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Encyclopedia > OSx86
Apple Intel transition

Architecture
Universal binary
Boot Camp
Rosetta
Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Newspaper_nicu_buculei_01. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... The Apple Intel transition was the process of changing the CPU of Macintosh computers from PowerPC processors to Intel x86 processors. ... To distinguish their computers from other PC makers, Apple creates their own Intel chip product badges, rather than use the ones created by Intel. ... Universal Binary Logo A Universal binary is — in Apple Computers parlance — an application bundle that runs natively on both PowerPC- and x86 (Intel)-based Macintosh computers. ... For other uses, see boot camp. ... For other software named Rosetta, see Rosetta (disambiguation). ...

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OSx86 is a collaborative hacking project to run the Mac OS X computer operating system on non-Apple personal computers with x86 architecture processors. The effort started soon after the June 2005 Worldwide Developers Conference announcement that Apple would be transferring their personal computers from PowerPC to Intel microprocessors. Hack has several meanings in the technology and computer science fields: a clever or quick fix to a computer program problem; a clumsy or inelegant solution to a problem; or a modification of a program or device to give the user access to features that were otherwise unavailable to them. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... Apple Inc. ... Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood version), one example out of a huge number of x86 implementations from Intel, AMD, and others. ... WWDC 2005, at Moscone Center The Worldwide Developers Conference, commonly abbreviated WWDC, is an annual trade show for Apple developers. ... The Apple Intel transition was the process of changing the CPU of Macintosh computers from PowerPC processors to Intel x86 processors. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...


OSx86 is a portmanteau of OS X and x86. A computer built to run this type of Mac OS X is sometimes known as a Hackintosh, which is a recycled term originally denoting the modified Lisa 2/10 running Mac System. A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ... The Macintosh XL was a modified version of the Apple Lisa personal computer made by Apple Computer. ...

Contents

First 3rd party Mac OS X on Intel builds - The Developer Transition Kit

Initial efforts to run Mac OS X on non apple hardware revolved around leaked copies of the Development DVD released by Apple as part of the Developer Transition Kit which Apple made available to registered developers for $999. The first patches centered around circumventing the Trusted Platform Module (TPM) that was included on the motherboard of the Developer Transition Kits. The TPM was required by the Rosetta technology that allowed software compiled for the PowerPC architecture to run on Intel-based architecture. Removing this requirement allowed Mac OS X to be installed on non-Apple computers. Rosetta also required microprocessors that included SSE3 instructions. Patches were released to the community which emulated these instructions with SSE2 equivalents and allowed the installation on machines without SSE3 support, although this produced a performance penalty. In computing, Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is both the name of a published specification detailing a microcontroller that can store secured information, as well as the general name of implementations of that specification, often called TPM chip or TPM Security Device (Dell). ... For other software named Rosetta, see Rosetta (disambiguation). ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ...


In October 2005 Apple released a 10.4.3 update to developers that required NX bit microprocessor support.[1] Patches were released to circumvent this. [2] The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ...


Mac OS X v10.4.4 released on Intel Macs

On January 10, 2006, Apple released Mac OS X 10.4.4 with the first generation of Intel-based Macs, the iMac and the MacBook Pro. These machines used Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) platform firmware instead of the legacy BIOS found on most x86 motherboards. On February 14, 2006 an initial "crack" of Mac OS X v10.4.4 was released on the Internet by a hacker using the pseudonym Maxxuss. [3] Within hours Apple released the 10.4.5 update[4], which was patched again by Maxxuss in less than two weeks. [5] On April 3, 2006 Apple released their 10.4.6 update[6] and again patches were released within two weeks that allowed users to install most of this update on non-Apple computers, although this did not include the updated kernel in 10.4.6. These patches were released by SemjaZa and compiled by JaS. In June, JaS released the 10.4.7 Mac OS X update for non-Apple computers using the 10.4.4 kernel. is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The workings of the Extensible Firmware Interface The Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) is a software interface between an operating system and platform firmware. ... For other uses, see Bios. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Up to the release of the 10.4.8 update, all OSx86 patches used the 10.4.4 kernel with the rest of the operating system at version 10.4.8. However, the newer frameworks relied on the newer kernels and this led to users of 10.4.8 encountering many problems. Apple also started making more use of SSE3 instructions on their hardware making it even more difficult for users with CPUs supporting only SSE2 to get a full system running.


