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Encyclopedia > OLPC
Current event marker This article or section contains information about scheduled or expected future product(s).
It may contain information of a speculative nature and the content may change dramatically as the product release approaches and more information becomes available.
$100 laptop
Manufacturer One Laptop Per Child (OLPC)
Type Laptop
Connectivity 802.11
First available unreleased
Operating System Linux
Camera none
Media Flash memory
Input Keyboard / Touchpad
Power Batteries/Hand-crank generator

The $100 laptop is a design for an inexpensive laptop computer being developed by the One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) organization to provide every child in the world access to knowledge and modern forms of education. OLPC is a Delaware-based, non-profit organization created by faculty members of the MIT Media Lab to design, manufacture, and distribute the laptops. OLPC was announced by Lab chairman and co-founder Nicholas Negroponte at the January 2005 World Economic Forum at Davos, Switzerland. The laptops will be sold to governments and issued to children by schools on a basis of one laptop per child. They will be rugged, Linux-based, and so energy efficient that hand-cranking alone will generate sufficient power for operation. Ad-hoc wireless mesh networking may be used to allow many machines Internet access from one connection. The pricing goal is to start at $100 and then steadily decrease. The laptop is sometimes called the Green Machine. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1040, 160 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A console manufacturer is a company that manufactures and distributes video game consoles. ... Laptop with touchpad. ... IEEE 802. ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... A camera phone in use A camera phone is a cellphone which has a camera built in. ... A USB Flash Memory Device Flash memory is a form of EEPROM(Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) that allows multiple memory locations to be erased or written in one programming operation. ... Look up Keyboard on Wiktionary, the free dictionary A keyboard can refer to a: Alphanumeric keyboard, any keyboard that has both letter and numbers on it Typewriter keyboard Computer keyboard IBM PC keyboard Musical keyboard, a keyboard on a musical instrument Keyboard instrument, such as the piano Keyboard synthesizer, a... Touchpad and a pointing stick on a Laptop A touchpad is an input device commonly used in laptop computers. ... Four double-A (AA) rechargeable batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... A crank is a bent portion of an axle, or shaft, or an arm keyed at right angles to the end of a shaft, by which motion is imparted to or received from it; also used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into circular motion. ... Laptop with touchpad. ... State nickname: The First State Official languages None Capital Dover Largest city Wilmington Governor Ruth Ann Minner (D) Senators Joe Biden (D) Thomas Carper (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 49th 6,452 km² 21. ... A non-profit organization (sometimes abbreviated to not-for-profit, non-profit or NPO) is an organization whose primary objective is to support some issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes. ... The Wiesner Buildings Atrium The MIT Media Lab in the School of Architecture and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology engages in education and research in the digital technology used for expression and communication. ... Nicholas Negroponte Nicholas Negroponte (born 1943) is an American computer scientist best known as founder and director of Massachusetts Institute of Technologys Media Lab. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in January • 29 Ephraim Kishon • 25 Philip Johnson • 23 Johnny Carson • 22 Parveen Babi • 20 Jan Nowak-Jeziorański • 17 Virginia Mayo • 17 Zhao Ziyang • 15 Ruth Warrick • 14 Rudolph Moshammer Recent deaths Ongoing events • Tsunami relief... The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Geneva-based foundation whose Annual Meeting of chief executives of the worlds richest corporations, some national political leaders (presidents, prime ministers and others), and selected intellectuals and journalists, about 2000 people in all, is usually held in Davos, Switzerland. ... Davos viewed from air Davos (population 13,000) is a town in eastern Switzerland, in the canton of Graubünden, on the Landwasser River. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... A alex kibunja chege (MANET) is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links—the union of which form an arbitrary topology. ... Wireless Mesh Networking is Mesh networking implemented over a Wireless LAN. Networking infrastructure is therefore decentralised and inexpensive, as each node need only transmit as far as the next node. ...



