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Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
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Oat
Closeup of oat kernels
Closeup of oat kernels
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Avena
Species: A. sativa
Binomial name
Avena sativa
Carolus Linnaeus (1753)

The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. They are used for food for people and as fodder for animals, especially poultry and horses. Oat straw is used as animal bedding and sometimes as animal feed. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1296x972, 564 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Oat ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... families see text Poales is a botanical name at the rank of order. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Species Avena abyssinica Avena barbata - Slender Wild Oat Avena brevis Avena fatua - Common Wild Oat Avena maroccana Avena nuda Avena occidentalis Avena pubescens - Downy Oat-grass Avena pratensis - Meadow Oat-grass Avena sativa - Oat Avena sterilis - Winter Wild Oat Avena strigosa - Bristle Oat Avena is a genus of 10-15... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed livestock, such as cattle, sheep, chickens and pigs. ... Digimon, the only known animals. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Bales of straw bundles of rice straw Pile of straw bales, sheltered under a tarpaulin Straw is an agricultural byproduct, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the nutrient grain or seed has been removed. ...



Since oats are unsuitable for making bread on their own, they are often served as a porridge made from crushed or rolled oats, oatmeal, and are also baked into cookies (oatcakes) which can have added wheat flour. As oat flour or oatmeal, they are also used in a variety of other baked goods (e.g. bread made from a mixture of oatmeal and wheat flour) and cold cereals, and as an ingredient in muesli and granola. Oats may also be consumed raw, and cookies with raw oats are becoming popular. Oats are also occasionally used in Britain for brewing beer. Oatmeal stout is one variety brewed using a percentage of oats for the wort. The more rarely used Oat Malt is produced by the Thomas Fawcett & Sons Maltings and was used in the Maclay Oat Malt Stout before Maclay ceased independent brewing operations. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A tablespoon of rolled oats Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Oatmeal is a product made by processing oats. ... This page is about edible cookies. ... An ingredient used in many foods, flour is a fine powder made from grain or other starchy food sources. ... Look up flour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Muesli (originally (Bircher)müesli [myə̯s li] in Swiss German, Müsli [my:s li] in German) is a popular breakfast dish (breakfast cereal) based on uncooked rolled oats and fruit. ... A bowl of granola Granola is a breakfast food and snack food consisting of rolled oats, nuts, and mixed with honey, or other ingredients. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... A selection of bottled beers A selection of cask beers Beer is the worlds oldest[1] and most popular[2] alcoholic beverage, selling more than 133 billion litres (35 billion gallons) per year - producing total global revenues of $331. ... Oatmeal stout has oats added to it during the brewing process. ... WORT 89. ...


Oats also have non-food uses. Oat straw is also used in corn dolly making, and it is the favourite filling for home made lace pillows. Oat extract can be used to soothe the skin conditions, e.g. in baths, skin products, etc. Corn dollies are a form of straw work associated with harvest customs. ... Lace appliqué and bow at the bust-line of a nightgown. ...


A now obsolete Middle English name for the plant was haver (still used in most other Germanic languages), surviving in the name of the livestock feeding bag haversack. In contrast with the names of the other grains, "oat" is usually used in the plural. Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...

Contents

Distribution

Top Oats Producers
in 2005
(million metric tons)
 Russia 5.1
 Canada 3.3
Flag of United States United States 1.7
 Poland 1.3
 Finland 1.2
Flag of Australia Australia 1.1
Flag of Germany Germany 1.0
Flag of Belarus Belarus 0.8
 China 0.8
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 0.8
World Total 24.6
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation
(FAO)
[1]

Oats are native to Eurasia and appear to have been domesticated relatively late. They are now grown throughout the temperate zones. They have a lower summer heat requirement and greater tolerance of rain than other cereals like wheat, rye or barley, so are particularly important in areas with cool, wet summers such as northwest Europe, even being grown successfully in Iceland. Oats are an annual plant, and can be planted either in the fall (for late summer harvest) or in the spring (for early autumn harvest). Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland_corrected_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belarus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is a landmass covering about 54,000,000 km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²) and Oceania (9,000,000 km²). Eurasia is composed of the traditional continents... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Rain is a source of precipitation which forms when separate drops of water fall to the Earths surface from clouds. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... Autumn (also known as fall in North American English) is one of the four temperate seasons, the transition from summer into winter. ...


