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Encyclopedia > Oak Ridge National Laboratory
A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNL's new main campus. Included among these new facilities will be the Laboratory for Comparative and Functional Genomics, the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, the Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, and the joint institutes for computational sciences, biological sciences, and neutron sciences.
A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNL's new main campus. Included among these new facilities will be the Laboratory for Comparative and Functional Genomics, the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, the Advanced Microscopy Laboratory, and the joint institutes for computational sciences, biological sciences, and neutron sciences.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram science and technology national laboratory managed for the United States Department of Energy by UT-Battelle, LLC. ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near Knoxville. Scientists and engineers at ORNL conduct basic and applied research and development to create scientific knowledge and technological solutions that build the nation's expertise in key areas of science; increase the availability of clean, abundant energy; restore and protect the natural environment; and contribute to national security. Image File history File links Ornl_main_entrance. ... Image File history File links Ornl_main_entrance. ... The United States Department of Energy National Laboratories are a system of research facilities and laboratories funded and controlled by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose advancing science and aiding in the economic and defensive national interests of the United States of America. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... UT-Battelle is a partnership between the University of Tennessee and Battelle that manages and operates the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. ... Oak Ridge is an incorporated city in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, about 25 miles northwest of Knoxville. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Knoxville redirects here. ... For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ... The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of scientific research and technological development. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ...


ORNL also performs other work for the Department of Energy, including isotope production, information management, and technical program management, and provides research and technical assistance to other organizations. Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Program management is the process of managing multiple on going projects. ... Research is often described as an active, diligent, and systematic process of inquiry aimed at discovering, interpreting, and revising facts. ...

Contents

Research Programs

ORNL conducts research and development activities that span a wide range of scientific disciplines. The laboratory's major research areas are described briefly below.

  • Neutron scattering - The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), when combined with the High Flux Isotope Reactor and the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator Pulsed Neutron Source, will make ORNL the world's leading center for neutron science. Future research will be supported by these facilities and by the Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences, which is being developed in cooperation with the University of Tennessee and the SNS Project to accommodate the thousands of users expected each year from universities, U.S. industry, and other laboratories.
  • Biological systems - ORNL's initiative in complex biological systems draws on programs in comparative and functional genomics, structural biology, and computational biology and bioinformatics. This initiative focuses ORNL's expertise and facilities in a wide range of biological fields related to the challenges of observing and understanding the functioning of complex biological systems.
  • Energy - ORNL is a major center for research and development on energy production, distribution, and use and on the effects of energy technologies and decisions on society. Clean, efficient, safe production and use of energy are goals for research and development. At ORNL, unique facilities for energy-related R&D are used both for technology development and for fundamental investigations in the basic energy sciences that underpin the technology.
  • Advanced materials - Scientists at ORNL are involved in studies ranging from fundamental research to the latest applications of virtually all classes of materials. ORNL's unique strengths in materials synthesis, processing, and characterization are applied to all areas of emphasis. Thousands of guest scientists come to ORNL each year to make use of its world-class facilities.
  • National security - ORNL provides federal, state and local government agencies and departments with technology and expertise to support national and homeland security needs. This technology and expertise is also shared with industry to enhance America’s economic competitiveness in world markets.
  • High-performance computing The laboratory conducts research and development in computer and computational sciences in a variety of computational and experimental disciplines.
  • Chemical sciences - ORNL conducts both fundamental and applied research in a number of areas, including catalysis, surface science and interfacial chemistry; molecular transformations and fuel chemistry; heavy element chemistry and radioactive materials characterization; aqueous solution chemistry and geochemistry; mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy; separations chemistry; materials chemistry including synthesis and characterization of polymers and other soft materials; chemical biosciences; and neutron science.
  • Electron microscopy - ORNL's electron microscopy program investigates key issues in condensed matter, materials, chemical and nanosciences.
  • Nuclear medicine - The laboratory's nuclear medicine research is focused on the development of improved reactor production and processing methods to provide medical radioisotopes, the development of new radionuclide generator systems, the design and evaluation of new radiopharmaceuticals for applications in nuclear medicine and oncology.
  • Physics - Physics research at ORNL is focused primarily on studies of the fundamental properties of matter at the atomic, nuclear, and subnuclear levels and the development of experimental devices in support of these studies.

