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Encyclopedia > Obelisk
The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris
The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris
Obelisk outside Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. Originally one of a pair from Sais in Egypt. Brought to Rome by Diocletian for the nearby Temple of Isis. Found in 1655 and erected in 1667 by Pope Alexander VII on an Elephant base by Bernini. The other of the pair is in Urbino.

An obelisk (Greek ὀβελίσκος [obeliskos], diminutive of ὀβελός [obelos], "needle") is a tall, narrow, four-sided, tapering monument which ends in a pyramidal top. Ancient obelisks were made of a single piece of stone (a monolith). The term stele (plural: stelae) is generally used for other monumental standing inscribed sculpted stones not of classic obelisk form. Download high resolution version (692x1944, 134 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (692x1944, 134 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 304 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Obelisk... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 304 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Obelisk... Facade of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. ... Look up sais in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... This article discusses the ancient goddess Isis. ... Alexander VII, né Fabio Chigi (February 13, 1599 – May 22, 1667) was Pope from April 7, 1655 until his death in 1667. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... A self portrait: Bernini is said to have used his own features in the David (below, left) Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini) (December 7, 1598 - November 28, 1680), who worked chiefly in Rome, was the pre-eminent baroque artist. ... Panorama of Urbino with the cathedral and the palazzo ducale Urbino is a city in the Marche in Italy, southwest of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site with a great cultural history during the Renaissance as the seat of Federico da Montefeltro. ... Obelisk may refer to: Obelisk — a tall, thin, four-sided, tapering monument which ends in a pyramidal top; originally from ancient Egypt Dagger (typography) — a punctuation mark also called an obelisk Obelisk the Tormentor — a Yu-Gi-Oh! God card Obelix — a character in the Asterix comic strips Obelisk Press... For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ... A monolith is a geological or technological feature such as a mountain, consisting of a single massive stone or rock. ... This article is about the stone structure. ... Inscriptions are words or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. ...

Contents

Ancient obelisks

Egyptian

Obelisks were a prominent part of the architecture of the ancient Egyptians, who placed them in pairs at the entrance of temples. The word "Obelisk" is of Greek rather than Egyptian origin because Herodotus, the Greek traveler, was the first writer to describe the objects. 28 ancient Egyptian Obelisks are known to have survived, plus the Unfinished Obelisk found partly hewn from its quarry at Aswan. These Obelisks are now dispersed worldwide, and only 8 remain in Egypt. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Egypt: Site of Aswan (bottom). ...


The earliest temple Obelisk still in its original position is the 68 ft. high red granite Obelisk of Senusret I of the XIIth Dynasty at Heliopolis.[1] Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Kheperkare The Ka of Re is created Nomen Senusret Man of Wosret Horus name Ankh mesut Living of births Nebty name Ankh mesut Living of births Golden Horus Ankh mesut Living of births Consort(s) Neferu III Issue Ameny, Amenemhat-ankh, Itakayt, Sebat, Neferusobek, Neferuptah Father Amenemhat I Mother Neferitatenen... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twelfth Dynasty. ... This page lists articles on dynasties of Ancient Egypt. ... Heliopolis (Greek: or ), was one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, and capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. ...


The obelisk symbolized the sun God Ra, or Re as some know him, and during the brief religious reformation of Akhenaten was said to be a petrified ray of the Aten, the sundisk. It was also thought that the God existed within the structure. For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ...

A "sun pillar".
A "sun pillar".

It is hypothesized by New York University Egyptologist Patricia Blackwell Gary and Astronomy senior editor Richard Talcott that the shapes of the ancient Egyptian pyramid and Obelisk were derived from natural phenomena associated with the sun (the sun-god Ra being the Egyptians' greatest deity).[2] The pyramid and Obelisk would have been inspired by previously overlooked astronomical phenomena connected with sunrise and sunset: the zodiacal light and Sun pillars, respectively. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Flickr. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 47 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From Flickr. ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ... An Egyptologist is any archaeologist, historian, linguist, or art historian who specializes in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ... Astronomy is a monthly American magazine dealing with issues about astronomy. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ... A typical sunrise, in New Zealand A sunrise through clouds over Oakland, California. ... A composite image showing the terminator dividing night from day, running across Europe and Africa. ... The zodiacal light in the eastern sky before the beginning of morning twilight. ... Halo around the sun at the South Pole (NOAA) Halos are optical phenomena that appear near or around the Sun or Moon, and sometimes near other strong light sources such as street lights. ...