Quanta Computer Inc. to Manufacture $100 Laptop


News Release


Contact: Alexandra Kahn alexandra.kahn@olpca.org 617-253-0365


December 13, 2005–Cambridge, Massachusetts–The One Laptop per Child (OLPC) board of directors today announced that Quanta Computer Inc. of Taiwan was chosen as the original design manufacturer (ODM) for the $100 laptop project. The decision was made after the board reviewed bids from several possible manufacturing companies.


In announcing the selection of Quanta, OLPC Chairman Nicholas Negroponte said, “Any previous doubt that a very-low-cost laptop could be made for education in the developing world has just gone away.” Quanta has agreed to devote significant engineering resources from the Quanta Research Institute (QRI) in Q1 and Q2, 2006, with a target of bringing the product to market in Q4. The launch of 5-15 million units will be both in large-scale pilot projects in seven culturally diverse countries (China, India, Brazil, Argentina, Egypt, Nigeria, and Thailand), with one million units in each of these countries, and an additional modest allocation of machines to seed developer communities in a number of other selected countries. A commercial version of the machine will be explored in parallel.


“Quanta would like to contribute its industry-leading laptop technologies to the future success of the project, in hope of affording children worldwide with opportunities not only to close the ‘digital divide,’ but also to bridge the ‘knowledge divide.’ This project signifies a new stage and scale for the laptop industry by including those children never before considered to be laptop users,” said Quanta founder and chairman, Barry Lam.


One Laptop per Child (OLPC) is a Delaware-based, non-profit organization created by Nicholas Negroponte and other faculty members from the MIT Media Lab to design, manufacture, and distribute laptops that are sufficiently inexpensive to provide every child in the world access to knowledge and modern forms of education. The laptops will be sold to governments and issued to children by schools on a basis of one laptop per child. These machines will be rugged, Linux-based, and so energy efficient that hand-cranking alone can generate sufficient power for operation. Mesh networking will give many machines Internet access from one connection. The pricing goal will start near $100 and then steadily decrease. The corporate members are Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), Brightstar, Google, News Corporation, Nortel, and Red Hat.


Quanta Computer Inc. was founded in 1988 in Taiwan. With over US $10 billion in sales, the company is a leading provider of technology products and solutions to Fortune 500 companies, including Dell, HP, and IBM. Quanta has the distinction of being the world’s largest manufacturer of laptop PCs. The company also provides a full array of mobile phones, LCD TVs, and servers and storage products.


With dedication to technological innovation and education, Chairman Barry Lam launched a new US $200 million R&D center, Quanta R&D Complex (QRDC), in Taiwan. The facility, which opened in Q3 of 2005, has 2.2 million square feet of floor space, and the capacity to house up to 7,000 engineers.


For more information about Quanta, visit http://www.quantatw.com


To learn about the $100 Laptop, visit http://laptop.media.mit.edu

Contents


History

Mary Lou Jepsen, Alan Kay and Nicholas Negroponte unveil the $100 laptop
Mary Lou Jepsen, Alan Kay and Nicholas Negroponte unveil the $100 laptop

OLPC is based on "constructivist" theories of learning pioneered by Seymour Papert and later Alan Kay, and the principles expressed in Nicholas Negroponte's book Being Digital (ISBN 0679439196). The founding corporate members are Google, News Corp, AMD, Red Hat, and Brightstar, each of whom donated 2 million dollars to the project. All three individuals and five companies are active participants in OLPC. In many respects it is the descendant of the 1997 eMate (based on the Apple Newton), also aimed at the education market. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 227 KB) Summary Picture taken by David Weekly. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 227 KB) Summary Picture taken by David Weekly. ... Dr. Mary Lou Jepsen is an expert in display technology. ... Alan Kay, born May 17, 1940, is an American computer scientist, known for his early work on object-oriented programming and user interface design. ... Constructionism (in the context of learning) is the idea that people learn effectively through making things. ... Seymour Papert (born March 1, 1928 Pretoria, South Africa) is an MIT mathematician, computer scientist, and prominent educator. ... Alan Kay, born May 17, 1940, is an American computer scientist, known for his early work on object-oriented programming and user interface design. ... Nicholas Negroponte Nicholas Negroponte (born 1943) is an American computer scientist best known as founder and director of Massachusetts Institute of Technologys Media Lab. ... Google, Inc. ... News Corporation (NYSE: NWS) is a media conglomerate that operates world-wide. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Alternate meanings: See Red hat Red Hat, Inc. ... Brightstar Corp. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Newton was one of the worlds first personal digital assistants (PDA). ... The Newton was an early personal digital assistant (PDA) developed by Apple Computer and sold from 1993 to 1998. ...