Historical attitudes towards oats vary. Oat bread was first manufactured in England. In England, in 1899, the first oat bread factory was established. In Scotland they were, and still are, held in high esteem, as a mainstay of the national diet. A traditional saying in England is that "oats are only fit to be fed to horses and Scotsmen", to which the Scottish riposte is "and England has the finest horses, and Scotland the finest men". Samuel Johnson notoriously defined oats in his Dictionary as "a grain, which in England is generally given to horses, but in Scotland supports the people". While frequently seen as derogatory, this is no less than the literal truth. Oats are so central to traditional Scottish cuisine that the Scottish English word "corn" refers to oats (as opposed to it meaning wheat in England and maize in North America and Australia). Oats grown in Scotland command a premium price throughout the United Kingdom as a result of these traditions. Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity(English) Wha daur meddle wi me? (Scots)[1] Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots[2] Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... Scottish English is usually taken to mean the standard form of the English language used in Scotland, often termed Scottish Standard English. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Maize (disambiguation). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


The discovery of the healthy cholesterol-lowering properties has led to wider appreciation of oats as human food.


Health

Oats are generally considered "healthy", or a health food, being touted commercially as nutritious. Healthful eating is the act of following a balanced nutritional diet. ...

Oat grains in their husks
Oat grains in their husks

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1210x1198, 240 KB) Picture taken by myself: (nl:Haverkorrels) Avena sativa; Avena sativa File links The following pages link to this file: Oat ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1210x1198, 240 KB) Picture taken by myself: (nl:Haverkorrels) Avena sativa; Avena sativa File links The following pages link to this file: Oat ...

Soluble Fiber

Oat bran is the outer casing of the oat. Its consumption is believed to lower LDL ("bad") cholesterol, and possibly to reduce the risk of heart disease. wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of cereal grains, and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart. ...


After reports found that oats can help lower cholesterol, an "oat bran craze" swept the U.S. in the late 1980s, peaking in 1989, when potato chips with added oat bran were marketed. The food fad was short-lived and faded by the early 1990s. The popularity of oatmeal and other oat products again increased after the January 1998 decision by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) when it issued its final rule allowing a health claim to be made on the labels of foods containing "soluble fiber" from whole oats (oat bran, oat flour and rolled oats), noting that 3 grams of soluble fiber daily from these foods, in conjunction with a diet low in "saturated fat" and "cholesterol", and "low fat" may reduce the risk of heart disease. In order to qualify for the health claim, the whole oat-containing food must provide at least 0.75 grams of soluble fiber per serving. The soluble fiber in whole oats comprise a class of polysaccharides known as Beta-D-glucan. 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food (humans and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal) and radiation emitting devices (including non-medical devices), biologics, and... Health claims on food labels are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... β-D-glucan (properly known as (1→3)β-D-glucan, but also incorrectly called 1,3-β-D-glucan or even just glucan) forms part of the cell wall of certain medically important fungi, especially Aspergillus species. ...


Beta-D-glucans, usually referred to as beta-glucans, comprise a class of non-digestible polysaccharides widely found in nature in sources such as grains, barley, yeast, bacteria, algae and mushrooms. In oats, barley and other cereal grains, they are located primarily in the endosperm cell wall. Endosperm is the tissue produced in the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. ...


Oat beta-glucan is a soluble fiber. It is a viscous polysaccharide made up of units of the sugar D-glucose. Oat beta-glucan is comprised of mixed-linkage polysaccharides. This means that the bonds between the D-glucose or D-glucopyranosyl units are either beta-1, 3 linkages or beta-1, 4 linkages. This type of beta-glucan is also referred to as a mixed-linkage (1→3), (1→4)-beta-D-glucan. The (1→3)-linkages break up the uniform structure of the beta-D-glucan molecule and make it soluble and flexible. In comparison, the nondigestible polysaccharide cellulose is also a beta-glucan but is non-soluble. The reason that it is non-soluble is that cellulose consists only of (1→4)-beta-D-linkages. The percentages of beta-glucan in the various whole oat products are: oat bran, greater than 5.5% and up to 23.0%; rolled oats, about 4%; whole oat flour about 4%. Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose [1][2]. It forms the primary structural component of green plants. ...


Oats after corn (maize) has the highest lipid content of any cereal, e.g., >10 percent for oats and as high as 17 percent for some maize cultivars compared to about 2-3 percent for wheat and most other cereals. The polar lipid content of oats (about 8-17% glycolipid and 10-20% phospholipid or a total of about 33% ) is greater than that of other cereals since much of the lipid fraction is contained within the endosperm. A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ... A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ...