The term Neutron Scattering encompasses all scientific techniques whereby neutrons are used as a scientific probe. ... April 2005 aerial photo of the SNS site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source being built in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ... The High Flux Isotope Reactor (or HFIR) is a research nuclear reactor located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. ... Biology (from Greek βίος λόγος, see below) is the study of life. ... Comparative genomics is the study of relationships between the genomes of different species or strains. ... Functional genomics is a field of molecular biology that is attempting to make use of the vast wealth of data produced by genome sequencing projects to describe genome function. ... Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology concerned with the study of the architecture and shape of biological macromolecules--proteins and nucleic acids in particular—and what causes them to have the structures they have. ... Bioinformatics or computational biology is the use of techniques from applied mathematics, informatics, statistics, and computer science to solve biological problems. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... // Energy development is the ongoing effort to provide sustainable, accessible energy resources through knowledge, skills, and constructions. ... Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of generation to a location where it is applied to performing useful work. ... Energy consumption is a measure of the rate of energy use such as fuels or electricity. ... Energy policy is the manner a given entity (often governmental) has decided to address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Homeland security refers to governmental actions designed to prevent, detect, respond to, and recover from acts of terrorism, and also respond to natural disasters. ... The field of high performance computing (HPC) comprises computing applications on (parallel) supercomputers and computer clusters. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as molecules, crystals, and metals. ... For other meanings, see Catalyst (disambiguation). ... Surface chemistry is the study of chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, usually between a gas and a solid or between a liquid and a solid. ... Surface chemistry is the study of chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, usually between a gas and a solid or between a liquid and a solid. ... The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with... Basic schematic of a mass spectrometer Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or in common speech mass-spec) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... The term Neutron Scattering encompasses all scientific techniques whereby neutrons are used as a scientific probe. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... It has been suggested that Solid state physics be merged into this article or section. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Chemistry (from Greek χημεία khemeia[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as molecules, crystals, and metals. ... Molecular gears from a NASA computer simulation. ... Bone scintigraphy of a young woman. ... Radiopharmacology is the study and preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, which are radioactive pharmaceuticals. ... Oncology is the medical subspecialty dealing with the study and treatment of cancer. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Atom (disambiguation). ... A semi-accurate depiction of the helium atom. ... A subatomic particle is a particle smaller than an atom: it may be elementary or composite. ...

Research Facilities

Oak Ridge National Laboratory is home to a number of highly sophisticated experimental research facilities. These research laboratories are designed to serve staff scientists and engineers, as well as researchers from universities, industry, foreign institutions, and other government laboratories. For more information about these facilities, see the laboratory's research facilities website.


User Facilities

Some ORNL research facilities have been designated as "user facilities" by the U.S. Department of Energy. Work at user facilities may be conducted on a nonproprietary or proprietary basis. More information on these facilities and how to gain access to them, is available on laboratory's user facilities website.


Facts and Figures

ORNL has a staff of more than 4,000, including 1500 scientists and engineers. The laboratory annually hosts approximately 3,000 guest researchers who spend two weeks or longer in Oak Ridge; about 25 percent of these visitors are from industry. ORNL receives 30,000 visitors each year, plus another 10,000 precollege students.


ORNL funding for FY 2006 exceeds $1 billion; 80 percent of that amount comes from the Department of Energy, and 20 percent is from other federal and private customers. UT-Battelle, the laboratory's management and operating contractor, has provided nearly $8 million in support of math and science education, economic development and other projects in the greater Oak Ridge region. The laboratory occupies about 58 square miles (150 km²), and the replacement cost of its buildings is estimated to be about $7 billion. East Tennessee is a name given to approximately the eastern third of the state of Tennessee. ...


History

Created as part of the Manhattan Project in 1943, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was established during World War II when American scientists feared that Nazi Germany was rapidly developing an atomic bomb. Both the laboratory and the nearby city of Oak Ridge were built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers in less than a year on isolated farmland in the mountains of East Tennessee. Oak Ridge became a "secret city" that within two years housed more than 75,000 residents. The Manhattan Project resulted in the development of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, at the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... Oak Ridge is an incorporated city in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, about 25 miles northwest of Knoxville. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ...