Negroponte showed a working prototype of the laptop on November 16, 2005 at the second phase of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in Tunis. However, the device shown was a rough prototype, as there is still work on the development of the device for both performance and price. Negroponte estimated that the screen alone required three more months of development. The laptops are scheduled to be be available by the end of 2006 or early 2007. November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) is a UN-sponsored conference about information and communication. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Participating countries

Brazil, Thailand, Egypt, United States (Massachusetts), Cambodia, Costa Rica, Tunisia and Venezuela have already committed to the project in various ways. The laptops will be sold to governments, to be distributed through the ministries of education willing to adopt the policy of “one laptop per child”. In the US, Governor Mitt Romney has submitted a bill to the legislature to deliver $100 laptops to all children in Massachusetts. State nickname: Bay State Official languages English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Governor Mitt Romney (R) Senators Edward Kennedy (D) John Kerry (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 44th 27,360 km² 25. ... Willard Mitt Romney is a Republican politician from Massachusetts by way of Michigan and Utah, who has been the Governor of Massachusetts since 2003. ... State nickname: Bay State Official languages English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Governor Mitt Romney (R) Senators Edward Kennedy (D) John Kerry (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 44th 27,360 km² 25. ...


While the OLPC originally planned to make the laptop available only through governments, Negroponte has indicated that they may partner with well-known brand name manufacturers to create a commercial version which would sell for about $225, that would subsidize units in the developing world. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Technology

Governor Romney with Nicholas Negroponte showing the first prototype.
Governor Romney with Nicholas Negroponte showing the first prototype.

The $100 Laptop will be a Linux-based, full-color, full-screen laptop. It will initially have a flat LCD screen, but in later generations may use electronic paper (for example E-ink developed at the MIT Media Lab). The laptop will be rugged, use innovative power (including a hand crank), be Wi-Fi- and VoIP-enabled and a touch screen (including a separate writing pad). Image File history File links Nn_romney. ... Image File history File links Nn_romney. ... Willard Mitt Romney is a Republican politician from Massachusetts by way of Michigan and Utah, who has been the Governor of Massachusetts since 2003. ... Nicholas Negroponte Nicholas Negroponte (born 1943) is an American computer scientist best known as founder and director of Massachusetts Institute of Technologys Media Lab. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display. ... Electronic paper, or e-paper, is a technology that allows the text on a piece of paper to be re-written. ... Wi-Fi (also WiFi or wifi) is a trademark for sets of product compatibility standards for wireless local area networks (WLANs). ... A typical VoIP Solution A typical analog telephone adapter for connecting an ordinary phone to a VoIP network Voice over Internet Protocol (also called VoIP, IP Telephony, Internet telephony, and Digital Phone) is the routing of voice conversations over the Internet or any other IP-based network. ...


Design requirements

Mary Lou Jepsen stated the hardware design goals of this device as: Dr. Mary Lou Jepsen is an expert in display technology. ...

  • minimum power consumption with a design target of 2W to 3W total power consumption
  • minimum production cost with a target of $100 per laptop for production runs of one million units;
  • a "cool" look, implying an innovative styling in its physical appearance
  • eBook functionality with extremely low power consumption
  • the software provided with the laptop be open source or free software

The software design requirements and the educational objectives have not been described publically. The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit of power. ... An ebook is an electronic (or digital) version of a book. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... Free software, as defined by the Free Software Foundation, is software which can be used, copied, studied, modified and redistributed without restriction. ...