The Romans were infatuated with Obelisks, to the extent that there are now more than twice as many Obelisks standing in Rome as remain in Egypt. All fell after the Roman period except for the Vatican Obelisk and were re-erected in different locations. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


The tallest Egyptian Obelisk graces the square in front of the Lateran Basilica in Rome. The late Baroque façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano was completed by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 after winning a competition for the design. ...


Not all the Egyptian Obelisks re-erected in the Roman Empire were set up at Rome. Herod the Great imitated his Roman patrons and set up a red granite Egyptian obelisk in the hippodrome (racetrack) of his grand new city Caesarea in northern Judea. It was discovered by archaeologists and has been re-erected at its former site. Herod the Great. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


In Constantinople, the Eastern Emperor Theodosius shipped an obelisk in AD 390 and had it set up in his hippodrome, on a specially-built base, where it has weathered Crusaders and Seljuks and stands in the Hippodrome square in modern Istanbul. This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Flavius Theodosius (Cauca [Coca-Segovia], Spain, January 11, 347 - Milan, January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was a Roman emperor. ... Events In response to the murder of his general Butheric, Theodosius I orders a massacre of the inhabitants of Thessalonica. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... The Hippodrome today, with the Walled Obelisk in the foreground Obelisk of Thutmosis III The base of the Obelisk of Thutmosis III showing Theodosius the Great as he offers a laurel wreath to the victor from the Kathisma (emperors box) at the Hippodrome The Delphi Tripod known as the... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


Rome is the obelisk capital of the world. The most prominent is the 25.5 m obelisk at Saint Peter's Square in Rome. The obelisk had stood since AD 37 on its site on the wall of the Circus of Nero, flanking St Peter's Basilica: Saint Peters Square, or Saint Peters Piazza (Piazza San Pietro, in Italian), is located directly in front of St. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the older and larger Circus Maximus. ...

"The elder Pliny in his Natural History refers to the obelisk's transportation from Egypt to Rome by order of the Emperor Gaius (Caligula) as an outstanding event. The barge that carried it had a huge mast of fir wood which four men's arms could not encircle. One hundred and twenty bushels of lentils were needed for ballast. Having fulfilled its purpose, the gigantic vessel was no longer wanted. Therefore, filled with stones and cement, it was sunk to form the foundations of the foremost quay of the new harbour at Ostia."[3]

Re-erecting the obelisk had daunted even Michelangelo, but Sixtus V was determined on erecting it directly in front of St Peter's, of which the nave was yet to be built, and had a full-sized wooden mock-up erected within months of his election. An uproar of suggested projects ensued, but Domenico Fontana, the assistant of Giacomo Della Porta in the Basilica's construction, presented the Pope with a little model crane of wood and a heavy little obelisk of lead, which Sixtus himself was able to raise by turning a little winch with his finger. Fontana had the project. The obelisk, half-buried in the debris of the ages, was first excavated as it stood; then it took from April 30 to May 17, 1586 to move it on rollers to the Piazza: it required nearly 1000 men, 140 carthorses, 47 cranes. The re-erection, scheduled for September 14, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, stunned an enormous crowd of silent onlookers. It was a famous feat of engineering, which made the reputation of Fontana, who detailed it in a book magnificently illustrated with copperplate etchings, Della Trasportatione dell’Obelisco Vaticano et delle Fabriche di Nostro Signore Papa Sisto V (1590),[4][5] which itself set a new standard in communicating technical information and influenced subsequent architectural publications by its meticulous precision.[6] Before being re-erected the obelisk was cautiously exorcised. It is said that Fontana had teams of relay horses to make his getaway if the enterprise failed. When Carlo Maderno came to build the nave, he had to put the slightest kink in its axis, to line it precisely with the obelisk. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... Domenico Fontana (1543 – 1607) was an Italian architect of the late Renaissance. ... Giacomo della Porta (c. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1586 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are several different feasts known as Feasts of the Cross, all of which commemorate the cross used in the crucifixion of Jesus. ... Façade of St. ...


