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Encyclopedia > Oaxaca
Oaxaca
Location
Statistics
Capital Oaxaca
Area 93,952 km²
Ranked 5th
Population
(2005 census)
3,506,821
Ranked 10th
HDI (2004) 0.7164 - medium
Ranked 31st
Governor
(2006)
No one, Ulises Ruiz Ortiz was put down by popular insurgents
Federal Deputies PRI: 11
Federal Senators PRI: 2
PRD: 1
ISO 3166-2
Postal abbr.
MX-OAX
Oax.
Catedral de Santo Domingo
Catedral de Santo Domingo

The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca wɑˈhɑkɑ  is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Oaxaca borders the states of Guerrero to the west, Puebla to the northwest, Veracruz to the north, and Chiapas to the east. To the south Oaxaca fronts the Pacific Ocean. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (567x782, 108 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Oaxaca ... Image File history File links Oaxaca_en_mexico. ... For current news on the Oaxaca Teachers Strike of 2006 see: 2006 Oaxaca protests Oaxaca is the name of both a state in Mexico and that states capital city. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Political division of Mexico The following table presents a listing of Mexicos 31 federal states (and its Federal District, officially not a state), ranked in order of their surface area. ... Political division of Mexico The following table presents a listing of Mexicos 31 federal states (and its Federal District, officially not a state), ranked in order of their total population (per year 2000 census data from INEGI). ... The UN Human Development Index (HDI) measures poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, and other factors. ... States of Mexico The following table presents a listing of Mexicos 31 federal states (and its Federal District, officially not a state), ranked in order of their Human Development Index, as reported by the United Nations in 2004. ... The United Mexican States ( Mexico) is a federal republic comprising 31 states and one federal district (the Mexican Federal District, or Distrito Federal). ... Ulises Ruiz Ortiz (born in Chalcatongo, Oaxaca on April 9, 1958) is a Mexican politician and current governor of the State of Oaxaca. ... The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of Mexicos bicameral legislature, the Congress of the Union. ... The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican political party that wielded hegemonic power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years. ... The Senate (Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) is the upper house of Mexicos bicameral Congress. ... The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD) is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... Image File history File links Sto_domingo. ... Image File history File links Sto_domingo. ... Image File history File links Es-Oaxaca. ... The United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or Mexico) comprises 31 states (estados) and one federal district (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. ... The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that compose Mexico (does not include the Mexican Federal District). ... Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ...


Oaxaca has an area of 95,364 km²; it is the fifth largest state in the Republic. In 2003 it had an estimated population of 3,597,700 people. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The state is located in the mountains and valleys of the Sierra Madre del Sur range. Sierra Madre del Sur The Sierra Madre del Sur is a mountain range in southern Mexico, extending 1000 km from southern Michoacán east through Guerrero, to the Istmo de Tehuantepec in eastern Oaxaca. ...


Oaxaca is the historic home of the Zapotec and Mixtec peoples. One of Mexico's most famous heroes, President Benito Juárez, came from the Oaxacan village of San Pablo Guelatao. Other famous Oaxacans include Rufino Tamayo, Porfirio Diaz, José Vasconcelos, Francisco Toledo, María Sabina, J. Alberto Canseco Díaz, Major League Baseball player Vinny Castilla and many other writers, artists and politicians. The Zapotec are an indigenous people of Mexico. ... Codex Zouche-Nuttall, a pre-Columbian piece of Mixtec writing, now in the British Museum The Mixtec (or Mixteca) are a Native American people centered in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. ... Benito Pablo Juárez García () (March 21, 1806 – July 18, 1872) was a Zapotec Amerindian who served two terms (1861–1863 and 1867–1872) as President of Mexico. ... San Pablo Guelatao is a town in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, about 55 km from the city of Oaxaca. ... Rufino Tamayo (August 26, 1899 – June 24, 1991) was a popular modern Mexican painter. ... Porfirio Díaz José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was President of Mexico, considered a dictator, who ruled Mexico from 1876 until 1911 (with the exception of one single four-year period). ... José Vasconcelos (Oaxaca, Oaxaca, 1882 – Mexico City, 1959) was a Mexican writer, thinker and politician. ... Francisco Toledo (b. ... María Sabina García (1888 - November 23, 1985) was a Mazatec medicine woman who lived her whole life in a modest dwelling in the Sierra Mazateca of southern Mexico. ... Vinicio Castilla Soria, commonly known as Vinny Cashsteala [cass-TEE-yah] (born July 4, 1967 in Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico), is a Major League Baseball third baseman who was traded to the San Diego Padres between the 2005 and 2006 seasons. ...