Hardware

Its hardware specifications, as of October 2005, with additional information from a video interview with Mary Lou Jepsen on Novemeber 17 2005 at the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in Tunis are: Computer hardware is the physical parts of a computer, as distinguished from the computer software or computer programs and data that operate within the hardware. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Mary Lou Jepsen is an expert in display technology. ... The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) is a UN-sponsored conference about information and communication. ...

  • A "special" 500 MHz CPU by AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) Inc with 0.25W power consumption.
  • SVGA 7.5" diagonal transmissive and reflective liquid crystal display used in one of two modes:
    • Transmissive Color/DVD mode with 350 by 470 pixel resolution with backlighting (for laptop use)
    • Reflective "sunlight readable" monochrome mode with 800 by 600 pixel resolution (for ebook reading outdoors)
  • 128 MB of DRAM
  • GB of flash memory (no hard drive)
  • Wireless networking support using an "Extended Range" 802.11b wireless chipset run at a low bitrate (2Mbps) to minimize power consumption.
  • Conventional alphanumeric keyboard localized for the country of use.
  • touchpad for mouse control and handwriting
  • two loudspeakers
  • 4 USB ports.
  • Power sources:

A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... For other possible meanings of AMD see AMD (disambiguation) Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Super Video Graphics Array, almost always abbreviated to Super VGA or just SVGA is a broad term that covers a wide range of computer display standards. ... Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display. ... This article is about a unit of data measurement. ... Dram can mean several things: for the imperial unit of volume see dram (volume) for the imperial unit of weight or mass see avoirdupois and apothecaries system of mass for the Armenian monetary unit see dram (currency) DRAM is a type of RAM and unlike dram is spelled in all... This article is about the unit of measurement, for the computer hardware manufacturer see Gigabyte Technology. ... A USB Flash Memory Device Flash memory is a form of EEPROM(Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) that allows multiple memory locations to be erased or written in one programming operation. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... Type A USB connector Dual images of the two Type B USB connectors, mini and full size, side and front view, compared with a U.S. 5¢ piece (nickel) in both images for scale. ... city lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Four double-A (AA) rechargeable batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... A crank is a bent portion of an axle, or shaft, or an arm keyed at right angles to the end of a shaft, by which motion is imparted to or received from it; also used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into circular motion. ... Four double-A (AA) rechargeable batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ...

Power consumption

The power consumption design target is 2W to 3W total power consumption for the device in "laptop" mode. Consumption in ebook mode is estimated to be be 4 to 6 times less.


The minimum acceptible crank time to operating time is 1:10, i.e. one minute of cranking the generator powers 10 minutes of operation. The hoped-for power comsumption in "ebook" mode is 1:40 to 1:60, i.e. one minute of cranking powers 40 minutes to one hour of ebook reading. Until a complete working prototype is evaluated, these figures remain rough estimates.


In ebook mode, all hardware sub-systems are powered down except the monochrome display (including any display backlighting). When the user moves to a different page the system wakes up, draws the new page on the display and then goes back to sleep.


Display

The first generation OLPC laptops are expected to have a novel low cost TFT LCD display. Later generations of the OLPC laptop are expected to use low cost, low power and high resolution eInk displays. A TFT LCD 15 display TFT LCDs are a variant test by franco of liquid crystal display which use thin-film transistor technology to improve their image quality. ...


The TFT LCD display is the most expensive component of the OLPC Laptop. In April 2005, Negroponte hired Mary Lou Jepsen as OLPC Chief Technology Officer (CTO) and professor at MIT Media Lab. Jepsen is developing a new display for the first generation OLPC laptop, which is derived from the design of small LCD displays used in portable DVD players, which she estimated would cost about $35. A TFT LCD 15 display TFT LCDs are a variant test by franco of liquid crystal display which use thin-film transistor technology to improve their image quality. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Mary Lou Jepsen is an expert in display technology. ... Chief Technical Officer or Chief Technology Officer, usually seen as CTO, is a business executive position whose holder is focussed on technical issues in a company. ...


