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Encyclopedia > Object (grammar)
Linguistics
Theoretical linguistics
Phonetics
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
Semantics
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An object in grammar is a sentence element and part of the sentence predicate. It denotes somebody or something involved in the subject's "performance" of the verb. As an example, the following sentence is given: Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Theoretical linguistics is that branch of linguistics that is most concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Semantics (Greek semantikos, giving signs, significant, symptomatic, from sema, sign) refers to the aspects of meaning that are expressed in a language, code, or other form of representation. ... Lexical semantics is a field in computer science and linguistics which deals mainly with word meaning. ... Statistical Semantics is the study of how the statistical patterns of human word usage can be used to figure out what people mean, at least to a level sufficient for information access (Furnas, 2006). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Prototype Theory is a model of graded categorization in Cognitive Science, where some members of a category are more central than others. ... In linguistics and semiotics, pragmatics is concerned with bridging the explanatory gap between sentence meaning and speakers meaning. ... Applied linguistics is the branch of linguistics concerned with using linguistic theory to address real-world problems. ... Language acquisition is the process by which the language capability develops in a human. ... Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language. ... This article or section cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Anthropological linguistics is the study of language through human genetics and human development. ... Generative linguistics is a school of thought within linguistics that makes use of the concept of a generative grammar. ... In linguistics and cognitive science, cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the currently dominant school of linguistics that views the important essence of language as innately based in evolutionarily-developed and speciated faculties, and seeks explanations that advance or fit well into the current understandings of the human mind. ... Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical and logical modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the study of insects. ... Stylistics is the study of style used in literary, and verbal language and the effect the writer/speaker wishes to communicate to the reader/hearer. ... In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules for the use of a language, or the making of recommendations for effective language usage. ... Efforts to describe and explain the human language faculty have been undertaken throughout recorded history. ... A linguist in the academic sense is a person who studies linguistics. ... Unsolved problems in : Note: Use the unsolved tag: {{unsolved|F|X}}, where F is any field in the sciences: and X is a concise explanation with or without links. ... For the surname, see Grammer. ... Sentence elements are the groups of words that combine together to comprise the ‘building units’ of a well-formed sentence. ... In linguistics and logic, a predicate is an expression that can be true of something. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ...


In the sentence "Bobby kicked the ball", "ball" is the object.


"Bobby" is the subject, the doer or performer, while "kick" is the action, and "ball" is the object involved in the action. The subject of a sentence is one of the two main parts of a sentence, the other being the predicate. ...


The main verb in the sentence determines whether there can or must be objects in the sentence, and if so how many and of what type. (See also Valency (linguistics).) In many languages, however, including English, the same verb can allow multiple different structures; for example, "Bobby kicked", "Bobby kicked the ball", and "Bobby kicked me the ball" are all valid English sentences. In linguistics, valency or valence refers to the capacity of a verb to take a specific number and type of arguments (noun phrase positions). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

Types of object

Objects fall into three classes: direct objects, prepositional objects, and non-prepositional indirect objects. An indirect object is the recipient of the direct object, or an otherwise affected participant in the event. For example, if three sentences are considered:

  • In "We threw knives", knives is the direct object of the verb threw.
  • In "We listened to the radio", the radio is the object of the preposition to, and the prepositional object of the verb listened.
  • In "They sent him a postcard", him is the (non-prepositional) indirect object of the verb sent (which uses a double-object construction).

In many languages, including German, Latin, and Classical Arabic, objects can change form slightly (decline) to indicate what kind of object they are (their case). This does not happen in English (though a few English pronouns do have separate subject and object forms); rather, the type of object is indicated strictly by word order. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun is its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... The subject of a sentence is one of the two main parts of a sentence, the other being the predicate. ... Word order, in linguistic typology, refers to the order in which words appear in sentences across different languages. ...


Forms of object

An object may take any of a number of forms, all of them nominal in some sense. Common forms include: A nominal is a word or a group of words that functions as a noun, i. ...

  • A noun or noun phrase, as in "I remembered her advice."
  • An infinitive or infinitival clause, as in "I remembered to eat."
  • A gerund or gerund phrase, as in "I remembered being there."
  • A declarative content clause, as in "I remembered that he was blond."
  • An interrogative content clause, as in "I remembered why she had left."
  • A fused relative clause, as in "I remembered what she wanted me to."

Noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In grammar, the infinitive is the form of a verb that has no inflection to indicate person, number, mood or tense. ... In linguistics, a gerund is a kind of verbal noun that exists in some languages. ... In grammar, a content clause is a subordinate clause that provides content implied by, or commented upon by, its main clause. ... A relative clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun. ...

The object in linguistics

In inflected languages, objects may be marked using morphological case. In many languages, the patient of a ditransitive verb is marked in the same way as the single object of a monotransitive verb, and is called the direct object. The recipient has its own marking, and is called the indirect object. In Latin and many other languages, the direct object is marked by the accusative case, while the indirect object is typically marked by the dative case. This article is about inflection in linguistics. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun is its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ...


In more isolating languages such as English, objects are marked by their position in the sentence or using adpositions (like to in I gave a book to him). Modern English preserves a case distinction for pronouns, but it has conflated the accusative and the dative into a single objective form (him, her, me, etc., which may function either as direct or indirect objects). An analytic language (or isolating language) is a language in which the vast majority of morphemes are free morphemes and considered to be full-fledged words. By contrast, in a synthetic language, a word is composed of agglutinated or fused morphemes that denote its syntactic meanings. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up preposition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An objective pronoun functions as the target of a verb, as distinguished from a subjective pronoun, which is the initiator of a verb. ...


In some languages, the recipient of a ditransitive verb is marked in the same way as the single object of a monotransitive verb, and is called the primary object. The patient of ditransitive verbs has its own marking, and is called the secondary object. Such languages are called dechticaetiative languages, and are mostly found among African languages. In grammar, a language in which transitive verbs show a distinction between primary and secondary objects, rather than between direct and indirect objects. ... The term African languages refers to the approximately 1800 languages spoken in Africa. ...


An object can be turned into a syntactic subject using passive voice, if the language in question has such a construction. In dative languages, the direct object is promoted, while in dechticaetiative languages the primary object is promoted. English shares this property with dechticaetiative languages, since non-prepositional indirect objects can be promoted: For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... The subject of a sentence is one of the two main parts of a sentence, the other being the predicate. ... In grammar, voice is the relationship between the action or state expressed by a verb, and its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

His colleagues sent him a postcard.
He was sent a postcard.

In the immense majority of languages, where there is a preferred word order in the sentence, the object is placed somewhere after the subject. Analytic languages additionally tend to place the object after the verb, so that it remains separate from the subject. An isolating language is a language in which the vast majority of morphemes are free morphemes and are considered to be full-fledged words. By contrast, in a synthetic language, a word is composed of agglutinated or fused morphemes that denote its syntactic meanings. ...


See also

The subject of a sentence is one of the two main parts of a sentence, the other being the predicate. ... A complement is a phrase that fits a particular slot in the syntax requirements of a parent phrase. ... An objective pronoun functions as the target of a verb, as distinguished from a subjective pronoun, which is the initiator of a verb. ... An oblique case (Latin: ) in linguistics is a noun case of analytic languages that is used generally when a noun is the predicate of a sentence or a preposition. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Transitive verb. ...

External links

  • Direct Objects at chompchomp.com

  Results from FactBites:
 
object (grammar) (203 words)
In grammar, the recipient of the action of the verb in a sentence.
The object can be a noun, a pronoun, a noun phrase, or a noun clause.
Transitive verbs take a direct object and with some verbs there may also be an indirect object or an equivalent complement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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