Another obelisk stands in front of the church of Trinità dei Monti, at the head of the Spanish Steps. There is a further famous obelisk in Rome, sculpted as carried on the back of an elephant. Rome lost one of its obelisks, which had decorated the temple of Isis, where it was uncovered in the 16th century. The Medici claimed it for the Villa Medici, but in 1790 they managed to move it to the Boboli Gardens attached to the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, and left a replica in its stead. The facade of the church, from the Spanish Steps. ... The Spanish Steps in Rome. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... The Villa Medici is a villa in Rome, founded by Ferdinando I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, housing the French Academy in Rome. ... The Boboli Gardens is a famous park in Florence, Italy that is home to a small but distinguished collection of sculptures. ... Early, tinted 20th-century photograph of the Palazzo Pitti, then still known as La Residenza Reale following the residency of King Emmanuel II between 1865–71, when Florence was the capital of Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


Several more of the original Egyptian obelisks have been shipped and re-erected all over the world. The best-known examples outside Rome are the pair of so-called 21 m Cleopatra's Needles in London and New York City and the 23 m obelisk at the Place de la Concorde in Paris. Close up of Cleopatras Needle (London) Cleopatras Needle in Paris at the Place de la Concorde. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


There are 28 known ancient Egyptian obelisks in the following current locations:

Tip of Hatshepsut's fallen obelisk, Karnak
Tip of Hatshepsut's fallen obelisk, Karnak

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Hippodrome_Oblisk. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Hippodrome_Oblisk. ... Thutmose III (also written as Tuthmosis III; called Manahpi(r)ya in the Amarna letters) (? - 1426 BC), was Pharaoh of Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... nomen or birth name Aakheperkare Thutmose I ( ? – 1492 BC; sometimes spelled Thutmosis) was the 3rd Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. ... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef Meritamen Father Seti I Mother Queen Tuya... Luxor Temple, from the east bank of the Nile Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes). ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Kheperkare The Ka of Re is created Nomen Senusret Man of Wosret Horus name Ankh mesut Living of births Nebty name Ankh mesut Living of births Golden Horus Ankh mesut Living of births Consort(s) Neferu III Issue Ameny, Amenemhat-ankh, Itakayt, Sebat, Neferusobek, Neferuptah Father Amenemhat I Mother Neferitatenen... Heliopolis (Greek: or ), was one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, and capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Osirid statues of Ramses III at Karnak. ... Luxor Museum Luxor Museum is located in the Egyptian city of Luxor (ancient Thebes). ... Cairo International Airport (IATA: CAI, ICAO: HECA) (Arabic: مطار القاهرة الدولي) is the major civilian airport in Cairo, Egypt. ... nomen or birth name Userkheperure Setepenre/Meryamun Seti II (reigned 1200 BC - 1194 BC) was the sixth ruler of the Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt. ... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... looking for an obelisk located in the Valley of Siddim what is the modern name for this area? ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... There are eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks in Rome, together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also formerly (until 2005) an ancient Ethiopian obelisk in Rome. ... The Roman Odeon. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Boboli Gardens is a famous park in Florence, Italy that is home to a small but distinguished collection of sculptures. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Panorama of Urbino with the cathedral and the palazzo ducale Urbino is a city in the Marche in Italy, southwest of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site with a great cultural history during the Renaissance as the seat of Federico da Montefeltro. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ... The Hippodrome today, with the Walled Obelisk in the foreground Obelisk of Thutmosis III The base of the Obelisk of Thutmosis III showing Theodosius the Great as he offers a laurel wreath to the victor from the Kathisma (emperors box) at the Hippodrome The Delphi Tripod known as the... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Close up of Cleopatras Needle (London) Cleopatras Needle in Paris at the Place de la Concorde. ... Victoria Embankment, London The Victoria Embankment, previously the Thames Embankment is a road and walkway along the north bank of the River Thames in London in the cities of Westminster and London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Aakheperure Great are the forms of Re Nomen Amenhotep Heka Iunu Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Heliopolis Horus name Ka Nakht Wer Pekhty Strong Bull, Great of Power Nebty name User Fau Sekha Em Wast Powerful of Splendour, Appearing in Thebes Golden Horus Ity Sekhemef em Tau Neb Who seizes... Durham University is a university in England. ... Ptolemy IX (Ptolemy Soter II) was king of Egypt three times, from 116 BC to 110 BC, 109 BC to 107 BC and 88 BC to 80 BC, with intervening periods ruled by his brother, Ptolemy X Alexander. ... Kingston Lacy Kingston Lacy is a stately home and estate near Wimborne Minster, Dorset, England, now owned by the National Trust. ... The Minster Wimborne Minster is a market town in the East Dorset district of Dorset in South West England and the name of the church in that town. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... Nectanebo II (ruled 360 - 343 BC), also known by the name Nakhthoreb, was the third and last king of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt and the last native ruler of the country. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Close up of Cleopatras Needle (London) Cleopatras Needle in Paris at the Place de la Concorde. ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... This article is about the state. ...