Jepson has described the removal of the filters that color the RGB subpixels as the critical design innovation in the new liquid crystal display. Instead of using subtractive color filters, the display uses a plastic diffraction grating and lenticular lenses on the rear of the LCD display to illuminate the colored subpixels. This grating pattern is stamped using the same technology used to make DVDs. The grating splits the light from the white backlight into a spectrum. The red, green and blue components are diffracted into the correct positions to illuminate the corresponding R, G or B subpixels. None of the light is absorbed unlike a regular display in which typically 80% of the light is absorbed by the color filters. This innovation results in a much brighter display and a corresponding reduction in backlight illumination. The remainder of the LCD display uses existing display technology. The only changes in manufacturing to make these displays involve changes in the masks rather than changes in materials and process. Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... DVD (sometimes called Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ...


The display is transmissive with backlighting when used in color/DVD mode. The conventional cold cathode fluorescent lamp backlighting, which accounts for 30% of the cost of a conventional LCD, has been replaced with a lower-power, less fragile alternative such as white LEDs for use at low light levels. This form of backlighting should also improve the color gamut of the display. Note: Principles are mostly the same for cold cathode ion sources as in particle accelerators to create electrons. ... A compact fluorescent lamp with an integrated electronic ballast A fluorescent lamp is a type of lamp that uses electricity to excite mercury vapor in argon or neon gas, resulting in a plasma that produces short-wave ultraviolet light. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ... In computer graphics, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors. ...


The display is a reflective display (with no backlighting) when used in monochrome mode for displaying ebook pages.


It is unclear what mechanism is used to switch the display from monochrome to color/DVD mode. It is clear from the photgraphs at the OLPC web site that the mode change occurs with a change in use of the device. The landscape format color display is used in laptop mode, whereas the portrait format monochrome display in ebook mode, so the displayed pages can be "read vertically like a book". This is the so-called "curl-up-in-bed mode" to enable reading of ebooks for an extended time in bright light such as sunlight.


It is also unclear how the pixels in the 600-by-800 monochrome portrait display map to the color subpixels in the 470-by-350 color (or DVD) landscape display. Negroponte has said at the Technology Review's Fifth Annual Emerging Technologies Conference that the monochrome display has four times the resolution of the color display. In current TFT LCD displays, each RGB color pixel is composed of three one-third width subpixels of each color that are one pixel tall. But in this display, it seems likely that a four pixel square block in monchrome mode becomes a single color pixel in color/DVD mode. The mapping of the four pixels to three colors might use a 2-by-2 square RG-GB sub-pixel arrangement like that of the Bayer filter used in Digital cameras to enhance the perceived brightness of the display. Perhaps two different green hued subpixels are used to expand the display's color gamut. The display dimensions do not quite match up with the display dimensions given by Jepson, though one can see that 800 is close to twice 470 and 600 is close to twice 350. It is possible that this is the result of the current prototype using a current standard SVGA screen but the production version display may have 940-by-700 monochrome pixels. The word resolution has several meanings, depending on context. ... A TFT LCD 15 display TFT LCDs are a variant test by franco of liquid crystal display which use thin-film transistor technology to improve their image quality. ... The Bayer filter mosaic. ... Digital cameras are a remarkable advance in technology. ... In computer graphics, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors. ...


The dual mode display was not operational in the WSIS prototype. The prototypes were shown with conventional transmission TFT LCD displays.


The OLPC project has no plans to patent their display innovations.


Central processing unit

The architecture, processor name or model number for the laptop has not been specified. Advanced Micro Devices is a funding partner for the One Laptop Per Child project and is expected to provide the CPU for the laptop. Negroponte has repeatedly mentioned a 500 MHz AMD CPU in his talk and Jepson stated in a video interview that a "special 500MHz CPU by AMD" with " 0.25W power consumption" would be used as the CPU. For other possible meanings of AMD see AMD (disambiguation) Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ...