Protein

Oats
Nutritional value per 100 g
Energy 390 kcal   1630 kJ
Carbohydrates     66 g
- Dietary fiber  11 g  
Fat 7 g
Protein 17 g
Pantothenic acid (B5)  1.3 mg  26%
Folate (Vit. B9)  56 μg  14%
Iron  5 mg 40%
Magnesium  177 mg 48% 
β-glucan (soluble fiber)  4 g
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Oat is the only cereal containing a globulin or legume-like protein, avenalins, as the major (80%) storage protein. Globulins are characterized by water solubility; because of this property, oats may be turned into milk but not into bread. The more typical cereal proteins, such as gluten are prolamines. The minor protein of oat is a prolamine: avenin. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5, is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Globulin is one of the two types of serum proteins, the other being albumin. ... Varieties of soybean seeds, a popular legume Pea pods The term legume has two closely related meanings in botany, a situation encountered with many botanical common names of useful plants, whereby an applied name can refer to either the plant itself, or to the edible fruit (or useful part). ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley. ... Prolamins are a group of globulin proteins found in grasses, most prominently the cereal crops such as wheat (gliadin), barley (secalin), rye (hordein) and oats (avenin). ...


Oat protein is nearly equivalent in quality to soy protein which has been shown by the World Health Organization to be the equal to meat, milk, and egg protein. The protein content of the hull-less oat kernel (groat) ranges from 12–24%, the highest among cereals. {Radomir Lasztity. 1999. The chemistry of oats. In: Cereal Chemistry. Akademiai Kiado(English)} Soy protein is generally regarded as the storage protein held in discrete particles called protein bodies which are estimated to contain at least 60-70% of the total soybean protein. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... See also groats. ...


Celiac Disease

Celiac disease, or celiac disease, from Greek "koiliakos", meaning "suffering in the bowels", is a disease often associated with ingestion of wheat, or more specifically a group of proteins labelled prolamines, or more commonly, gluten. Coeliac disease (also termed non-tropical sprue, celiac disease and gluten intolerance) is an autoimmune disease characterised by chronic inflammation of the proximal portion of the small intestine caused by exposure to certain dietary gluten proteins. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous ergastic protein found combined with starch in the endosperm of some cereals, notably wheat, rye, and barley. ...


Oats lack many of the prolamines found in wheat; however, oats do contain avenin[1]. Avenin is a prolamine which is toxic to the intestinal submucosa and can trigger a reaction in some celiacs.[2]


Although oats do contain avenin, there are several studies suggesting that oats can be a part of a gluten free diet if it is pure. The first such study was published in 1995 [3]. A follow-up study indicated that it is safe to use oats even in a longer period (Janatuinen EK, Kemppainen TA, Julkunen RJK, Kosma V-M, Mäki M, Heikkinen M, Uusitupa MI. No harm from five year ingestion of oats in celiac disease. Gut 2002:50;332-335).


Additionally, oats are frequently processed near wheat, barley and other grains such that they become contaminated with other glutens. Because of this, the FAO's Codex Alimentarius Commission officially lists them as a crop containing gluten. Oats from Ireland and Scotland, where less wheat is grown, are less likely to be contaminated in this way.[citation needed] Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ... The Codex Alimentarius (Latin = “food law” or “food code”) is a collection of international standards and is alleged to be for the sake of food safety and consumer protection. ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity(English) Wha daur meddle wi me? (Scots)[1] Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots[2] Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I...


Oats are part of a gluten free diet in, for example, Finland and Sweden. In both of these countries there are "pure oat" products on the market.


Agronomy

Oats are sown in the spring, as soon as the soil can be worked. An early start is crucial to good yields as oats will go dormant during the summer heat. Oats are cold-tolerant and will be unaffected by late frosts or snow. Typically about 100 kg/hectare (about 2 bushels per acre) are sown, either broadcast or drilled in 150 mm (6 inch) rows. Lower rates are used when underseeding with a legume. Somewhat higher rates can be used on the best soils. Excessive sowing rates will lead to problems with lodging and may reduce yields. Varieties of soybean seeds, a popular legume Pea pods The term legume has two closely related meanings in botany, a situation encountered with many botanical common names of useful plants, whereby an applied name can refer to either the plant itself, or to the edible fruit (or useful part). ...

Oats, barley, and some products made from them.
Oats, barley, and some products made from them.

Winter oats may be grown as an off-season groundcover and plowed under in the spring as a green fertilizer. Oats, barley, and some products made from them. ... Oats, barley, and some products made from them. ... Groundcover is any plant used for the purpose of growing over an area of ground to hide it or to protect it from erosion or drought. ... Green fertilizers are plants that are grown to create fertilization and soil-building to improve agricultural production. ...


Oats remove substantial amounts of nitrogen from the soil. They also remove phosphorous in the form of P2O5 at the rate of .25 pounds per bushel per acre (1 bushel = 32 pounds at 14% moisture). Oats remove potash (K2O) at a rate of .19 pounds per bushel per acre. If the straw is removed from the soil rather than being ploughed back, the removal rate of phosphorous is 8 pounds per ton per acre and the rate of potash removal is 40 pounds per ton per acre. Usually 50-100 kg/hectare (50-100 pounds per acre) of nitrogen in the form of urea or ammonium sulphate is sufficient. A sufficient amount of nitrogen is particularly important for plant height and hence straw quality and yield. When the prior-year crop was a legume, or where ample manure is applied, nitrogen rates can be reduced somewhat. General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Atomic mass 14. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) mixed with other potassium salts. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ...