The goal of the Manhattan Project was to separate and produce uranium and plutonium for use in developing a nuclear weapon. This work was carried out in three facilities, code-named Y-12, X-10 (later to become Oak Ridge National Laboratory), and K-25. K-25 was a gaseous diffusion plant designed to separate U-235 from U-238. Y-12 was dedicated to the electromagnetic separation of U-235. X-10 was a demonstration plant for the process to produce plutonium from uranium by nuclear bombardment. General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Y-12 National Security Complex Operated by BWX Technologies Y‑12 for the National Nuclear Security Administration, Y‑12 plays a vital role in the U.S. Department of Energys Nuclear Weapons Complex. ... Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram science and technology national laboratory managed for the United States Department of Energy by UT-Battelle, LLC. ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near Knoxville. ... -1... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... There are two objects with this name: Unterseeboot 238 Uranium-238, the most common isotope of uranium This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes, for example separating natural uranium into enriched uranium and depleted uranium. ...


Working under assumed names in the X-10 Graphite Reactor, Enrico Fermi and his colleagues developed the world's first sustained nuclear reaction, leading to the atomic bomb that ended the war. When President Roosevelt in December 1942 authorized the Manhattan Project, the Oak Ridge site in eastern Tennessee had already been obtained and plans laid for an air-cooled experimental pile, a pilot chemical separation plant, and support facilities. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for the development of quantum theory. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


ORNL's involvement with nuclear weapons ended after the war. The laboratory's scientific expertise shifted in the 1950s and 1960s to peacetime research in medicine, biology, materials and physics. During this period the Graphite Reactor was used to produce the world's first medical radioisotopes for treating cancer. Following the creation of the U.S. Department of Energy in 1977, ORNL's mission broadened to include research in energy production, transmission and consumption. The 1950s was the decade spanning from the 1st of January, 1950 to the 31st December, 1959. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... // Energy development is the ongoing effort to provide sustainable, accessible energy resources through knowledge, skills, and constructions. ... Power line redirects here. ... Energy consumption is a measure of the rate of energy use such as fuels or electricity. ...


The end of the Cold War and the growth of international terrorism led to a further expansion of research into a range of national security-related technologies. As the laboratory entered the 21st Century, new cross-disciplinary programs in nanophase materials, computational sciences and biology has led to the term "nano-info-bio" to describe the emerging synthesis in ORNL's research agenda. The Cold War was the period of protracted conflict and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the late 1940s until the late 1980s. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... The 21st century is the present century of the Gregorian calendar. ... Concept map describing activities offered by universities to encourage integrative learning. ... Nanophase materials are materials that have grain sizes under 100 nanometres. ... A supercomputer is a device for turning compute-bound problems into I/O-bound problems. ... Biology (from Greek βίος λόγος, see below) is the study of life. ...


See also

April 2005 aerial photo of the SNS site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source being built in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ... The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences is one of five Nanoscale Science Research Centers the location is in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ... The National Transportation Research Center is a facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee dedicated to improving transportation systems as regards efficiency, effects on the environment, and safety. ... Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram science and technology national laboratory managed for the United States Department of Energy by UT-Battelle, LLC. ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near Knoxville. ... Y-12 National Security Complex Operated by BWX Technologies Y‑12 for the National Nuclear Security Administration, Y‑12 plays a vital role in the U.S. Department of Energys Nuclear Weapons Complex. ... Located in the heart of the city the American Museum of Science and Energy (AMSE) inspires young and old to explore atomic energy. ...

External links

General Information

  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory Official ORNL website
  • ORNL News News releases, RSS feeds, publications
  • Video Introduction Overview of the laboratory and its major programs
  • RSS and Podcast Information
  • ORNL Review The laboratory's research and development magazine
  • ORNL Site Index

Facts and Figures

  • Institutional Plan
  • Annual Site Environmental Report

Research Programs

  • Neutron Science
  • Biological Systems
  • Energy
  • Advanced Materials
  • National Security
  • High Performance Computing
  • Chemical Sciences
  • Electron Microscopy
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Physics

Research Facilities

  • Research Facilities
  • User Facilities

Research Divisions

History

Related Organizations and Facilities

Additional Resources


 
 

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