Assyrian

One obelisk form is known from the early Assyrian civilization, represented by the Black Obelisk of King Shalmaneser III from the 9th century BC, now in the British Museum. For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III (reigned 858-824 BC) is a black limestone Neo-Assyrian bas-relief sculpture from Nimrud (ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq. ... Shalmaneser III (Šulmānu-ašarēdu, the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ...


Axumite

A number of obelisks were carved in the ancient Axumite Kingdom of Ethiopia. The most notable example – the 24 m high Obelisk of Axum carved around the 4th century AD – was looted by the Italians after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and taken to Rome in 1937 where it stood in the Piazza di Porta Capena. Italy agreed in a 1947 UN agreement to return the obelisk but didn't first truly affirm its agreement until 1997, after years of pressure. In 2003 the Italian government made the first steps toward its return, and as of 2006 it is in Axum still awaiting re-erection due to the finding of older burial chambers on the intended site. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (511x682, 123 KB) King Ezanas obelisk at Aksum photo taken by de:User:Pzbinden7 first upload: Dec 13, 2004 - de:Wikipedia by the photographer File links The following pages link to this file: Obelisk Axum Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (511x682, 123 KB) King Ezanas obelisk at Aksum photo taken by de:User:Pzbinden7 first upload: Dec 13, 2004 - de:Wikipedia by the photographer File links The following pages link to this file: Obelisk Axum Metadata This file contains additional information... King Ezanas Stele is the central main obelisk of Axum. ... Axum, properly Aksum, is a city in northern Ethiopia. ... The Axumite Kingdom, also known as the Aksum Kingdom, was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from circa the 5th century BC to become an important trading nation by the 1st century AD. It converted to Christianity in 325 or 328 (various sources). ... The Northern Stelae Park in Axum, with the King Ezanas Stele at the centre and the Great Stele lies broken. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ... Porta Capena is a place near Rome, formerly a sacred forest, where Numa Pompilius and Egeria met. ... Axum, properly Aksum, is a city in northern Ethiopia. ...


