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Encyclopedia > O Canada
O Canada
Sheet music for Canada's national anthem
Sheet music for Canada's national anthem
National Anthem of Canada
Also known as French: Ô Canada
Lyrics Adolphe-Basile Routhier (French, 1880)
Robert Stanley Weir (English, 1908)
Music Calixa Lavallée, 1880
Adopted 1980

O Canada (Instrumental) O Canada - is the national anthem of Canada. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (483x727, 8 KB)The sheet music for the anthem O Canada, with both lyrics in English and French. ... Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier (May 8, 1839 – June 27, 1920) was a Canadian lyricist. ... Robert Stanley Weir, FRSC, (November 15, 1856 – August 20, 1926) was a Montreal, Quebec judge and poet most famous for writing the English lyrics to O Canada, the national anthem of Canada. ... A sketch of Lavallée from 1873 Calixa Lavallée, (28 December 1842 – January 21, 1891), a French-Canadian musician, composed the music for the Canadian national anthem O Canada. He was born at Verchères, Quebec. ... Image File history File links O_Canada_instrumental_1916. ...

Problems listening to the file? See media help.

"O Canada" is the national anthem of Canada. The song was originally commissioned by the then Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable Théodore Robitaille, for the 1880 St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony. Calixa Lavallée wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The text was originally only in French. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Fête Nationale parade, Montreal The Fête nationale du Québec (Quebec National Holiday) is an official holiday of Quebec, Canada. ... A sketch of Lavallée from 1873 Calixa Lavallée, (28 December 1842 – January 21, 1891), a French-Canadian musician, composed the music for the Canadian national anthem O Canada. He was born at Verchères, Quebec. ... Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier (May 8, 1839 – June 27, 1920) was a Canadian lyricist. ...


An English translation of the lyric did not appear until 1906, and it was two more years before Robert Stanley Weir penned an English version, which is not a translation of the French. Weir's words have been revised twice, taking their present form in 1980, but the French lyrics remain unaltered. "O Canada" was not officially Canada's national anthem until 1980, when it was signed into law on July 1 as part of that year's Canada Day celebrations. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Robert Stanley Weir, FRSC, (November 15, 1856 – August 20, 1926) was a Montreal, Quebec judge and poet most famous for writing the English lyrics to O Canada, the national anthem of Canada. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canada Day (French: Fête du Canada) is Canadas national holiday, marking the establishment of Canada as a self-governing Dominion on July 1, 1867. ...

Contents

Official lyrics

The official lyrics in English and French, as well as a translation of the French version and a transcription of Weir's original English-language poem, can be found on the Canadian government website devoted to "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion".[1]

Official (English) Official (French)

O Canada!
Our home and native land!
True patriot love in all thy sons command.
With glowing hearts we see thee rise,
The True North strong and free!
From far and wide, O Canada,
We stand on guard for thee.
God keep our land glorious and free!
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

Ô Canada!
Terre de nos aïeux,
Ton front est ceint de fleurons glorieux!
Car ton bras sait porter l'épée,
Il sait porter la croix!
Ton histoire est une épopée
Des plus brillants exploits.
Et ta valeur, de foi trempée,
Protégera nos foyers et nos droits;
Protégera nos foyers et nos droits.

Inuktitut lyrics Translation of French lyrics

Uu Kanata!
Nangmini nunavut!
Piqujatii nalattiaqpavut.
Angiglivalliajuti,
Sanngijulutillu.
Nangiqpugu, Uu Kanata
Mianiripluti.
Uu Kanata! nunatsia!
Nangiqpugu mianiripluti,
Uu Kanata, salagijauquna!

O Canada!
Land of our forefathers
Thy brow is wreathed with a glorious garland of flowers.
As in thy arm ready to wield the sword,
So also is it ready to carry the cross.
Thy history is an epic
Of the most brilliant exploits.
Thy valour steeped in faith
Will protect our homes and our rights
Will protect our homes and our rights.

