FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
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Encyclopedia > OMOV

OMOV, an acronym standing for "one man, one vote", is a term used to support an overturning of decades of malapportioned legislative districts in the United States. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ...


Historical Background

The US Constitution requires a decennial census for the purpose of assuring a fair distribution of seats in the US House of Representatives, and this has generally occurred without incident, with the exception of the 1920 Census. However, once the practice developed of electing said representatives from districts drawn from within the state, rather than electing them at-large, the question arose as to whether or not the state legislature (which had responsibility for drawing these congressional districts) was required to see that said districts were equal in population. As with anything done in as large a country as the United States, there was no uniform practice. Some states redrew their US House districts every ten years, many did not. Some never redrew them, except when it was mandated by a change in the number of seats to which that state was entitled in the House of Representatives. This led to a disproportionality in the influence of voters across the states. For example, if the 2nd congressional district eventually had a population of 1.5 million, but the 3rd had only 500,000, then, in effect—since each district elected the same number of congressmen—a voter in the 3rd district had three times the voting "power" of a 2nd district voter. Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America and is... 1880 US Census of Hoboken, New Jersey The United States Census is mandated by the United States Constitution[1]. The population is enumerated every 10 years and the results are used to allocate Congressional seats (congressional apportionment), electoral votes, and government program funding. ... Apportionment, or reapportionment, is the process of determining representation in politics within a legislative body by creating constituencies. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... The Reapportionment Act of 1929 was a combined census and reapportionment bill passed by the United States Congress which established a permanent method for apportioning U.S. House of Representatives seats according to each census. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... Bloc voting (or block voting) refers to a class of voting systems which can be used to elect several representatives from a single multimember constituency. ... State legislatures are the lawmaking bodies of the 50 states in the United States of America. ... Apportionment, or reapportionment, is the process of determining representation in politics within a legislative body by creating constituencies. ...


Additionally, in most US states, electoral districts for seats in the upper house (generally known as the state senate) were ostensibly created at least partially on the basis of geography, rather than population. Whereas lower house seats might or might not be reapportioned on a decennial basis, such as those of the US House of Representatives, in most states, state senate district boundaries were never redrawn. As the United States became more urban, this led to the dilution of the votes of urban voters when casting ballots for state senate seats. A city dweller's vote had less influence on the make up of the state legislature than did a rural inhabitant. A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states which have membership of the federation known as the United States of America (USA or U.S.). The separate state governments and the U.S. federal government share sovereignty. ...


Warren Court Decisions

In various reapportionment cases decided by the Supreme Court, notably Wesberry v. Sanders, Reynolds v. Sims and Baker v. Carr it was ruled that ruled that districts for the House of Representatives and for the legislative districts of both houses of state legislatures had to be roughly equal in population. (The US Senate was not affected by these rulings, as its makeup it explicitly established in the US Constitution.) [1]. The cases concerning malapportionment ended the pattern of gross rural overrepresentation and urban underrepresentation in the US House and state legislatures. Eventually the rulings were extended over local (city) districts as well. [2] The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and is the only part of the judicial branch of the United States federal government explicitly specified in the United States Constitution. ... Wesberry v. ... Reynolds v. ... Holding The reapportionment of state legislative districts is not a political question, and is justiciable by the federal courts. ... House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ...


Though now illegal, some state legislatures still today sometimes try to overpopulate the opposing parties' strongholds, generally through the use of gerrymandering. Gerrymandering is a controversial form of redistricting in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are manipulated for an electoral advantage. ...


Recent Usages

Recently, the term "one man, one vote", has been bandied about by those who suspect cases of voter disenfranchisement. While very different in meaning from its original usage, this connotation may yet imprint itself on social consciousness better than the original use.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Why USCF should enact OMOV, by Bill Goichberg (3627 words)
An OMOV election for the Executive Board would feature discussion of issues in election supplements to Chess Life and on the internet, as well as campaign appearances by candidates at clubs and tournaments, further increasing the number of voters.
They appear to begin their analysis of OMOV with the conclusion that it should be defeated, and then seek reasons to justify such an evaluation.
Just as the fact that OMOV works well for other organizations has been disregarded by the USCF Delegates, the majority of politicians in the U.S. long chose to ignore the lesson of Wyoming and subsequent female suffrage states and continue their traditional and undemocratic ways.
OMOV - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (193 words)
OMOV, an acronym standing for "one man, one vote" or "one member, one vote", is a term used to support wider and more equal participation in political systems.
Where voting is restricted, it is the slogan of those looking to achieve universal suffrage, and with the broadening of the electoral base to include women is better described as "one person, one vote".
In U.S. politics and jurisprudence, it can be shorthand for various reapportionment cases decided by the Supreme Court, culminating up to the Wesberry v.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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