Mac OS X v10.4.8 XNU kernel patched

Two programmers, working under the pseudonyms Mifki or Vitaliy and Semthex released new kernels by starting with the open source XNU tree and applying patches necessary to run the kernel on non-apple hardware. Mifki's goal was to release the kernel with as few patches as possible, able to run on close-to-Apple hardware. Semthex's goal was to make his kernel more compatible with legacy hardware with the omission of some crucial features. XNU is the name of the kernel that Apple acquired and developed for use in the Mac OS X operating system and released as open source as part of the Darwin operating system. ...


Both kernels allowed most of the updated kernel extensions/frameworks to work, making properly configured white-box PCs operate more like genuine Apple computers. While Mifki has only updated his kernel once, Semthex updates it regularly and added AMD, VMWare and SSE2-support in later versions. Semthex released his hacked kernel source code on his webpage. On December 24, 2006 he also released the latest patches for the SSE3 kernel as a diff file for his original source tree as a Christmas present to the community. Special attention should be given to the SSE2 emulation which Semthex developed together with Rufus. This emulation was the first fully complete emulation of all SSE3 instructions to be presented to the OSx86 community. The previous SSE2 emulation was incomplete, only emulating 3 of the available SSE3 instructions, and very inefficient compared to the new emulator. The new emulator enabled even SSE2 OSx86 users to run SSE3 based applications such as iTunes 7 and most 3D programs. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... VMware, Inc. ... This article is about emulators in computer science. ... This article is about the iTunes application. ...


In the early days of 10.4.8, an Intel-SSE3 only install DVD was released by JaS, which included Vitaliy's and Semthex's kernel. A few weeks later, a hacker calling themselves tubgirl released an AMD-SSE3 install DVD. With Semthex's successful completion of the SSE2 Kernel, JaS released an SSE2-SSE3 universal DVD and announced his retirement from hacking Mac OS X after seven successful DVD releases. DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ...


In March 2007 the OSx86 community made some significant progress with the development of a Live DVD. The Live DVD allows booting to a working system with Mac OS X v10.4.8. Several movies appeared on the web demonstrating this.[7] Gnoppix 0. ...


At the end of March 2007, the InsanelyMac websites were sold to a UK based company called Fubra Limited.[8] Some people objected to the "commercialization" of the website, including kernel hacker Semthex and other developers, which was followed by a major split of the community.[9]


Mac OS X v10.4.9 Uphuck Install DVD

In early May 2007, a new install DVD was released by OSx86 helper uphuck allowed users of the software to deploy a version of Mac OS X which included various extra software applications, drivers, and kernel fixes.[10] There is an official thread dedicated to this build on the OSx86 Project Forum. There are two major releases: version 1.2 and version 1.3 as of June 2007. On July 17th 2007, v1.4i had begun to surface. A few days later on July 30th 2007, v1.4a had also appeared which provided support for AMD CPUs. On 21st August 2007 1.4i r3 was released catering only for Intel CPUs occupying a fraction of the storage space of a normal OSx86 DVD release. The installer remains on a base version of Mac OS X v10.4.9. Subsequent update patches were released as Post-Installation files.


Mac OS X v10.5

The Leopard 10.5 builds (9A466, 9A499, 9A527, 9A559, 9A581, 9B13, 9B18) were successfully installed onto conventional PC hardware. The only known prepatched DVDs, such as JaS or Goatsecx, are the Kalyway 9a527 and ToH RC2 (9A581) DVDs. Apparently these patches were created by a hacker by the name "The Mad Hatter," but the kernels were made by Lorem (9A466), SynthetiX (9A499, 9A527 and 9A559) and ToH (9A581, 9B13 and 9B18).


