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Oaks
Foliage and acorns of Quercus robur
Foliage and acorns of Quercus robur
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Quercus
L.
Species

See List of Quercus species Download high resolution version (701x948, 99 KB)Pedunculate Oak foliage and acorns - photo User:MPF File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Quercus robur L. The Pedunculate Oak or English Oak (Quercus robur) is native to most of Europe, and to Asia Minor to the Caucasus, and also to parts of North Africa. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families included in the Kew list: Fagaceae - Beech family   (including Nothofagaceae) Betulaceae - Birch family Corylaceae - Hazel family Ticodendraceae not included in the Kew list: Casuarinaceae - She-oak family Juglandaceae - Walnut family Rhoipteleaceae Myricaceae The Fagales are an order of flowering plants, including some of the best known trees. ... Genera Castanea - Chestnuts Castanopsis Chrysolepis - Golden chinkapin Colombobalanus Cyclobalanopsis Fagus - Beeches Formanodendron Lithocarpus - Stone oaks Quercus - Oaks Trigonobalanus The family Fagaceae, or beech family, is characterized by alternate leaves with pinnate venation, flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of nuts, one to seven in a... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... // Genus Quercus Section Quercus The white oaks (synonym sect. ...

The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin "oak tree"), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. The genus is native to the northern hemisphere, and includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cold latitudes to tropical Asia and the Americas. The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... // Genus Quercus Section Quercus The white oaks (synonym sect. ... Species See text Cyclobalanopsis is a genus of about 150 species of flowering plants in the family Fagaceae, native to eastern and southeastern Asia. ... Species Lithocarpus cleistocarpus Lithocarpus densiflorus - Tanoak Lithocarpus edulis - Japanese Stone Oak Lithocarpus glaber Lithocarpus henryi - Henrys Stone Oak Lithocarpus pachyphyllus and many more Lithocarpus is a genus in the beech family Fagaceae. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... This article is about plant types. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with a lobed margin in many species; some have serrated leaves or entire leaves with a smooth margin. The flowers are catkins, produced in spring. The fruit is a nut called an acorn, borne in a cup-like structure known as a cupule; each acorn contains one seed (rarely two or three) and takes 6-18 months to mature, depending on species. The "live oaks" (oaks with evergreen leaves) are not a distinct group, instead with their members scattered among the sections below. Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... A male catkin on a willow a male flowering catkin on a willow Catkins, or aments, are slim, cylindrical flower clusters, wind-pollinated (anemophilous) and without petals, that can be found in many plant families, including Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Moraceae, and Salicaceae. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Acorn (disambiguation). ... A Sweet Chestnut Castanea sativa cupule, split open to reveal the nuts. ... Southern live oaks on Skidaway Island, near Savannah, Georgia Live oak is a general term for a number of unrelated oaks in several different sections of the genus Quercus that happen to share the character of evergreen foliage. ... This article is about plant types. ...

Contents

Classification

Oak trees are flowering plants. The genus is divided into a number of sections:

  • Sect. Quercus (synonyms Lepidobalanus and Leucobalanus), the white oaks of Europe, Asia and North America. Styles short; acorns mature in 6 months, sweet or slightly bitter, inside of acorn shell hairless. Leaves mostly lack a bristle on lobe tips, which are usually rounded.
  • Sect. Mesobalanus, the Hungarian oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; acorns mature in 6 months, bitter, inside of hairless acorn shell (closely related to sect. Quercus and sometimes included in it).
  • Sect. Cerris, the Turkey oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; acorns mature in 18 months, very bitter, inside of acorn shell hairless. Leaves typically have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip.
  • Sect. Protobalanus, the Canyon live oak and its relatives, in southwest United States and northwest Mexico. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months, very bitter, inside of acorn shell woolly. Leaves typically have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip.
  • Sect. Lobatae (synonym Erythrobalanus), the red oaks of North America, Central America and northern South America. Styles long, acorns mature in 18 months, very bitter, inside of acorn shell woolly. Leaves typically have sharp lobe tips, with spiny bristles at the lobe.


