FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > O Holy Night

"O Holy Night" ("Cantique de Noël") is a well-known Christmas carol composed by Adolphe Adam in 1847 to the French poem "Minuit, chrétiens" by Placide Cappeau (1808-1877), an accomplished amateur. Cappeau was asked to write a Christmas poem by a parish priest. It has become a standard modern carol for solo performance with an operatic finish. For the short novel by Charles Dickens, see A Christmas Carol. ... Adolphe Adam Adolphe Charles Adam (July 24, 1803 – May 3, 1856) was a French composer and music critic. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Contents

Origins

In the carol, the singer recalls the birth of Jesus. It was translated into English by Unitarian minister John Sullivan Dwight, editor of Dwight's Journal of Music in 1855 (note the abolitionist reference in the third verse: "for the slave is our brother"), and lyrics also exist in other languages. Look up Carol, carol in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Historic Unitarianism believed in the oneness of God as opposed to traditional Christian belief in the Trinity (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit). ... John Sullivan Dwight 13 May 1813 - 5 September 1893 was a Unitarian minister, transcendentalist and was Americas first influential classical music critic. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ...


On 24 December 1906, Reginald Fessenden, a Canadian inventor, broadcast the first AM radio programme, which included him playing "O Holy Night" on the violin. The carol therefore appears to have been the first piece of music to be broadcast on radio. is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reginald Fessenden (October 6, 1866 – July 22, 1932) was a Canadian inventor, best known for his work in early radio. ... Amplitude modulation (AM) is a form of modulation in which the amplitude of a carrier wave is varied in direct proportion to that of a modulating signal. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ...


Recordings

Known for its difficulty, the carol has been recorded by various artists, including:

Yolanda Yvette Adams (born August 27, 1961 in Houston, Texas) is a Grammy Award-winnning American singer. ... Clay Aiken (born Clayton Holmes Grissom on November 30, 1978) is an American pop singer who rose to fame on the second season of the television program American Idol in 2003. ... Anathallo is an indie band from Mt. ... This article is about the glam rock band. ... This article is about the singer. ... Roberto Alagna (born June 7, 1963) is French operatic tenor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... BarlowGirl is a Christian rock group from Elgin, Illinois. ... Kathleen Battle (b. ... John Berry (born September 15, 1959 in Aiken, South Carolina) is an American country music singer-songwriter. ... Johan Jonatan   (5 February 1911 – 9 September 1960) was a Swedish tenor and one of the most highly regarded opera singers of the 20th century. ... Michael Bolotin (born February 26, 1953), better known as Michael Bolton, is an American singer-songwriter, known for his soft rock ballads and tenor vocals. ... For other uses, see Brand New (disambiguation). ... The Brian Setzer Orchestra is a swing band formed in 1990 by Stray Cats frontman Brian Setzer. ... Sarah Brightman (born August 14, 1960) is an English classical crossover soprano, actress and dancer. ... Kaci Deanne Brown (born July 7, 1988) is an American pop/R&B singer. ... Maria Callas in a casual moment, 1960s Maria Callas (Greek: Μαρία Κάλλας) (December 2, 1923 – September 16, 1977) was an American born, Greek dramatic coloratura soprano and perhaps the best-known opera singer of the post-World War II period. ... For the town in Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, see Glen Campbell, Pennsylvania. ... Mariah Carey (born March 27, 1970) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, music video director, and actress. ... For the song Caruso by Lucio Dalla, see Caruso (song). ... Celtic Woman is a musical ensemble comprised of five Irish and one New Zealand female artists: vocalists Chloë Agnew, Órla Fallon, Lisa Kelly, Méav Ní Mhaolchatha and Hayley Westenra, and violinist Máiréad Nesbitt. ... Tracy Chapman (born March 30, 1964) is an American singer-songwriter, best known for her singles, Fast Car, Talkin Bout a Revolution, Baby Can I Hold You and Give Me One Reason. She is a multi-platinum and multi-Grammy Award-winning artist. ... Charlotte Church (born Charlotte Maria Reed on February 21, 1986) is a Welsh singer and television presenter who rose to international fame in childhood as a popular classical singer with a precociously mature dramatic operatic voice, in particular in its tonal qualities. ... Kelly Brianne Clarkson (born April 24, 1982) is an American pop rock singer. ... Rosemary Clooney (May 23, 1928 – June 29, 2002) was an American popular singer and actress. ... This article is about the musician. ... Nat King Cole in The Blue Gardenia (1953) Nat King Cole (March 17, 1919 – February 15, 1965) was a hugely popular American singer and jazz musician. ... Pierino Ronald Como (May 18, 1912 – May 12, 2001) was an American crooner. ... Michael Crawford (right) as Frank Spencer in Some Mothers Do Ave Em Michael Crawford, OBE (born Michael Patrick Dumble-Smith, 19 January 1942 in Salisbury, Wiltshire), is an English actor and singer. ... Harry Lillis Bing Crosby (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer and actor whose career lasted from 1926 until his death in 1977. ... Destinys Child was an American R&B group. ... John Denver (December 31, 1943 â€“ October 12, 1997), born Henry John Deutschendorf, Jr. ... Cosima De Vito (born November 1, 1976), also known simply as Cosima, is an Australian singer-songwriter. ... Neil Leslie Diamond (born January 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter and occasional actor. ... Céline Marie Claudette Dion OC, OQ, (born March 30, 1968) is a Canadian singer and occasional songwriter and actress. ... Plácido Domingo José Plácido Domingo Embil KBE (born January 21, 1941)[1] better known as Plácido Domingo, is a world-renowned operatic tenor. ... Dream Theater is an American progressive metal band comprising James LaBrie, John Petrucci, Jordan Rudess, John Myung, and Mike Portnoy. ... The Drifters are a long-lived American doo wop/R&B vocal group, originally formed by Clyde McPhatter (of Billy Ward & the Dominoes) in 1953. ... This article is about the American quartet. ... Linda Eder (born February 3, 1961) is an American singer and actress. ... José Montserrate Feliciano (born September 10, 1945 in Lares, Puerto Rico) is a Puerto Rican singer. ... Ella Jane Fitzgerald (April 25, 1917 – June 15, 1996), also known as Lady Ella and the First Lady of Song, is considered one of the most influential jazz vocalists of the 20th Century. ... Vince Gill (born Vincent Grant Gill[1], April 12, 1957) is an American neotraditional country musician, songwriter, and singer. ... Billy Gilman (born William Wendell Gilman III May 24, 1988) is a Grammy-nominated country music singer-songwriter. ... Joshua Mario Josh Gracin (born October 18, 1980 in Westland, Michigan) is a country music singer. ... This