Many people have assumed that the CPU architecture must be compatible with the Intel x86 instruction set though this has not been confirmed by those associated with the project. If true the obvious candidate is the AMD Geode™ Processor Family™. The 500 MHz AMD Geode LX 800@0.9W™ processor is the lowest power Geode CPU but it has typical power consumption of 1.6W (and a maximum power of 2.4W) at 500 MHz. Typical power consumption is six times higher than the target mentioned by Jepson and is close to the total power budget for the whole laptop. This CPU is built with 0.13 micron process. Even considering a process change which might bring the power down to 1.1W for the same chip built on a 90 nm process chip or 0.8W for a 65 nm process chip the chip seems not to be viable. It seems unlikley that this is the CPU under consideration. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, HKEx: 4335), founded 1968, is a U.S.-based multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The Geode is the brand given to series of x86-compatible microprocessors produced by AMD which it targets at the embedded computing market. ...


A less obvious but perhaps more plausible candidate is the AMD Alchemy™ Processor Family. This processor family uses a MIPS architecture with a MIPS32™ Instruction Set. For example, the AMD Alchemy™ Au1100™ Processor seems to be a good candidate for this design. Power consumption for this processor is less than 200 mW at 333 MHz rising to 500 mW at 500MHz. Running at 400MHz it matches the power budget of 0.25W mentioned by Jepson. In addition, this processor has idle and sleep power saving modes and pseudo-static design that enables the clock to be run at any rate down to DC to save power. This flexibility enables other power saving schemes to be implemented. In addition to the MIPS CPU core this system-on-a-chip also includes an on-chip LCD controller, a USB device and host controller, SDRAM and flash memory controller and several other controllers useful in a laptop design. All of these features would keep laptop cost low by both reducing the need for other components and reducing manufacturing costs. The AMD Alchemy™ Au1200™ Processor might be potential candidate providing both USB 2.0 Full Speed controllers and a DDR1/DDR2 RAM controller though these options might be more power intensive. A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba MIPS, for Microprocessor without interlocked pipeline stages, is a RISC microprocessor architecture developed by MIPS Computer Systems Inc. ... System-on-a-chip (SoC or SOC) is an idea of integrating all components of a computer system into a single chip. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... DDR is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, including: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, the former German Democratic Republic also known as East Germany. ...


The final system-on-a-chip used may well be an addition to AMD's current products and might include the wireless network controller.


Wireless networking

IEEE 802.11b support will be provided using a WiFi "Extended Range" chipset. Jepson has said the wireless chipset will be run at a low bitrate, 2Mbps maximum rather than the usual higher speed 5.5Mbs or 11Mbps to minimize power consumption. IEEE 802. ... Wi-Fi (or Wi-fi, WiFi, Wifi, wifi), short for Wireless Fidelity, is a set of standards for wireless local area networks (WLAN) currently based on the IEEE 802. ...


Whenever the laptop is powered on it will participate in a mobile ad-hoc network with each node operating in a peer-to-peer fashion with other laptops it can hear and forwarding packets across the cloud. If a computer in the cloud has access to the Internet (either directly or indirectly) then all computers in the cloud will be able to acess the net. The data rate across this network will not be high but similar networks like the store and forward Motoman project have supported email services to 1000 schoolchildren in Cambodia, according to Negroponte. The data rate should be sufficient for asynchronous network applications such as email to communicate outside the cloud rather than interactive uses, like web browsing, or high bandwidth applications, such as video streaming. Interactive network communication should be possible inside the cloud. A alex kibunja chege (MANET) is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links—the union of which form an arbitrary topology. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ...


The conventional IEEE 802.11 system only handles traffic within a local "cloud" of wireless devices in a manner similar to an Ethernet network. Each node transmits and receives its own data but does not route packets between two nodes that cannot communicate directly. Which additional protocols the OLPC laptop will use to form a wireless mesh network is not known. IEEE 802. ... Ethernet is a frame-based computer networking technology for local area networks (LANs). ... Wireless mesh networking is mesh networking implemented over a Wireless LAN. This type of Internet infrastructure is decentralized, relatively inexpensive, and very reliable and resilient, as each node need only transmit as far as the next node. ...