History

The house in Quebec City in which Routhier reportedly wrote the original French lyrics
The house in Quebec City in which Routhier reportedly wrote the original French lyrics

The original French lyrics were written by Sir Adolphe Basile Routhier, as a French Canadian patriotic song for the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society. The French "Ô Canada" was first performed on June 24, 1880, at a Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day banquet in Quebec City, but did not become Canada's official national anthem until July 1, 1980. The Canadian government bought the rights to the lyrics and music for only one dollar.[2] Categories: Stub | 1839 births | 1920 deaths | Canadian songwriters ... French Canadian is a term that has several different connotations. ... The logo of the Saint-Jean-Baptiste Society. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Fête Nationale parade, Montreal The Fête nationale du Québec (Quebec National Holiday) is an official holiday of Quebec, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Since 1867, "God Save the King" and "The Maple Leaf Forever" had been competing as unofficial national anthems in Canada. "O Canada" joined that fray when school children sang it for the 1901 tour of Canada by the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall (later King George V and Queen Mary). Five years later Whaley and Royce in Toronto published the music with the French text and a first translation into English by Dr. Thomas Bedford Richardson. Then, in 1908, Collier's Weekly magazine held a competition to write English lyrics for "O Canada". The competition was won by Mercy E. Powell McCulloch, but her version did not gain wide acceptance. In 1917, Albert Watson wrote the hymn Lord of the Lands to the tune of O Canada.[3] This article is on the British patriotic anthem. ... The Maple Leaf Forever was written by Alexander Muir (1830–1906) in 1867, the year of Canadas Confederation. ... The Dukedom of Cornwall was the first dukedom created in the peerage of England. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Mary of Teck (Victoria Mary Augusta Louise Olga Pauline Claudine Agnes; 26 May 1867 – 24 March 1953) was the Queen Consort of George V. Queen Mary was also the Empress of India. ... Albert William Watson (August 30, 1922 - September 25, 1994) was a South Carolina politician. ...


The English version that gained the widest currency was written in 1908 by Robert Stanley Weir, a lawyer and at the time Recorder of the City of Montreal. A slightly modified version of his poem was published in an official form for the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation in 1927, and gradually became the most generally accepted and performed version, winning out over the alternatives by the 1960s. "God Save the Queen" is now Canada's royal anthem, while "The Maple Leaf Forever" is virtually forgotten.[1] Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...


Many have noted that the opening theme of "O Canada", composed in c. 1880, bears a great resemblance to the "Marsch der Priester" (March of the Priests), from Die Zauberflöte, composed in 1791 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Some say that Mozart's tune inspired Lavallee to compose his melody.[4] The line "The True North strong and free" is based on Alfred Tennyson's description of Canada as "That True North whereof we lately heard". In the context of Tennyson's poem, "true" means "loyal" or "faithful".[4] Die Zauberflöte (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and is one of the most popular English poets. ...


Official changes to the English version were recommended in 1968 by a Special Joint Committee of the Senate and House of Commons. The National Anthem Act of 1980 added a religious reference to the English lyrics and the phrase "From far and wide, O Canada" to replace one of the somewhat tedious repetitions of the phrase "We stand on guard." This change was controversial with traditionalists, and for several years afterwards it was not uncommon to hear people still singing the old lyrics at public events. By contrast, the French version never wavered from its original.[5]


Two provinces have adopted Latin translations of phrases from the English lyrics as their mottos: ManitobaGloriosus et liber (glorious and free)—and AlbertaFortis et liber (strong and free). Similarly, the motto of Canadian Forces Land Force Command is Vigilamus pro te (we stand on guard for thee).[6] For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... The first part of the coat of arms of the province of Manitoba, Canada, officially The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of the Province of Manitoba, was the shield, which was assigned by royal warrant of King Edward VII on May 10, 1905. ... The Coat of Arms of Alberta, a Province of Canada was granted by Royal Warrant on May 30, 1907 by King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. ... Land Force Command (LFC) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Forces. ...


Three additional verses exist, but these are rarely sung.[7]


O Canada! Where pines and maples grow,
Great prairies spread and Lordly rivers flow!
How dear to us thy broad domain,
From East to Western sea!
The land of hope for all who toil,
The true North strong and free!
God keep our land, glorious and free.
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee!
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee!


O Canada! Beneath thy shining skies,
May Stalwart sons, and gentle maidens rise.
To keep thee steadfast thro' the years,
From East to Western sea.
Our own beloved native land,
Our true North strong and free!
God keep our land, glorious and free.
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee!
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee!


Ruler supreme, who hearest humble prayer,
Hold our Dominion, in thy loving care.
Help us to find, O God, in thee,
A lasting rich reward.
As waiting for the better day,
We ever stand on guard.
God keep our land, glorious and free.
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee!
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee!