article is about the singer. ... Joshua Winslow Groban (born February 27, 1981) is a Grammy-nominated American singer/songwriter known for his mature and lyrical baritone voice. ... Daryl Hall and John Oates. ... Hanson may refer to: Hanson (band), American pop band Hanson plc, British international building materials company Hanson Records, former recording label Hanson Baronets, either of two baronetcies in the United Kingdom Hanson Bay, in the Chatham Islands Hanson Brothers, ice hockey playing siblings from the 1977 movie Slap Shot The... David Michael Hasselhoff (born July 17, 1952 in Baltimore, Maryland), nicknamed The Hoff, is an American actor who was best known for his lead roles on Knight Rider and Baywatch. ... For other uses, see Heart (disambiguation). ... Whitney Elizabeth Houston (born August 9, 1963) is a six-time Grammy award winning, American R&B singer, soprano, pianist, actress, film producer, and former model. ... Il Divo, Italian for divine male performer, is an international operatic pop vocal group created by pop impresario Simon Cowell, and signed to the Sony BMG music label. ... Mahalia Jackson (October 26, 1911[1] – January 27, 1972) was an American gospel singer, widely regarded as the best in the history of the genre. ... Etta James (born Jamesetta Hawkins on January 25, 1938) is an American blues, soul, R&B, and jazz singer and songwriter. ... Jaya (born Maria Louise Ramsey on March 21, 1970, in Manila, Philippines) is a Filipino pop singer with African American ancestry. ... For R&B singer Jewell Caples, see Jewell (singer). ... Aled Jones (born 29 December 1970) is a Welsh singer and television/radio personality and broadcaster who first came to fame as a boy soprano. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bradley Joseph (born in 1965) is an American composer, pianist, keyboardist, arranger, and recording artist, performing on the international stage for many years with artists such as Yanni and Grammy-winner Sheena Easton, as well as having vast experience with artists from RCA, Epic Records, Warner Bros. ... Wynonna Ellen Judd (born May 30, 1964) is an American country music singer. ... Apocalyptica is a Finnish musical group consisting of three, formerly four, classically trained cellists and, since 2005, a drummer. ... Patti LaBelle (born Patricia Louise Holt on May 24, 1944 in West-Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is an multi-grammy winning American R&B and soul singer and songwriter who fronted two groups, Patti LaBelle and the Bluebelles and Labelle, which changed and birthed a new era of womens music and... Mario Lanza as Giuseppe Verdis Otello. ... Avril Lavigne Whibley,[7] better known by her birth name of Avril Lavigne (IPA: ), (born September 27, 1984) is a Canadian rock/punk-pop singer, musician and actress. ... Chantal Kreviazuk (born May 18, 1973) is a Canadian singer-songwriter of rock and pop music. ... The Lettermen are a pop music vocal group. ... For other uses, see Lonestar (disambiguation). ... Martina McBride (born Martina Mariea Schiff, July 29, 1966 in Sharon, Kansas) is an American Grammy nominated country music singer-songwriter. ... John Royce Mathis (b. ... This biographical article or section needs additional references for verification. ... The Mormon Tabernacle Choir is a large choir sponsored by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the Mormons). ... Nana Mouskouri (in Greek, Nανά Μούσχουρη), born as Ioanna Mouskouri on October 13, 1934, in Chania, Crete, Greece, is a singer of Greek origin. ... Jim Nabors on The Muppet Show James Thurston Jim Nabors (born June 12, 1930 in Sylacauga, Alabama to Fred and Mavis Nabors), is an American actor, singer, and comedian. ... Leigh Bingham Nash (born June 27, 1976) is a singer and composer. ... Aaron Neville (born January 24, 1941 in New Orleans, Louisiana) is an American soul and R&B singer. ... their music sucks For the self-titled album, see *NSYNC (album) N Sync (also stylized *NSYNC) was an American boy band, widely regarded as one of the most successful pop acts of the late 90s and early 2000s, selling over 56 million records worldwide. ... John Legend (born John Stephens on 28 December 1978) is an American R&B singer, songwriter, and pianist. ... Mannheim Steamroller is an 18th century classical rock group founded by Chip Davis, and co-founded by Jackson Berkey, well-known for their modern recordings of holiday music (notably Christmas). ... Press photo of The Oak Ridge Boys. ... Olive Marie Osmond (born October 13, 1959 in Ogden, Utah) is an American actress, singer, and a member of the show business family, The Osmonds. ... Twila Paris Wright (born c. ... Sandi Patty (born July 14, 1957) is a Contemporary Christian music singer. ... Luciano Pavarotti performing on June 15, 2002 at a concert in the Stade Vélodrome in Marseille Luciano Pavarotti, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI[1] (October 12, 1935 – September 6, 2007) was a celebrated Italian tenor in operatic music, who successfully crossed into popular music becoming one of the most... Categories: ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Potts