List of Quercus species // Genus Quercus Section Quercus The white oaks (synonym sect. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... // Genus Quercus Section Quercus The white oaks (synonym sect. ... // Genus Quercus Section Quercus The white oaks (synonym sect. ... // Genus Quercus Section Quercus The white oaks (synonym sect. ... // Genus Quercus Section Quercus The white oaks (synonym sect. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... // Genus Quercus Section Quercus The white oaks (synonym sect. ...

A hybrid white oak, possibly Quercus stellata × Q. muhlenbergii
A hybrid white oak, possibly Quercus stellata × Q. muhlenbergii

Hybrids are common in oaks but usually only between species within the same section; no verified inter-section hybrids are known, except between species of sections Quercus and Mesobalanus, where several occur. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1695x1488, 1379 KB) Summary Post Oak (Quercus stellata) leaves and acorns Taken by Benjamin Bruce in Parker County, Texas Note: This photo has accidentally been misidentified. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1695x1488, 1379 KB) Summary Post Oak (Quercus stellata) leaves and acorns Taken by Benjamin Bruce in Parker County, Texas Note: This photo has accidentally been misidentified. ... Binomial name Quercus stellata Wangenh. ... Categories: Plant stubs | Oaks ... This article is about a biological term. ...


The genus Cyclobalanopsis, here treated as a distinct genus following the Flora of China, is often included within Quercus as a distinct subgenus. Species See text Cyclobalanopsis is a genus of about 150 species of flowering plants in the family Fagaceae, native to eastern and southeastern Asia. ...


Hybridization

Interspecific hybridization is quite common among oaks, especially in the white oak group (subgenus Quercus, section Quercus; see List of Quercus species). Hybridization is considered fairly common, if not widespread, in the plant world (certainly much more so than in animal taxa)[1]. Yet not all plant groups exhibit hybridization. Botanists have often described white oaks as having weak internal barriers to hybridization, that is to say, because they are wind pollinated, oaks often do not discriminate against being pollinated by another species in the same section (Quercus), thus resulting in fertile hybrid offspring[2]. Ecological stresses, especially near habitat margins, can also cause a breakdown of mate recognition as well as a reduction of male function (pollen quantity and quality) in one parent species[3][4]. Recent systematic studies appear to confirm the high tendency of Quercus species to hybridize as a result of a combination of the aforementioned factors. This article is about a biological term. ... // Genus Quercus Section Quercus The white oaks (synonym sect. ... Anemophily is a form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind. ...


Frequent hybridization has brought about a number of consequences to oak populations around the world. Most notably, hybridization has led to the creation of large populations of hybrids, copious amounts of introgression, and even the evolution of new species[5]. Frequent hybridization and high levels of introgression have caused different species in the same populations to share up to 50% of their genetic information[6]. As a result of such high rates of hybridization and introgression, genetic data often does not differentiate between two clearly morphologically distinct species, but rather by different populations[7]. In spite of numerous hypotheses, the way in which oak species are able to remain morphologically and ecologically distinct with such high levels of gene flow remains largely a mystery to botanists. Introgression is a term used in genetics, particularly plant genetics, to describe the movement of a gene from one species into the gene pool of another by backcrossing an interspecific hybrid with one of its parents. ...


The consequences of frequent hybridization can also be seen on a higher level. The Fagaceae, the oak family, is known to be a very slowly evolving clade compared other angiosperms[8][9]. More than anything, however, hybridization patterns in Quercus pose a great challenge to the concept of a species. A species is often defined as a group of “actually or potentially interbreeding populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups”[10]. By this definition, many species of Quercus would be lumped together according to their geographic and ecological habitat, despite clear distinctions in morphology and, to a large extent, genetic data. Thus, although it may be difficult to place a definition on a species within a genus like Quercus, it is trivial and uninformative to apply the biological species concept to all forms of life. Genera Castanea - Chestnuts Castanopsis Chrysolepis - Golden chinkapin Colombobalanus Cyclobalanopsis Fagus - Beeches Formanodendron Lithocarpus - Stone oaks Quercus - Oaks Trigonobalanus The family Fagaceae, or beech family, is characterized by alternate leaves with pinnate venation, flowers in the form of catkins, and fruit in the form of nuts, one to seven in a... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ... In biology, a species is the basic unit of biodiversity. ...