A hacker called "Uphuck" working with a team called "osx86.turk" created series of DVD images "Codename: iATKOS", which include a full install of Mac OS X Leopard. Distributed over the internet, these installers violate the terms of Apple's license agreement. A team of hackers called "Kalyway" created another standalone 10.5.1 installer DVD image, also distributed via peer to peer filesharing systems, against Apple's terms. image.A hacker called "Zephyroth" released 10.5.2 for the AMD based PC's.


BrazilMac created a patching process, which was blogged on many sites, making it convenient for users to install Mac OS X onto 3rd party hardware using a legitimate apple DVD.


The OSx86 community has often been quick to make its modifications to apple's releases to get the operating system running on non-apple hardware. Within hours of Leopard's release, an AMD/Intel SSE2/3 Kernel Patcher was created to remove the HPET requirement from an original untouched mach_kernel.


Although the various methods of installation can produce complete Leopard installs which boot up, many users experienced problems getting Leopard to work completely.


OSx86 users often use complicated techniques such as restoring the patched DVD to a Hard Disk partition, which can be made bootable using apple's Terminal, allowing the user to boot the installer from the partition. Transferring data from a serial ATA hard disk is more rapid than a DVD, and the installer partition is not a read only medium, hence can be edited by the user. Users have often needed to do a great deal of editing to get the installers to work. Some users recommended running a more stable hacked version of Tiger from a separate partition with which to edit the installer partition. The forum site Insanelymac features thousands of threads discussing the best manner of preparing a 3rd party install of Mac OS X.


EFI emulation

In early November 2007, a group of hackers (led by respected community member Netkas) made using an already modified boot-132 source root from David Elliot, or dfe, [1] a method [2] of emulating an EFI environment using a specially modified Darwin bootloader [3]. In practical terms, this meant that regular PCs meeting a minimum set of hardware requirements could now be "seen" as real Macintosh Computers by the OS, allowing the use of unmodified, "stock" Apple kernels and thus giving a more transparent and reliable operation. Several methods to give real world deployment of this innovative solution have arisen all around the net. An explanation of this achievement along with a usage guide was provided by the website DigitMemo.com [4]:


Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) is a specification that defines a software interface between an operating system and platform firmware.


EFI is intended as a significantly improved replacement of the legacy BIOS firmware interface historically used by all IBM PC compatible PCs. Currently most PCs running Microsoft Windows rely on BIOS, while Intel based Macs have been built with EFI firmware since day one. OSx86 hackers have speculatively suggested that despite EFI's technical advantages, apple's choice of firmware is also influenced by their desires to maintain a closed hardware platform.


Ironically, Microsoft Windows XP supports BIOS only. Apple had to author software called Boot camp to enable users to run windows on Intel based Macs. The EFI patch works in a similar manner: it emulates EFI data for normal BIOS-based PCs and allows OS X to treat BIOS based hardware platforms as genuine EFI-based Macs.


True EFI emulation was a highly sought after asset for the OSX86 community. Previous efforts based upon Apple’s open source Darwin Project and Hackintosh gurus allowed users to enjoy OS X on normal PCs, with patched kernels/kernel modules which simply bypassed EFI. Using the EFI patch, Hackintoshes could boot off "vanilla" (unmodified) OS X kernels and use vanilla kernel extensions, allowing the system to be compatible with future system updates, and giving increased stability. Also of significant note, under apple's End User License Agreement, the modification of non-open-source components of the OS is forbidden.


Licensing

Apple has not to date made significant public statements regarding their opinions or intended actions regarding these unauthorised uses of Mac OS X. The software can be purchased separately from Apple's computers. A user installing Mac OS X must agree to the license before installing the operating system. According to the license, the software can only be installed on a "Single Apple-labeled computer", assumed to indicate only an Apple-manufactured Macintosh computer. Apple does not define the term "Apple-labeled" in more detail in the agreement, and an argument could be made that a sticky label saying "Apple" is sufficient. Apple's logo is a registered trademark, which under complying nations' laws cannot be used without permission, especially for the imitation of an Apple product. Apple have themselves produced stickers since the 1980s which have often been supplied with their computers.