on Britains Got Talent Paul Potts (born 1971 in Bristol) lives in Port Talbot in South Wales and is a mobile phone salesman and amateur opera singer. ... Mary Violet Leontyne Price (born February 10, 1927) is an American opera singer (soprano). ... Martha Rose Reeves (born July 18, 1941 in Eufaula, Alabama) is an American R&B and soul singer and was the lead singer of the legendary Motown girl group Martha & the Vandellas. ... The Reign of Kindo is a band from Buffalo, New York, signed to One Eleven Records. ... Margaret LeAnn Rimes (born August 28, 1982 in Jackson, Mississippi) is an American country music singer and occasional Songwriter. ... Kenneth Donald Kenny Rogers (born August 21, 1938, in Houston, Texas) is a prolific American country music singer, photographer, producer, songwriter, actor and businessman. ... John Milford Rutter CBE (born September 24, 1945)) is an English composer, choral conductor, editor, arranger and record producer. ... Cambridge Singers is an English mixed voice chamber/choral group formed in 1981 by their director John Rutter with the express purpose of making recordings under the purposely set up label Collegium The main body of the group was first of all made up by previous Clare College singers where... Richard Stephen Sambora (born on July 11th, 1959), is an American rock guitarist, singer and songwriter who is the lead guitarist of the rock band Bon Jovi. ... Arturo Sandoval (born November 6, 1949) is a jazz trumpeter and pianist. ... Aiza Seguerra is a Filipino actress and singer. ... Seven Day Jesus Seven Day Jesus (a. ... George Beverly Shea (February 1, 1909 – Winchester, Ontario, Canada) is a prominent singer/songwriter of gospel music. ... Jessica Ann Simpson (born July 10, 1980) is an American pop singer and actress who rose to fame in the late 1990s. ... Sister Hazel is a musical group from Gainesville, Florida whose style blends elements of alternative rock, folk, and southern rock. ... Smoking Popes is an American rock group from the northwest suburbs of Chicago, Illinois, formed in 1991. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sufjan Stevens (IPA pronunciation: ) (born July 1, 1975) is an American singer-songwriter and musician from Petosky, Michigan. ... Donna Summer (born LaDonna Adrian Gaines, on December 31, 1948) is a legendary American singer, songwriter, and artist, best known for a string of dance hits in the 1970s that earned her the title Queen of Disco and as one of the few disco-based artists to have longevity on... For other uses, see Supremes (disambiguation). ... Dame Joan Sutherland OM, AC, DBE (born November 7, 1926) is an Australian dramatic coloratura soprano noted for her contribution to the bel canto revival of the 1950s and 1960s. ... Michael Sweet Singing Michael Harrison Sweet (born 4 July 1963) is a Christian rock singer from the United States. ... Dame Kiri Janette Te Kanawa IPA: , ONZ, AC, DBE, (born March 6, 1944) is an internationally famous New Zealand opera singer. ... The Fold The Fold is a Chicago based rock outfit on Tooth and Nail Records which began from the remnants of four previous bands, including Warner Brothers group, Showoff and Chicago-based bands Starstruck and Epsin 12. ... Third Day is a Christian rock band formed in Marietta, Georgia during the 1990s. ... B. J. Thomas (born Billy Joe Thomas, 7 August 1942, Hugo, Oklahoma) is a country and pop music/gospel/soft rock/easy listening singer. ... A soul Queen from New Orleans. ... album cover of the 1990 concert in Rome left-right Domingo,Carreras, Mehta, Pavarotti The Three Tenors is a name given to collabarative concerts of the three operatic tenors Plácido Domingo, José Carreras and Luciano Pavarotti. ... Trans-Siberian Orchestra (often abbreviated as TSO) is a rock orchestra founded by Paul ONeill, Robert Kinkel, and Jon Oliva in 1996. ... Regina Encarnacion Ansong Velasquez (born April 22, 1970), nicknamed Asias Songbird, is a Filipino singer, actress, and TV host. ... The Vienna Boys Choir The Vienna Boys Choir (German: Wiener Sängerknaben) is a choir of boy sopranos based in Vienna, Austria. ... Big John Wallace was a bassist and backup singer with Harry Chapin starting in 1971. ... Harry Forster Chapin (December 7, 1942 – July 16, 1981) was an American singer, songwriter, and humanitarian. ... Mr. ... For other persons named Andrew Williams, see Andrew Williams (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named Brian Wilson, see Brian Wilson (disambiguation). ... This biographical article or section needs additional references for verification. ... This article is about the band. ... Renée Fleming Renée Fleming, (born Valentines Day, February 14, 1959), is an American soprano, and sings principally opera and jazz. ... Kristi Dawn Chenoweth (born July 24, 1968) is an American singer and Tony Award-winning American musical theatre, film, and television actress. ... The Swell Season is an album by Glen Hansard and Czech singer and pianist Markéta Irglová. It is the first album that Hansard, the singer for The Frames, has released independently of his band. ...