The vigorous growth habit of oats will tend to choke out most weeds. A few tall broadleaf weeds, such as ragweed, goosegrass and buttonweed (velvetleaf), can occasionally be a problem as they complicate harvest. These can be controlled with a modest application of a broadleaf herbicide such as 2,4-D while the weeds are still small. Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Galium aparine L. Galium aparine is a herbaceous annual plant of the family Rubiaceae. ... Buttonweed is a common name for different species of weeds found throughout the Eastern and Southern United States. ... 2,4-D (or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a common systemic herbicide used in the control of broadleaf weeds. ...


Modern harvest technique is a matter of available equipment, local tradition, and priorities. Best yields are attained by swathing, cutting the plants at about 10 cm (4 inches) above ground and putting them into windrows with the grain all oriented the same way, just before the grain is completely ripe. The windrows are left to dry in the sun for several days before being combined using a dummy head. Then the straw is baled. A swather is a farm implement that cuts hay or small grain crops and forms them into a windrow. ...


Oats can also be left standing until completely ripe and then combined with a grain head. This will lead to greater field losses as the grain falls from the heads and to harvesting losses as the grain is threshed out by the reel. Without a draper head, there will also be somewhat more damage to the straw since it will not be properly oriented as it enters the throat of the combine. Overall yield loss is 10-15% compared to proper swathing. A postage stamp of a combine honors Russian agriculture. ... A postage stamp of a combine honors Russian agriculture. ...


Historical harvest methods involved cutting with a scythe or sickle, and threshing under the feet of cattle. Late 19th and early 20th century harvesting was performed using a binder. Oats were gathered into shocks and then collected and run through a stationary threshing machine. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... New Reaper McCormick Harvester and Binder A modern compact binder For other uses, see Binder (disambiguation). ... The thrashing machine, or, in modern spelling, threshing machine (or simply thresher), was a machine first invented by Scottish mechanical engineer Andrew Meikle for use in agriculture. ...


A good yield is typically about 3000 kg/hectare (100 bushels/acre) of grain and two tonnes of straw.


Trivia

  • Bodybuilders may be known to eat copious amounts of oats to get adequate carbohydrate.
  • Oats are sometimes marketed, while in seed-form, as 'Cat Grass'. This is then grown and fed to the cat as a treat, or as aid to digestion.

Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa island, Indonesia. ... A volcanic winter is the reduction in temperature caused by volcanic ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscuring the sun, usually after a volcanic eruption (hence the name). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A two-cent euro coin A United States penny, or 1¢ In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of the basic unit of value. ... A bushel is a unit of volume, used (with somewhat different definitions) in the systems of Imperial units and U.S. customary units. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Karl Drais (April 29, 1785 – December 10, 1851) was a German inventor and invented the Laufmaschine (running machine), also later called the velocipede, draisine (English) or draisienne (French), or most often, dandy horse. ... dandy horse is the inspiration for the bicycle. ... Ōfuckỹdgfdddfdefdfdfdfdfdfdaasdfasdfasf For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ...

See also

Grain milk is a milk substitute made from fermented grain or from flour. ... The official logo for Quaker Oats. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A tablespoon of rolled oats Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Oatmeal is a product made by processing oats. ...

References

  1. ^ Rottmann LH (2006-09-26). On the Use of Oats in the Gluten-Free Diet. Celiac Sprue Association/United States of America, Inc. (CSA). Retrieved on 2006-10-31.
  2. ^ Info on Oats. Celiac Sprue Association/United States of America, Inc. (CSA) (2006-09-26). Retrieved on 2006-10-31.
  3. ^ Janatuinen, E et al. (1995-10-19). A Comparison of Diets with and without Oats in Adults with Celiac Disease. New England Journal of Medicine.

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Oat - LoveToKnow 1911 (761 words)
With regard to the antiquity of the oat, A. de Candolle 3 observes that it was not cultivated by the Hebrews, the Egyptians, the ancient Greeks and the Romans.
The oat grain (excepting the naked oat), like that of barley, is closely invested by the husk.
Oatmeal is made from the kiln-dried grain from which the husks have been removed; and the form of the food is the well-known "porridge." In Ireland, where it is sometimes mixed with Indian-corn meal, it is called "stirabout." Groats or grits are the whole kernel from which the husk is removed.
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