Uses

Oak wood has a density of about 0.75 g/cm³, great strength and hardness, and is very resistant to insect and fungal attack because of its high tannin content. It also has very attractive grain markings, particularly when quarter-sawn. Wide, quarter-sawn boards of oak have been prized since the Middle Ages for use in interior panelling of prestigious buildings such as the debating chamber of the British House of Commons in London, England, and in the construction of fine furniture. Oak wood, from Quercus robur and Q. petraea, was used in Europe for the construction of ships until the 19th century, and was the principal timber used in the construction of European timber-framed buildings. Today oakwood is still commonly used for furniture making and flooring, timber frame buildings, and for veneer production. Barrels in which red wines, sherry, brandy and spirits such as Scotch whisky and Bourbon whiskey are aged are made from European and American oak. The use of oak in wine can add many different dimensions to wine based on the type and style of the oak. Oak barrels, which may be charred before use, contribute to the color, taste, and aroma, of the contents, imparting a desirable oaky vanillin flavour to these drinks. The great dilemma for wine producers is to choose between French and American oakwoods. French oaks (Quercus robur, Q. petraea) give the wine greater refinement and are chosen for best wines since they increase the price compared to those aged in American oak wood. [11] American oak contributes greater texture and resistance to ageing, but produces more violent wine bouquets.[11] Oak wood chips are used for smoking fish, meat, cheeses[12] [13] and other foods. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Red brick timberframe building in PoznaÅ„, Poland Timber framing is the description of how a house is built using mortise and tenon joinery. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... Traditional wooden barrels in Cutchogue Modern aluminium beer barrels - also called casks - outside the Castle Rock microbrewery in Nottingham, England A barrel or cask is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wood staves and bound with iron hoops. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... A glass of amontillado Sherry For other uses, see Sherry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. ... Whiskey barrels at the Jack Daniels distillery Barrels for aging wine in Napa Valley An aging barrel is a barrel used to age wine or distilled spirits such as whiskey, brandy, or rum. ... Vanillin, methyl vanillin, or 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C8H8O3. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Smoking Smoking is the process of flavoring, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ...

Sherry maturing in oak barrels
Sherry maturing in oak barrels
A section of the trunk of a cork oak, Quercus suber
A section of the trunk of a cork oak, Quercus suber

The bark of Quercus suber, or Cork oak, is used to produce wine stoppers (corks). This species grows in the Mediterranean Sea region, with Portugal, Spain, Algeria and Morocco producing most of the world's supply. Of the North American oaks, the Northern red oak Quercus rubra is the most prized of the red oak group for lumber, all of which is marketed as red oak regardless of the species of origin. The standard for the lumber of the white oak group, all of which is marketed as white oak, is the White Oak Quercus alba. White Oak is often used to make wine barrels. The wood of the deciduous Pedunculate Oak Quercus robur and Sessile Oak Quercus petraea account for most of the European oak production, but evergreen species, such as Holm oak Quercus ilex, and Cork oak Quercus suber also produce valuable timber. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A glass of amontillado Sherry For other uses, see Sherry (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 510 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 765 pixel, file size: 294 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A diagonal sectionthrough the trunk of a cork oak, Quercus suber I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 510 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 765 pixel, file size: 294 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A diagonal sectionthrough the trunk of a cork oak, Quercus suber I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Binomial name L. The Cork Oak (Quercus suber) is a medium-sized, evergreen oak tree in the section Quercus sect. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... A stopper is a truncated conical piece of rubber or cork used to close off a glass tube, piece of laboratory glassware, a wine bottle or barrel and other containers with orifices. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Binomial name Quercus rubra L. The Northern Red Oak or Champion Oak, Quercus rubra (syn. ... Binomial name Quercus alba L. The White oak (Quercus alba) is one of the most magnificent of oaks. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Quercus robur L. The Pedunculate Oak or English Oak (Quercus robur) is native to most of Europe, and to Asia Minor to the Caucasus, and also to parts of North Africa. ... Binomial name Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. ... Southern live oaks on Skidaway Island, near Savannah, Georgia Live oak is a general term for a number of unrelated oaks in several different sections of the genus Quercus that happen to share the character of evergreen foliage. ... Binomial name Quercus ilex L. The Holm Oak (Quercus ilex), also called Holly Oak or Evergreen Oak, is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. ... Binomial name L. The Cork Oak (Quercus suber) is a medium-sized, evergreen oak tree in the section Quercus sect. ...