Contents

History

President Benito Juárez, National Hero
President Benito Juárez, National Hero

During the millennia prior to the arrival of the Aztecs in 1436, the most powerful and influential groups in what is today Oaxaca were the Zapotec, the Mixtec and the Mixe. The civilizations achieved by these groups are reflected in important archeological sites including Monte Albán, Mitla, Guiengola and Huijatzoo. Benito Juárez, better PD picture This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Benito Juárez, better PD picture This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Benito Pablo Juárez García () (March 21, 1806 – July 18, 1872) was a Zapotec Amerindian who served two terms (1861–1863 and 1867–1872) as President of Mexico. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Events April - Paris is recaptured by the French End of the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. ... The Zapotec are an indigenous people of Mexico. ... Codex Zouche-Nuttall, a pre-Columbian piece of Mixtec writing, now in the British Museum The Mixtec (or Mixteca) are a Native American people centered in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. ... The Mixe are an indigenous group of people who live in the eastern highlands of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. ... Monte Albán is a large archeological site in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. ... Mitla is a town in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, famous for its pre-Columbian Mesoamerican buildings. ...


The influences changed when the Aztecs settled around the Cerro del Fortín and down to the present Church of Carmen Alto where their temple was located. The name of the state comes from the Nahuatl designation they gave to the Central Valley around the capital – "Huaxyácac" or place of guaje trees because of the great number of this species (Leucaena leucocephala). Nahuatl is a native language of central Mexico. ... Leucaena or Lead tree (Leucaena leucocephala) is a Mimosacea tropical plant used for fiber and livestock feed. ...


As the Spanish who arrived less than a century later found this difficult to pronounce it evolved into the present name of Oaxaca, for the city and for the state. The settlement founded by the Spanish in 1521 as Segura de la Frontera, later known as Nueva Antequera, was officially raised to the category of a "royal" city in 1532 by decree of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I) with the name of Antequera de Guaxaca. Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Charles V may refer to: Charles V of France, the Wise (1338–1380). ...


Recent History

Main article: 2006 Oaxaca protests

In May of 2006 a teachers strike calling for higher wages led to the occupation of many buildings and streets in Oaxaca's capital city. On June 14, 2006, the Oaxaca Teachers Union was evicted. By October of 2006, supporters of the strike which was led by the Asamblea popular de los pueblos de Oaxaca had grown to tens of thousands calling for Oaxaca governor Ulises Ruíz Ortíz to resign. Demonstrators launched a widespread campaign of civil disobedience and took over the state-run television station. [1] On October 27, 2006, paramilitary forces fired on a crowd of protesters, killing three: Esteban Zurrita and Emilio Alonso Fabian, two locals involved in the demonstrations, and Brad Will, a U.S. tourist who had been videotaping the protest. [2] On October 28, 2006, Mexican President Vincente Fox ordered riot police to regain control of the city. [3] On October 29, police and military forces used bulldozers, water cannons and tear gas to push Oaxaca's citizens back.[4] Government forces seized Oaxaca's town hall by mid-afternoon. At least one more person was killed in the most recent violence, raising the total of persons killed to "more than a dozen."[5] Early in the morning on November 2, Mexico's Day of the Dead holiday, the PFP attempted to clear barricades surrounding the Autonomous University of Oaxaca Benito Juarez, which houses the radio station Radio Universidad, one of the last radio or television outlets still under the control of the APPO. A pitched battle ensued, during which police lobbed tear gas onto University grounds and dropped gas canisters from low-flying helicopters, and protesters hurled rocks and fireworks at police and set buses and vehicles on fire as impromptu barricades. After several hours the police withdrew, having failed at least temporarily to gain control of the area surrounding the University or to take the radio station off the air. Subcomandante Marcos of the EZLN has also called for the resignation of Governor Ruíz. [6] // The Zócalo in the Mexican city of Oaxaca, Oaxaca, is the site of a massive teachers strike. ... Union generally refers to two or more things joined into one, such as an organization of multiple people or organizations, multiple objects combined into one, and so on. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ulises Ruiz Ortiz (born in Chalcatongo, Oaxaca on April 9, 1958) is a Mexican politician and current governor of the State of Oaxaca. ... It has been suggested that Civil and social disobedience be merged into this article or section. ... A paramilitary organization is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... Brad Will in Oaxaca two days before his death Bradley Roland Will (1970-2006) was a U.S. anarchist, documentary filmmaker and a journalist with Indymedia New York City. ... Vicente Fox Quesada (born July 2, 1942) is the current president of Mexico. ... A Caterpillar D10N bulldozer at work A bulldozer is a very powerful crawler (caterpillar tracked tractor) equipped with a blade. ... A water cannon is a device that shoots a high-pressure stream of water. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... Sugar skull given for the Day of the Dead, also made with chocolate and amaranto The Day of the Dead (Día de los Muertos, Día de los Difuntos or Día de Muertos in Spanish) is an ancient Aztec celebration in memory of deceased ancestors, celebrated on November... PFP may stand for: Partnership for Peace (PfP) People First Party (South Korea) People First Party (Taiwan) , a political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan. ... Subcomandante Marcos in Chiapas Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos (allegedly born June 19, 1957 in Tampico, Tamaulipas, Mexico), also known as Delegado Zero in matters concerning the Other Campaign, describes himself as the spokesperson for the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) but, due to his prominence in the EZLN, he is... The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. ...