Featured on Television Shows

“O Holy Night” was sung by lead character Eric Cartman on a Christmas-themed episode of the animated series South Park. The sequence became so popular among fans that this recording is often played on radio stations during the Christmas season. Eric Theodore Cartman, commonly referred to by his family name, Cartman, is a fictional character in the animated series South Park. ... Mr. ... This article is about the TV series. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...


“O Holy Night” was featured on "The West Wing" at the end of the Season Four episode "Holy Night", sung by the Yale close harmony group the Whiffenpoofs. It also was played in another Aaron Sorkin-scripted drama, in the episode “The Christmas Show” of the TV series “Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip”. It featured musicians benefiting from The Tipitina's Foundation. This article is about a TV show. ... Established in 1909, the Whiffenpoofs are an all-male vocal ensemble at Yale University, and the oldest collegiate singing group in the nation. ... Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip is a dramatic television program airing on NBC for its debut season in 2006-2007. ... The Tipitinas Foundation is a not-for-profit charity organization in the United States in place to encourage the city of New Orleans to continue its musical heritage, in particular in the wake of the citys tragedy, Hurricane Katrina. ...


Robert Guillaume sang “O Holy Night” on an episode of the TV series "Benson." Robert Guillaume in 1980. ... Benson may mean: The one and only Benson. ...


"O Holy Night" was sung by Mariah Carey as well for her 1994 holiday album Merry Christmas. The track was also released as a promo single. Mariah Carey (born March 27, 1970) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, music video director, and actress. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


"O Holy Night" was also sung on Monk, in season 4 : "Mr Monk and the Secret Santa". Captain Stottlemeyer plays the guitar and sings, while Randy later accompanies him with a great harmony.


Lyrics

O Holy Night - Version 1:

Oh holy night! The stars are brightly shining,
It is the night of the dear Saviour's birth.
Long lay the world in sin and error pining,
Till He appear'd and the soul felt its worth.
A thrill of hope the weary world rejoices,
For yonder breaks a new and glorious morn.
Fall on your knees! Oh, hear the angel voices!
Oh night divine, Oh night when Christ was born;
Oh night divine, Oh night, Oh night Divine.
Led by the light of Faith serenely beaming,
With glowing hearts by His cradle we stand.
So led by light of a star sweetly gleaming,
Here come the wise men from Orient land.
The King of Kings lay thus in lowly manger;
In all our trials born to be our friend.
He knows our need, to our weakness is no stranger,
Behold your King! Before Him lowly bend!
Behold your King, Behold your King.
Truly He taught us to love one another;
His law is love and His gospel is peace.
Chains shall He break for the slave is our brother;
And in His name all oppression shall cease.
Sweet hymns of joy in grateful chorus raise we,
Let all within us praise His holy name.
Christ is the Lord! O praise His Name forever,
His power and glory evermore proclaim.
His power and glory evermore proclaim.

O Holy Night - Version 2:

O! Holy night! The stars, their gleams prolonging,
Watch o'er the Eve of our dear Saviour's birth.
Long lay the world in sin and error, longing
For His appearance, then the Spirit felt its worth.
A thrill of hope; the weary world rejoices,
For yonder breaks a new and glorious morn.
Fall on your knees! Oh, hear the angel voices!
O night divine, the night when Christ was Born;
O night, O holy night, O night divine!
Led by the light of faith serenely beaming,
With glowing hearts we stand by the Babe adored.
O'er the world a star is sweetly gleaming,
And come now, Shepherds, from your flocks unboard.
The Son of God lay thus w'thin lowly manger;
In all our trials born to be our Lord.
He knows our need, our weakness never lasting,
Behold your King! By Him, let Earth accord!
Behold your King! By Him, let Earth accord!
Truly He taught us to love one another,
His law is love and His gospel is peace.
Long live His truth, and may it last forever,
For in His name all discordant noise shall cease.
Sweet hymns of joy in grateful chorus raise we,
With all our hearts we praise His holy name.
Christ is the Lord! Then ever, ever praise we,
His power and glory ever more proclaim!
His power and glory ever more proclaim!