It is unclear if the laptop will join the wireless mesh network if it is in eBook mode.


Keyboard and Touchpad

Negroponte and Jepson have said the keyboard will be changed to suit local needs to match the standard keyboard for the country in which it is used. Some versions of prototype was shown at WSIS with a detachable keyboard (tethered by a cord). Others had an attached keyboard that could be folded flat onto the back of the display. It is not clear if the detachable keyboard is part of the final design especially as some of the usage techniques described by Negroponte ("accordian-like" key use in eBook mode) seem at odds with a detachable keyboard. The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) is a UN-sponsored conference about information and communication. ...


Beneath the keyboard is a large dark area that resembles a very wide touchpad that Jepson refered to as the "mousepad". Negroponte has said that this device can be used for "calligraphy" presumably to support languages that use ideograms. This also implies that it will support both fingers and pen-like devices. This extended touchpad might also play a part in the "accordian-like" use in eBook mode for moving to the next and previous pages. The trackpad was not operational in the WSIS prototype. Touchpad and a pointing stick on a Laptop A touchpad is an input device commonly used in laptop computers. ... Calligraphy in a Latin Bible of AD 1407 on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... A Chinese character. ...


Enclosure

The keyboard hinges around the battery/generator compartment to close on the display benzel surrounded by the carrying handle. Negroponte has said in the closed laptop the keyboard and display are hermetically sealed to prevent the ingress of dust and water. A container or barrier that is hermetic is sealed so that not even air can enter or leave. ...


Software

School children in a remote Cambodian school where a pilot laptop program has been in place since 2001
School children in a remote Cambodian school where a pilot laptop program has been in place since 2001

All of the software on the $100 Laptop will be open-source. The projected software as of November 2005 is: Image File history File links Olpc2_cambodia. ... Image File history File links Olpc2_cambodia. ... A screenshot of computer software in action. ... Open source, regarded by some as a philosophy and by others a pragmatic methodology, relates to practices in the production of products which promote access to their sources. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Steve Jobs had offered Mac OS X free of charge for use in the laptop, but according to Seymour Papert, a professor emeritus at MIT who is one of the initiative's founders, the designers want an operating system that can be tinkered with: "We declined because it's not open source"[1]. Therefore Linux was chosen. Microsoft's Bill Gates has attempted to convince Negroponte to use a version of Microsoft Windows on the laptop, but Negroponte turned him down. Some of Negroponte's friends told him Microsoft might then attempt to craft its own version of the laptop, but he responded such a development would be "great", as it would speed up the process of delivering cheap laptops. Alternate meanings: See Red hat Red Hat, Inc. ... Tux, a cartoon penguin frequently featured sitting, is the official Linux mascot. ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ... Web browser shortcuts on an Apple computer A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with HTML documents hosted by web servers or held in a file system. ... A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... Computer programming (often simply programming) is the craft of implementing one or more interrelated abstract algorithms using a particular programming language to produce a concrete computer program. ... The Squeak programming language is a Smalltalk implementation, derived directly from Smalltalk-80, by Smalltalks originators, so it is object-oriented, and reflective. ... Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the CEO of Apple Computer and a leading figure in the computer industry. ... Mac OS X is the operating system which is included with all shipping Apple Macintosh computers in the consumer and professional markets. ... Seymour Papert (born March 1, 1928 Pretoria, South Africa) is an MIT mathematician, computer scientist, and prominent educator. ... Microsoft Corporation (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKEx: 4338) is the worlds largest software company, with 2005 global annual sales of 40 billion US dollars and more than 55,000 employees in 85 countries and regions. ... This topic is considered to be an essential subject on Wikipedia. ... Microsoft Windows refers to a series of operating environments and operating systems created by Microsoft for use on personal computers and servers. ...