Crafts

Oaxaca has a number of native crafts, including the production of alebrijes, weaving and black clay objects. Oaxaca is also known for producing mezcal, similar to tequila and sometimes with the worm inside the bottle. Oaxaca also produces alebrijes, which are popular wooden figurines of mythical beings, animals, and fantastic combinations of both, usually painted with very vibrant colors. Alebrijes are mythical creatures in the folklore of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fiber called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Black Clay, or Barro Negro is a traditional technique used in Oaxaca, Mexico for the production of pottery. ... A bottle of Mexican Mezcal bought in Cancun. ... Various brands of tequila Tequila is a distilled alcoholic beverage made primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, a town in the western Mexican state of Jalisco, 65 km from Guadalajara. ... Alebrijes are mythical creatures in the folklore of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. ...


Cuisine

Oaxaca is known for its seven moles. There is also a breakfast specialty, generally only available in Oaxaca - huevos oaxaqueño - eggs poached in a chili-tomato soup. Mole (IPA: /ˈmo. ...


Plants and Shamanism

Oaxaca is also known for at least two plants which are native to this particular area of the world, both used in Shamanism: Psilocybe mushrooms and Salvia divinorum. Though the former is preferred in shamanic practice, the latter is known to be the most potent naturally occurring hallucinogen [citation needed], and belongs to the Mint family. This article or section is missing citation of sources. ... Binomial name Salvia divinorum Epling & Játiva Salvia divinorum, also known as Diviners Sage, Magic Mint, Sally D, Ska María Pastora, or simply Salvia (although the genus name is shared among many plants) is a powerful psychoactive plant, a member of the sage genus and the Lamiaceae (mint... Genera Many, see text Ref: Delta 2002-07-22 Lamiaceae, or the Mint family, is a family of plants in about 180 genera and some 3,500 species. ...


See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // The Zócalo in the Mexican city of Oaxaca, Oaxaca, is the site of a massive teachers strike. ... The Mexican state of Oaxaca is made up of 570 municipalities (municipios) – more than any other state. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Oaxaca - definition of Oaxaca in Encyclopedia (918 words)
The city of Oaxaca (formally: Oaxaca de Juárez, in honour of 19th-century president and national hero Benito Juárez, who was born nearby) is the capital and main city of the Mexican state of the same name.
Oaxaca is the site of the Universidad Autónoma Benito Juárez de Oaxaca, which has buildings throughout the city centre.
The major highways serving Oaxaca are National Highways 175 and 131, southwards to the Oaxacan coastal resorts; National Highways 190 and 125, southwest to Pinotepa Nacional; National Highways 190 and 130, to Mexico City; the autopista 150D/131D, offering a more rapid route to Mexico City; and National Highway 175 north to Veracruz.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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