(The second and third choruses are often replaced with a refrain of the first). A refrain (from the Old French refraindre to repeat, likely from Vulgar Latin refringere) is the line or lines that are repeated in music or in verse; the chorus of a song. ...


Minuits, chrétiens / Cantique de Noël:

Minuit, chrétiens, c'est l'heure solennelle,
Où l'Homme-Dieu descendit jusqu'à nous
Pour effacer la tache originelle
Et de Son Père arrêter le courroux.
Le monde entier tressaille d'espérance
En cette nuit qui lui donne un Sauveur.
Peuple à genoux, attends ta délivrance.
Noël, Noël, voici le Rédempteur,
Noël, Noël, voici le Rédempteur!
De notre foi que la lumière ardente
Nous guide tous au berceau de l'Enfant,
Comme autrefois une étoile brillante
Y conduisit les chefs de l'Orient.
Le Roi des rois naît dans une humble crèche:
Puissants du jour, fiers de votre grandeur,
A votre orgueil, c'est de là que Dieu prêche.
Courbez vos fronts devant le Rédempteur.
Courbez vos fronts devant le Rédempteur.
Le Rédempteur a brisé toute entrave:
La terre est libre, et le ciel est ouvert.
Il voit un frère où n'était qu'un esclave,
L'amour unit ceux qu'enchaînait le fer.
Qui Lui dira notre reconnaissance,
C'est pour nous tous qu'Il naît,
Qu'Il souffre et meurt.
Peuple debout! Chante ta délivrance,
Noël, Noël, chantons le Rédempteur,
Noël, Noël, chantons le Rédempteur!


English Translation of Minuits, chrétiens / Cantique de Noël: (N.b. the English version of 'O Holy Night' is not a direct translation of the French.)

Midnight, Christians is the solemn hour
When God as Man descended unto us
To erase the original stain (sin)
And end the wrath of his Father.
The entire world trembles with expectation
In this night that gives to us a Savior.
Fall on your knees, await your deliverance.
Noel, Noel, here is the Redeemer,
Noel, Noel, here is the Redeemer!
The redeemer has broken every shackle
The earth is free, and heaven is open.
He sees a brother where there was once only a slave
Those who had been chained together by iron, love now unites.
Who will tell Him of our gratitude
It is for every one of us that he was born, suffered and died.
Stand on your feet, sing of your deliverance.
Noel, Noel, sing of the Redeemer,
Noel, Noel, sing of the Redeemer!

Media

Image File history File links Oh_holy_night. ...

External links

  • The Hymns and Carols of Christmas – the history of "O Holy Night"
  • Easybyte – easy piano music for "O Holy Night"
  • Minuit chrétiens / Cantique de Noël - French Christmas Carol - Original French lyrics with literal translation

  Results from FactBites:
 
O Holy Night (187 words)
o holy night • christmas carol lyrics • words to christmas carol • words to o holy night • song words
Some consider the traditional account of the origins of Silent Night to be a legend while others believe it to be true.
silent night • silent night holy night • joseph mohr • franz bruber • oberndorf
O Holy Night / Minuit chrétiens / Cantique de Noel / O Helga Natt / Ó helga nótt / O Heil'ge Nacht gospel christian ... (400 words)
O Holy Night - Japanese - Minuit Chrétiens - O helga natt - Ó helga nótt - O heil'ge Nacht - La mezzanotte di Natale
It is the night of the dear Savior's birth.
O night, O holy night, O night divine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m