The bark of the White Oak is dried and used in medical preparations. Oak bark is also rich in tannin, and is used by tanners for tanning leather. Acorns are used for making flour or roasted for acorn coffee. Oak galls were used for centuries as the main ingredient in manuscript ink, harvested at a specific time of year. For other uses, see Bark (disambiguation). ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... This article is about making hides into leather. ... For people named Leather, see Leather (surname). ...


Japanese oak is used in the making of professional drums from manufacturer Yamaha Drums. The rough, hard surface of oak gives the drum a brighter and louder tone compared to traditional drum materials such as maple and birch.[citation needed] Yamaha Drums Logo Yamaha Drums is a subsidiary of the Yamaha Corporation. ... For other uses, see Maple (disambiguation). ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ...


The Irish shillelagh is made with oak or blackthorn. The word shillelagh can mean: shillelgah, a type of club (weapon) (see Shillelagh). ...


Diseases and pests

Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum) is a water mould that can kill oaks within just a few weeks. Oak Wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum (a fungus closely related to Dutch Elm Disease), is also a lethal disease of some oaks, particularly the red oaks (the white oaks can be infected but generally live longer). Other dangers include wood-boring beetles, as well as root rot in older trees which may not be apparent on the outside, often only being discovered when the trees come down in a strong gale. Oak apples are galls on oaks made by the gall wasp. The female kermes scale causes galls to grow on kermes oak. Oaks are used as food plants by the larvae of Lepidoptera species. Binomial name Phytophthora ramorum Werres et al. ... Orders Lagenidiales Leptomitales Peronosporales Pythiales Rhipidiales Saprolegniales Sclerosporales Water moulds or Oomycetes are a group of filamentous protists, physically resembling fungi. ... Binomial name Ceratocystis fagacearum (T. W. Bretz) J. Hunt Oak wilt is a fungal disease which can quickly kill an oak tree. ... Branch death, or Flagging, at multiple locations in the crown of a diseased elm. ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... The aviation term ROT stands for rate one turn. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An oak apple is a mutation of an oak leaf caused by chemicals injected by the larvae of certain kinds of gall wasp. ... Kalanchoë infected with crown-gall using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... Gall wasps (Cynipidae), also called Gallflies, are a family of the order Hymenoptera and are classified with the Apocrita suborder of wasps in the superfamily Cynipoidea. ... Species see text Kermes is a genus of scale insects in the order Hemiptera. ... Families Aclerdidae Asterolecaniidae Beesoniidae Carayonemidae Cerococcidae Coccidae Conchaspididae Dactylopiidae Diaspididae Electrococcidae Eriococcidae Grimaldiellidae Halimococcidae Inkaidae Jersicoccidae Kermesidae Kerriidae Kukaspididae Labiococcidae Lecanodiaspididae Margarodidae Micrococcidae Ortheziidae Phenacoleachiidae Phoenicococcidae Pseudococcidae Putoidae Stictococcidae The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, notable for their habit of secreting a waxy covering that covers... Binomial name L. The Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera) is an oak in the turkey oak section Quercus sect. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Subdivisions See Taxonomy of Lepidoptera and Lepidopteran diversity. ...