The largest obelisk, Great Stele at Axum, now fallen, at 33 m high and 3 by 2 meters at the base is the largest single piece of stone ever worked in human history and probably fell during erection or soon after, destroying a large part of the massive burial chamber underneath it. The obelisks, properly termed stelae or the native hawilt or hawilti as they don't end in a pyramid, were used to mark graves and underground burial chambers. The largest of the grave markers were for royal burial chambers and were decorated with multi-story false windows and false doors, while nobility would have smaller less decorated ones. While there are only a few large ones standing, there are hundreds of smaller ones in various "stelae fields". The obelisks were kept standing through the use of massive counterweights. Stele is also a concept in plant biology. ...


Ancient Roman

The Romans commissioned obelisks in an Egyptian style.

  • Arles, France — in Place de la République, a 4th century obelisk of Roman origin
  • Munich — obelisk of Titus Sextius Africanus, Staatliches Museum Ägyptischer Kunst, Kunstareal, 1st century AD, 5.80 m
  • Rome — there are five known ancient Roman obelisks located in Rome. See Obelisks in Rome.

Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (Subprefecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Agglomeration community of Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti (PS) (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 0 m–57 m (avg. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Kunstareal (art area) is a museum quarter in the city centre of Munich, Germany. ... There are eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks in Rome, together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also formerly (until 2005) an ancient Ethiopian obelisk in Rome. ...

Byzantine

  • Walled Obelisk, Hippodrome of Constantinople. Built by Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (905–959) and originally covered with gilded bronze plaques.

The Walled Obelisk The Walled Obelisk (also known as Constantine Obelisk) is situated near Serpentine Column at the southern side of the Hippodrome of Constantinople (now Sultanahmet Square). ... Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus, the Purple-born (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος, Kōnstantinos VII Porphyrogennētos), (Constantinople, September 905 – November 9, 959 in Constantinople) was the son of the Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karbonopsina. ...

Keralan

The obelisk stone (rock) crosses of Kerala form another category of obelisks which perhaps were inspired by the Egyptian originals. The Syrian Christians or St. Thomas Christians of Malabar on the west coast of India had close contacts with the Egyptian and Assyrian worlds, the original habitat of obelisks. The "Ray of the Sun" and Horus concepts are to be found in the idea of Christ and in the orientation of the churches East-West. The use of the cylinder and socket method is found extensively used in both structures.[8]


Pre-Columbian

The "Tello Obelisk", from Chavín de Huantar, now in the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia del Perú in Lima is a monolith stele with obelisk-like proportions. Chavín de Huantar is an archaeological site located 250 kilometers (155 miles) north of Lima, Peru. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ...


Notable modern obelisks

17th century

Aix (prounounced eks), or, to distinguish it from other cities built over hot springs, Aix-en-Provence is a city in southern France, some 30 km north of Marseille. ...

18th century

The Wellington Monument in Phoenix Park, Dublin
The Wellington Monument in Phoenix Park, Dublin
Obelisk at the Plaza Francia, Caracas, Venezuela
Obelisk at the Plaza Francia, Caracas, Venezuela
Obelisk, Buenos Aires.
Obelisk, Buenos Aires.

ImageMetadata File history File links Washington_Monument_Top. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Washington_Monument_Top. ... For other Washington Monuments, see Washington Monuments (world). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Download high resolution version (1197x1279, 387 KB)Photograph taken by Colin Gregory Palmer. ... Download high resolution version (1197x1279, 387 KB)Photograph taken by Colin Gregory Palmer. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 393 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 393 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Cerro Avila, Caracas. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 927 KB)I took this picture while living in Buenos Aires. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 927 KB)I took this picture while living in Buenos Aires. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Stowe School is a famous British independent school in Stowe, Buckinghamshire, referred to as a public school. ... Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) is one of the home counties in South East England. ... Tsarskoye Selo (Царское Село in Russian, may be translated as “Tsar’s Village”), a former residence of the royal families and visiting nobility 24 km south of St. ... Combatants Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Count Orlov Kapudan Pasha Hüsameddin Strength 9 ships of the line, 3 frigates, 1 bomb, 4 fireships, 4 supply ships About 16 ships of the line, 6 frigates, 6 xebecs, 13 galleys, 32 smaller; about 1300 guns The naval Battle of Chesma took... Gatchina is the city of 84900 inhabitants in the Leningrad oblast of the Russian Federation, 45 km south of St Petersburg by the road leading to Pskov. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... The Obelisk at Slottsbacken, the centre point of Stockholm, Sweden The Obelisk at Slottsbacken adjacent to the southern entrances of the Royal Palace in Stockholm Old Town is considered to be the very centre point of the Swedish capital Stockholm. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...