Negroponte has also said he would like to see Wikipedia on the $100 laptop. Jimmy Wales himself feels that Wikipedia is one of the 'killer apps' for this device ([2]). A number of open-source textbooks need to be written in order for the $100 laptop to provide its educational goals. (Wikibooks is a Wiki collection of open-content textbooks.) Alternately, mainstream publishers may release electronic copyrights to their books at a low enough cost that non-open source textbooks could be used. The Wikipedia logo. ... Jimmy Wales speaking at FOSDEM 2005 in Brussels, Belgium. ... A killer application (commonly shortened to killer app) is a computer program that is so useful that people will buy a particular computer hardware, gaming console, and/or an operating system simply to run that program. ... Open source, regarded by some as a philosophy and by others a pragmatic methodology, relates to practices in the production of products which promote access to their sources. ... Two textbooks A textbook is a book that strives to teach a student about a particular discipline, usually academic, and they are usually divided into chapters based on subject area. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a sister project to Wikipedia and is part of the Wikimedia foundation, begun on July 10, 2003. ...


Criticism

Though generally well-received at early stages, the project has been criticized as unrealistic.


At the UN conference in Tunisia, several African officials, most notably Marthe Dansokho of Cameroon and Mohammed Diop of Mali were suspicious of the motives of the project, and claimed that the project was using an overly American mindset that presented solutions not applicable to specifically African problems. Diop specifically attacked the project as an attempt to exploit a new market under the guise of "non-profitability": "It is a very clever marketing tool," he said. "Under the guise of non-profitability hundreds of millions of these laptops will be flogged off to our governments. That's the only way of achieving the necessary economies of scale to get the price low. They've finally found a way of selling to a huge number of poor people." [3] This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Africa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Designs

Various use models are currently being explored by the MIT Media Lab with the help of Design Continuum, including: laptop, ebook, theatre, simulation, tote, and tablet architectures. Design Continuum is an international design firm specializing in product design, brand, and strategy development. ... An ebook is an electronic (or digital) version of a book. ...


First generation prototype

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x900, 243 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x900, 260 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x900, 244 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 185 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Laptop0956. ...

Second generation prototype

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1040, 160 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1040, 127 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1040, 152 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1040, 78 KB) Summary All these images taken from the MIT Media Lab webpage; just got done watching Negroponte saying that hed love it if people copied their concepts. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1040, 152 KB) Summary All these images taken from the MIT Media Lab webpage; just got done watching Negroponte saying that hed love it if people copied their concepts. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1040, 128 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1040, 166 KB) Summary All these images taken from the MIT Media Lab webpage; just got done watching Negroponte saying that hed love it if people copied their concepts. ...

Quotes

  • "Children will be able to learn by doing, not just through instruction - they will be able to open up new fronts for their education, particularly peer-to-peer learning." - Kofi Annan.
  • "Every single problem you can think of, poverty, peace, the environment, is solved with education or including education." Nicholas Negroponte.

Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat and the seventh and current Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... Nicholas Negroponte Nicholas Negroponte (born 1943) is an American computer scientist best known as founder and director of Massachusetts Institute of Technologys Media Lab. ...

See also

  • Simputer is an earlier project to construct cheap handheld computers in India

Simputer browsing Wikipedia entry of Simputer. ...

References

The 2004 Fortune 500 issue The magazine Fortune was founded by Time Magazine co-founder Henry Luce in 1930 at the outset of the Great Depression. ...

External links

  • $100 Laptop Project's web site
  • Annan presents prototype $100 laptop at World Summit on Information Society - MIT press release
  • Pledge to buy a retail laptop and subsidize OLPC's efforts

Audio/video

News media

Criticism


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ndiyo! - Ndiyo and the $100 laptop project (405 words)
OLPC seeks to create a device which can be given to children by governments, much as schoolbooks are now distributed in many countries.
We agree with OLPC that recycling used computers is not a sustainable long-term solution to the Digital Divide -- which is why we have stimulated the development of an economical, sparse, thin-client solution which can nonetheless give a full-power high-quality computing experience to the users, wherever in the world they may be.
It may well be that in the long run the OLPC vision will be realised; but in the meantime, there is an urgent need to make networked computing more affordable and sustainable -- and that is what we are trying to do.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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