  • See also list of Lepidoptera that feed on oaks

Also another pest would be the Gypsy moth. The Gypsy Moth is dominant in North America and there are many concerns of the loss of economically critical and ecologically dominant Oak species. Binomial name Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, 1758 The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a moth in the family Lymantriidae of Eurasian origin. ... Binomial name Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, 1758 The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a moth in the family Lymantriidae of Eurasian origin. ...


Toxicity

The leaves and acorns of the Oak tree are poisonous to horses in large amounts, due to the toxin tannic acid, and causes kidney damage and gastroenteritis. Additionally, once horses have a taste for the leaves and acorns, they may seek them out. Therefore, horse owners are encouraged to fence out Oak trees from their pasture, especially if forage is scarce. Symptoms of poisoning include lack of appetite, depression, constipation, diarrhea (which may contain blood), blood in urine, and colic. This is a bottle of tannic acid. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... Equine colic, in its most general form, is a clinical sign or a symptom rather than a diagnosis. ...


Cultural significance

The oak is a common symbol of strength and endurance and has been chosen as the national tree of England, Estonia, France, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, the United States and Wales. Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... Look up Endurance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... -1... This article is about the country. ...

Oak leaves on the coat of arms of Estonia
Oak leaves on the coat of arms of Estonia

In Celtic mythology it is the tree of doors, believed to be a gateway between worlds, or a place where portals could be erected. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Greater Coat of Arms The Lesser Coat of Arms Coat of Arms of Estonia. ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ...


Thor's Oak was a sacred tree of the Germanic Chatti tribe. Its destruction marked the Christianisation of the heathen tribes by the Franks[citation needed]. Thors Oak was an ancient tree sacred to the Germanic tribe of the Chatti, ancestors of todays Hessians, and one of the most important sacred sites of the Germans. ... The Chatti (also Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe settled in central and northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony, along the upper reaches of the Weser river and in the valleys and mountains of the Eder, Fulda and Werra river regions, a district approximately corresponding to Hesse-Cassel, though probably... The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice of converting pagan cult practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ...


In Classical mythology the oak was a symbol of Zeus and his sacred tree. An example is the oracle of Dodona, which in prehistory consisted solely of a holy oak. Classical or Greco-Roman mythology usually refers to the mythology, and the associated polytheistic rituals and practices, of Classical Antiquity. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dodona (disambiguation). ...


In the Bible, the oak tree at Shechem is the site where Jacob buries the foreign gods of his people (Gen. 35:4) . In addition, Joshua erects a stone under an oak tree as the first covenant of the Lord (Josh. 24.25-7). See other examples from the Bible. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Shechem is a name of geographical places. ...


The Oak tree is traditionally sacred to Serbs and is widely used throughout Serbia on national and regional symbols both old and new. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Several individual oak trees, such as the Royal Oak in Britain and the Charter Oak in the United States, are of great historical or cultural importance; for a list of important oaks, see Individual oak trees. The Royal Oak is the name given to the oak tree within which King Charles II of England hid to escape the Roundheads following the Battle of Worcester in 1651. ... The Charter Oak on the Connecticut quarter The Charter Oak was an unusually large white oak tree growing, from around the 12th or 13th century until 1856, on what the English colonists named Wyllys Hill, in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. // Early history The Dutch explorer Adrian (or Adriaen) Block described, in...


Iowa has designated the oak as its official state tree in 1961, and the White Oak is the state tree of Connecticut, Illinois and Maryland. Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Largest metro area Des Moines metropolitan area Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: | | ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N...


The Northern Red Oak is the provincial tree of Prince Edward Island. Binomial name Quercus rubra L. The Northern Red Oak or Champion Oak, Quercus rubra (syn. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


"Ambrosian Oaks" set to the Finlandia Hymn is the school song of St. Ambrose University in Davenport, Iowa. The Finlandia Hymn (in Finnish Finlandia-hymni) refers to a serene hymn-like section of the patriotic symphonic poem Finlandia, written in 1899 and 1900 by the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius. ... St. ... Motto: Working together to serve you Location in the State of Iowa Coordinates: , Country State County Scott County Incorporated 1839 Government  - Mayor Ed Winborn Area  - City  64. ...


