571 (July... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when... Printed in 1812, this political cartoon illustrates the electoral districts drawn by the Massachusetts legislature to favor the incumbent Democratic-Republican party candidates of Governor Elbridge Gerry over the Federalists. ...


Recent trends in oblast policy

President Putin of Russia has dramatically reformed the actual status of the country's oblasts. Formally remaining the second level of subdivision, they de facto became included into the large federal districts (Russian: федеральные округа). Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин, â–¶ (help· info), Pútin; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician, and the current President of the Russian Federation. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ...


In attempts to meet new regional socio-economic and political issues, numerous projects are suggested to reform the oblast system in both Russia and Ukraine (mostly aimed to merge particular oblasts or change their borders).


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Oblast - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (613 words)
The oblast in Eastern Europe and Russian Federation geographic context is a subnational entity of Bulgaria, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and the now-defunct Soviet Union.
Oblasts are purely administrative units without any significant history: all of them have been formed in the middle of the 20th century.
The administrative borders of several oblasts have sometimes been changed in order to reshuffle the local Communist Party organization, secure "the right" local administration for an industrial company, limit an ethnic activism etc. Such decisions were a Soviet version of the gerrymandering method of affecting a vote.
Kaliningrad Oblast - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1910 words)
Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: Калинингра́дская о́бласть), informally called Yantarny kray (Янта́рный Край, meaning Amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast, with no land connection to the rest of Russia; it is a non-contiguous exclave of Russia surrounded by Lithuania, Poland and the Baltic Sea.
Its largest city is Kaliningrad (formerly known as Königsberg), which has historical significance as both a major city of Prussia and the capital of the former German province East Prussia, of which the region remains the core remnant.
The Kaliningrad Oblast is the fourth most densely populated oblast in the Russian Federation (62.5 persons per sq.km).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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