Single User License excerpt:

2. Permitted License Uses and Restrictions.
A. This License allows you to install and use one copy of the Apple Software on a single Apple-labeled computer at a time. This License does not allow the Apple Software to exist on more than one computer at a time, and you may not make the Apple Software available over a network where it could be used by multiple computers at the same time. You may make one copy of the Apple Software (excluding the Boot ROM code) in machine-readable form for backup purposes only; provided that the backup copy must include all copyright or other proprietary notices contained on the original.[11]

However, certain patches and modifications may also be against the terms of the Software License. Unmodified OSx86 installs are more likely to be within the terms of the SLA than heavily patched versions. Non-public release, leaked or developer releases of Mac OS X may also carry different licenses.

B. Certain components of the Apple Software have been or may be made available by Apple on its Open Source web site (http://www.opensource.apple.com/) (collectively the “Open-Sourced Components”). You may modify or replace only these Open-Sourced Components; provided that: (i) the resultant Apple Software is used, in place of the unmodified Apple Software, on a single Apple-labeled computer; and (ii) you otherwise comply with the terms of this License and any applicable licensing terms governing use of the Open-Sourced Components. Apple is not obligated to provide any maintenance, technical or other support for the resultant Apple Software. [12]

There are no court rulings that have occurred in the United States that have established precedent on the legality of restricting software to only specific hardware. It is possible that clauses of the EULA are not binding on legally purchased software in private use, or are against anti-competition or monopoly laws. A similar situation is illustrated by the iPhone's restriction to AT&T's network and the legally permitted endeavors of hackers to modify the handsets for use on other networks, and to distribute or sell their software tools for doing so without fear of prosecution. Other countries may have different laws or precedents. The legal argument harks back to Compaq's reverse engineering of the IBM XT BIOS to be able to run MS DOS, which opened up the IBM x86 platform to 3rd party hardware manufacturers to make "IBM compatible" machines. The legality & commercialization of IBM clones was largely driven by Microsoft's option to 3rd party software licensing.


Legality of OSX86

Some proponents of the project claim that OSX86 is a legal project, if your computer has some type of Apple marking on it. They claim that since the license states that it may be run on one "Apple-labeled computer", placing an Apple decal on your PC satisfies the license requirement, however this is unlikely to hold up to any legal scrutiny.[citation needed]


References

  1. ^ sHARD>> (October 16, 2005). Apple Seeds 10.4.3 Intel to Developers. OSx86 Money Project. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  2. ^ Jonathan Black (October 30, 2005). Hacked OSx86 Updated to 10.4.3. OSx86 $$$ Project. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  3. ^ Jonathan Black (February 14, 2006). OSx86 10.4.4 Security Broken. (Guess Who Done It?). OSx86 Project. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  4. ^ Apple Computer (February 14, 2006). Mac OS X Update 10.4.5. Apple Computer. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  5. ^ sHARD>> (February 23, 2006). Apple Releases 10.4.5. OSx86 Project. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  6. ^ Apple Computer (April 3, 2006). Mac OS X 10.4.6 for Intel. Apple Computer. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  7. ^ Mac OS X LiveDVD. OSx86 Project. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  8. ^ Brendan McLoughlin (March 29, 2007). Fubra announces InsanelyMac acquisition. Fubra Blog. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  9. ^ Semthex (March 26, 2007). OSx86 Project sold-out - InsanelyMac sale, my 2 ct. Semthex.com - Blog. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  10. ^ OSx86Forum (June 1, 2007). OSx86 Official Uphuck DVD Thread. OSx86Project - Forum. Retrieved on 2007-06-01.
  11. ^ Apple (October 24, 2007). Apple Mac OS X License Agreement. Apple - Legal. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  12. ^ Apple (October 24, 2007). Apple Mac OS X License Agreement. Apple - Legal. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.

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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
OS X x86 (Intel) - Vs. Real Mac | ThePlaceforitAll.com (249 words)
OSX86 supports TPM, which means that in order to run it on a generic x86 computer it will need to be patched, which does make it run a bit slower.
If you put OSX86 on a computer, there will be no guarantee that the future versions of OS X for Intel will be so easy to crack.
As you see, the only problems/differences with OSX86 are very very minor, and actually make it feasible for Mac OS X testing, and almost definitely using (with proper hardware support).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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