The oak is the emblem of County Londonderry in Northern Ireland, as a vast amount of the county was covered in forests of the tree until relatively recently. The name of the county comes from the city of Derry, which originally in Irish was known as Doire meaning oak. For other places with similar names, see Londonderry (disambiguation) and Derry (disambiguation). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ...


Switzerland's 10 Rappen, and 1/2, 1, 2, and 5 Franc coins, and Germany's 1, 2, 5, 10, and 50 Pfenning, 1 Mark, and 1, 2, and 5 Euro Cent coins have Oak leaves on them.


There is a proverb, "Mighty oaks from little acorns grow." Another is: "Every majestic oak tree was once a nut who stood his ground." Look up proverb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Acorn (disambiguation). ...


Many woods are connected to certain birth months, according to the Irish, and oak is the wood of June/July. However, in some variations, rosewood has been known to be June's wood[citation needed].


Raleigh, North Carolina has been nicknamed the "City of Oaks." springfield va ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ...


The Romania national rugby union team is nicknamed The Oaks. First international  Romania 0–21 United States  (1 July 1919) Largest win  Bulgaria 0–100 Romania  (21 September 1976) Worst defeat  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) World Cup Appearances 5 (First in 1987) Best result One win, 1987, 1991, 1999 and 2003 The Romania national rugby union team...


Oak leaves symbolize rank in the United States Armed Forces. A gold oak leaf indicates an O-4 (Major or Lt. Commander), whereas a silver oak leaf indicates an O-5 (Lt. Colonel or Commander). Arrangements of oak leaves, acorns and sprigs indicate different branches of the United States Navy Staff corps officers. The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... LCDR may refer to: The London, Chatham and Dover Railway The rank of lieutenant commander Category: ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and subordinate to a colonel. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... USN redirects here. ... Navy Dental Corps Navy Chaplain Corps Navy Civil Engineer Corps (which includes the Seabees) Judge Advocate Generals Corps (also known as JAG) Navy Medical Corps Navy Medical Service Corps Navy Nurse Corps Navy Supply Corps ...


Oak leaves were added to the Iron Cross for added status. The penultimate expression of the award: the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with golden Oakleaves, Swords and Diamonds. ...


Historical note on Linnaean species

Linnaeus described only five species of oak from eastern North America, based on general leaf form. These were White oak, Q. alba, Chestnut oak, Q. Montana, Red oak, Q. rubra, Willow oak, Q. phellos, and Water oak, Q. nigra. Because he was dealing with confusing leaf forms, the Q. prinus and Q. rubra specimens actually included mixed foliage of more than one species. For that reason, some taxonomists in the past proposed different names for these two species (Q. Montana and Q. borealis, respectively), but the original Linnaean names have now been lectotypified with only the specimens in Linnaeus' herbarium that refer to the species the names are applied to now. Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Binomial name Quercus alba L. The White oak (Quercus alba) is one of the most magnificent of oaks. ... Binomial name Willdenow The Chestnut oak (Quercus montana, or Quercus prinus in some references) is a species of oak in the white oak group, Quercus sect. ... Binomial name Quercus rubra L. The Northern red oak, Quercus rubra (Quercus borealis in some older references), is an oak in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae). ... Binomial name L. Willow Oak (Quercus phellos) is a deciduous tree in the red oak group of oaks. ... Binomial name Quercus nigra L. Range The Water Oak (Quercus nigra) is an oak in the red oak group (Quercus sect. ...