19th century

The Villa Medici is a villa in Rome, founded by Ferdinando I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, housing the French Academy in Rome. ... Brightling is a village and civil parish in the Rother District of East Sussex, England. ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... The Jason Russell House. ... Bunker Hill Monument, 2001. ... Birdseye view of Boston, Charlestown, and Bunker Hill between 1890 and 1910. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Reggio Emilia (RE) Mayor Graziano Delrio (from July 1, 2004) Elevation 58 m Area 231 km² Population  - Total 141,383  - Density 612/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Reggiani Dialing code 0522 Postal code 42100 Frazioni see list Patron San Prospero  - Day... Duke Francis V of Modena (Italian: Francesco V dEste) (June 1]]1819–November 20, 1875), the eldest son of Francis IV of Modena and of Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy. ... Anwoth is a settlement near the Solway Firth in the Stewarty of Kirkcudbright, in South West Scotland, within a parish of the same name in the Vale of Fleet, Dumfries and Galloway. ... This article is about the country. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Samuel Rutherford Samuel Rutherford (1600? – 1661) was a Scottish Presbyterian theologian and author. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Map sources for Wellington, Somerset at grid reference ST1420 Wellington is a small industrial town in rural Somerset, England, situated seven miles south west of Taunton in the Taunton Deane district, near the border with Devon, which runs along the Blackdown Hills to the south of the town. ... Fontenoy can refer to: Battle of Fontenoy (1745) Several communes in France: Fontenoy, in the Aisne département Fontenoy, in the Yonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Often incorrectly called the Wellington Monument, the Wellington Testimonial is an obelisk located in Phoenix Park, Dublin, Ireland. ... Phoenix Park (in Irish, Páirc an Fhionn-Uisce) is a large park located 3 km to the north west of Dublin city centre in Ireland. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Abraham Lincolns tomb at Oak Ridge Cemetery. ... : Home of President Abraham Lincoln United States Illinois Sangamon 60. ... For other Washington Monuments, see Washington Monuments (world). ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... The Bennington Battle Monumentt. ... Bennington (town), Vermont Old Bennington, Vermont Bennington County, Vermont North Bennington, Vermont Bennington (CDP), Vermont This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Dalhousie Obelisk One of the decorative pinnacle lamps on the four corners of the Obelisk. ... Modern-day Raffles Place, the financial heart of Singapore. ...

20th century

An obelisk dedicated to Chipleys work was erected at the Plaza Ferdinand VII in Pensacola, Florida. ... A bust of Andrew Jackson at the Plaza Ferdinand VII, where Jackson was sworn in as Governor. ... Nickname: Location in Escambia County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State County Escambia Government  - Mayor John Fogg Area  - City 39. ... Sergeant Floyd Monument, Sioux City, Iowa Charles Floyd (1782 - August 20, 1804) was a United States explorer, an officer and quartermaster in the Lewis and Clark Expedition. ... Sioux City (IPA: ) is a city located in northwest Iowa in the United States. ... The McKinley Monument is a 96 foot tall obelisk in Niagara Square, Buffalo, New York, in memory of William McKinley, 25th President of the United States, who was fatally shot while attending the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo on September 6, 1901. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - Total 52. ... The Doe River is a naturally flowing river in Northeast Tennessee that forms in Carter County, Tennessee near the North Carolina line, just south of Roan Mountain State Park. ... Elizabethton is the county seat of Carter County, Tennessee. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Carter County is a county located in the state of Tennessee. ... The unincorporated community of Chalmette is the parish seat of St. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders Sir Alexander Cochrane Sir Edward M. Pakenham† John Keane John Lambert Andrew Jackson William Carroll John Coffee Strength 8,000 men 3,500-4,000 men Casualties 385 killed 1,186 wounded 484 captured 13 killed 58 wounded 30 captured The Battle of New... For other uses, see Southport (disambiguation). ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... The Jefferson Davis State Historic Site is a monument maintained by the Kentucky Department of Parks, in Christian County, Kentucky, east of Hopkinsville, dedicated to the birthplace of the first and only President of the Confederate States of America. ... Fairview is a small town on the boundary between Christian County and Todd County, about halfway between Hopkinsville and Elkton. ... Elevator doors The Foshay Tower is a skyscraper in Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... Minneapolis redirects here. ... For other Washington Monuments, see Washington Monuments (world). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Obelisk of Montevideo is a monument located at the intersection of 18 de Julio and Artigas Boulevard avenues, in Montevideo. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... High Point is located in the northwestern part of New Jersey in Montague, Sussex County in the Skylands Region of New Jersey, is the highest elevation in the state at 1,803 feet (550 m). ... Montague Township is a township located in Sussex County, New Jersey. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... The Obelisk of Buenos Aires (Spanish: Obelisco de Buenos Aires) is a modern monument placed at the heart of Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Altamira is a neighborhood located in Chacao County in Caracas, Venezuela. ... Nickname: La Sultana del Avila (English:The Avilas Sultan) La Sucursal del paraiso Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... Location of One Tree Hill in the Auckland area. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Greater Santo Domingo Area be merged into this article or section. ... Coat of arms of Prince Anatole Demidoff. ... Barnaul sign near the Ob River Barnaul (Russian Барнау́л, pop. ... Night view of the hill from Kutuzov Avenue. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Flag Seal Nickname: Gentilic: Ponceños Location Location of Ponce, Puerto Rico within Puerto Rico Government Founded 1692 Mayor Francisco Zayas Seijo Political party PPD Senatorial district 5 - Ponce Representative district 24, 25 Geographical characteristics Area Total 501. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Rugby is a city in Pierce County, North Dakota in the United States. ... Nickname: Location in Brazil Coordinates: , Country Region State Minas Gerais Founded 1701 Incorporated (as city) December 12, 1897 Government  - Mayor Fernando da Mata Pimentel (PT) Area  - City 330. ... The view inside the Luxor. ...

21st century

The Capas National Shrine (Paggunita Sa Capas) in Capas, Tarlac, The Philippines was built and is maintained by the Philippine government as a memorial to the Filipino and American soldiers who died in Camp ODonnell at the end of the Bataan Death March. ... Tarlac is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon region. ... The Bataan Death March (aka The Death March of Bataan) was a Japanese war crime involving the forcible transfer of prisoners of war -- with wide-ranging abuse and high fatalities -- by Japanese forces in the Philippines in 1942. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The City of Vigan is a 5th class city in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. ... Sphere Within Sphere by Pomodoro in Trinity College, Dublin Arnaldo Pomodoro is an Italian sculptor. ...

References

  1. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 edition.
  2. ^ Patricia Blackwell Gary and Richard Talcott, "Stargazing in Ancient Egypt," Astronomy, June 2006, pp. 62-67.
  3. ^ James Lees-Milne, Saint Peter's (1967).
  4. ^ http://purl.pt/6256/1/index.html
  5. ^ http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/dgkeysearchresult.cfm?parent_id=350916&word=
  6. ^ http://www.martayanlan.com/cgi-bin/display.cgi/Books/5/28/25/606
  7. ^ Poznań Archaeological Museum
  8. ^ Obelisk Crosses of Kerala, India in Christian Art
  9. ^ http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/64068

Astronomy is a monthly American magazine dealing with issues about astronomy. ... James Lees-Milne (1908-1997) was an English writer and expert on country houses. ...

External links

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Obelisks

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