References

  1. ^ Arnold, M. L. 1997. Natural Hybridization and Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York.
  2. ^ Williams, Joseph H., William J. Boecklen, and Daniel J. Howard. 2001 Reproductive processes in two oak (Quercus) contact zones with different levels of hybridization. Heredity 87: 680-690.
  3. ^ Arnold, M. L. 1997. Natural Hybridization and Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York.
  4. ^ Williams, Joseph H., William J. Boecklen, and Daniel J. Howard. 2001 Reproductive processes in two oak (Quercus) contact zones with different levels of hybridization. Heredity 87: 680-690.
  5. ^ Conte, L., Cotti, C., and Cristofolini, G. 2007 Molecular evidence for hybrid origin of Quercus crenata Lam. (Fagaceae) from Q-cerris L. and Q-suber L. Plant Biosystems 141 (2): 181-193.
  6. ^ Gomory, D. and Schmidtova, J. 2007 Extent of nuclear genome sharing among white oak species (Quercus L. subgen. Lepidobalanus (Endl.) Oerst.) in Slovakia estimated by allozymes. Plant Systematics and Evolution 266 (3-4): 253-264.
  7. ^ Kelleher, CT., TR Hodkinson, GC Doublas, and DL Kelly. 2005 Species distinction in Irish populations of Quercus petraea and Q. robur: Morphological versus molecular analyses. Annals of Botany 96 (7): 1237-1246.
  8. ^ Frascaria, N., L. Maggia, M. Michaud, and J. Bousquet. 1993 The RBCL Gene Sequence from Chestnut Indicates a Slow Rate of Evolution in the Fagaceae. Genome 36 (4): 668-671.
  9. ^ Manos, PS., AM Stanford. 2001b The historical biogeography of Fagaceae: Tracking the tertiary history of temporate and subtropical forests of the Northern Hemisphere. International Journal of Plant Sciences 162: S77-S93 Suppl. 6.
  10. ^ Raven, Peter H., George B. Johnson, Jonathan B. Losos, Susan R. Singer. Biology: Seventh Edition. McGraw Hill, New York, NY 2005.
  11. ^ a b (Spanish) La crianza del vino La Razón 23 de Agosto de 2007
  12. ^ http://www.williamsdeli.co.uk/product_info.php?cPath=66&products_id=256&osCsid=6f34dc1a878e28ab056ea5482a70e355
  13. ^ http://www.swaledalecheese.co.uk/cheese.htm
  • Byfield, Liz (1990) An oak tree, Collins book bus, London : Collins Educational, ISBN 0-00-313526-8
  • Logan, William B. (2005) Oak : the frame of civilization, New York ; London : W.W. Norton, ISBN 0-393-04773-3
  • Paterson, R.T. (1993) Use of trees by livestock, 5: Quercus, Chatham : Natural Resources Institute, ISBN 0-85954-365-X
  • Royston, Angela (2000) Life cycle of an oak tree, Heinemann first library, Oxford : Heinemann Library, ISBN 0-431-08391-6
  • Savage, Stephen (1994) Oak tree, Observing nature series, Hove : Wayland, ISBN 0-7502-1196-2
  • Tansley, Arthur G., Sir (1952) Oaks and oak woods, Field study books, London : Methuen, 50 p.

Gallery

See also

  • List of plants poisonous to equines

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Quercus
  • Flora of North America: Quercus
  • Flora of China: Quercus
  • Flora Europaea: Quercus
  • Oak Trees of the Lowcountry (South Carolina) -- Beaufort County Library
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Oak - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1085 words)
Oaks are hardwood trees, the wood commonly used in furniture and flooring.
Oak Wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum (a fungus closely related to Dutch Elm Disease), is also a lethal disease of some oaks, particularly the red oaks (the white oaks can be infected but generally live longer).
The oak is a common symbol of strength and endurance, and is the national tree of the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States.
Oak - definition of Oak in Encyclopedia (832 words)
The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Lithocarpus.
Oak Wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum (a fungus closely related to Dutch Elm Disease), is also a lethal disease of some oaks, particularly the red oaks (the white oaks can be infected but resist the disease better, and are not usually killed).
The oak is the national tree of the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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