Performances

Singers at public events often mix the English and French lyrics to represent Canada's linguistic duality. For example, one form is singing the first two and last three lines in English; the last two lines could also alternate between English and French. Roger Doucet, the former singer of national anthems at the Montreal Forum for the NHL's Montreal Canadiens, almost always sang the first seven lines in French, and completed the song in English, and this practice has continued with the team's subsequent anthem singers. Performers at Ottawa Senators games also commonly sing partly in French and partly in English. This was also the case at the Turin Winter Olympics Closing Ceremony where most of the song was sung in French by British Columbia Opera star Ben Heppner.[8] Roger Doucet (21 April 1919 – 19 July 1981) was a Canadian tenor best known for singing the Canadian national anthem, O Canada, on televised games of the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Alouettes, and Montreal Expos during 1970s. ... The Montreal Forum was an indoor arena located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... NHL can also be an abbreviation for National Historic Landmark or Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... The Montreal Canadiens (French: ) are a professional ice hockey team based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... For other uses, see Ottawa Senators (disambiguation). ... Torino redirects here. ... The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Ben Heppner OC (born January 14, 1956) is a Canadian tenor, specializing in opera and classical symphonic works for voice. ...


Both "O Canada" and "The Star-Spangled Banner" are routinely played before sporting events between American and Canadian teams; the host nation's anthem is played last. However, "O Canada" is here normally performed entirely in English, with the aforementioned exceptions of games in Ottawa and Montreal, and on rare occasions, when Rene Rancourt performs "O Canada" in French and English, just as Roger Doucet did in Montreal, when a Canadian-origin NHL team plays against the Boston Bruins NHL ice hockey team, at the Bruins' home stadium, the TD Banknorth Garden in Boston. Some NASCAR races in Canada and the Northern United States, as well as NFL teams residing and other team sports played near the border, frequently do the same because of significant fan bases in both countries. In the NHL, Buffalo Sabres home games are preceded by the American and Canadian national anthems as a matter of policy.[9] New Hampshire International Speedway is another notable example. Airshows on both sides of the border also usually play both anthems, as there are usually participants from both countries.[10] At a Calgary Flames game in February of 2007, young Cree singer Akina Shirt became the first person ever to perform "O Canada" in a Canadian Aboriginal language at a National Hockey League contest.[11] The Star Spangled Banner is the national anthem of the United States. ... Rene Rancourt singing at the Massachusetts Alzheimers Association Memory Walk (10/4/2003) Rene Rancourt, native to Lewiston, ME and a resident of Natick, MA has sung the National Anthem at the Boston Bruins home hockey games for over 30 years. ... Roger Doucet (21 April 1919 – 19 July 1981) was a Canadian tenor best known for singing the Canadian national anthem, O Canada, on televised games of the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Alouettes, and Montreal Expos during 1970s. ... NHL can also be an abbreviation for National Historic Landmark or Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... The Boston Bruins are a professional mens ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... TD Banknorth Garden is a sports arena in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ... NFL logo For other uses of the abbreviation NFL, see NFL (disambiguation). ... NHL can also be an abbreviation for National Historic Landmark or Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... {{NHL Team | team_name = Buffalo Sabres | bg_color = #002D62 | text_color = #FDBB30 | logo_image = Sabres. ... New Hampshire International Speedway is a 1. ... For the navigational aid displayed to airline passengers, see In-flight Entertainment. ... The Calgary Flames are a professional ice hockey team based in Calgary, Alberta, Canada and play out of the Pengrowth Saddledome. ... For other uses, see Cree (disambiguation). ... First Nations is a term of ethnicity that refers to the indigenous peoples in what is now Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis people. ...


Proposed changes to lyrics

The English version of the anthem has been criticized, by feminists such as Senator Vivienne Poy, as being sexist.[12] In 2002, she introduced a bill to change the phrase "in all thy sons command" to "in all of us command". In 2006, the anthem's religious references (to God in English, and to the Christian cross in French) were criticized by secularists.[13][14] Feminists redirects here. ... The Honourable Vivienne Poy, née Lee (利德蕙; Cantonese Yale: Ley6 Dak1-way6; Mandarin Pinyin: Lì Déhuì), (born 1941 in Hong Kong) was appointed to the Senate of Canada in 1998. ... Gender-neutral language (gender-generic, gender-inclusive, non-sexist, or sex-neutral language) is language that attempts to refer neither to males nor females when discussing an abstract or hypothetical person whose sex cannot otherwise be determined, as opposed to more traditional language forms, which may use male or female...


Weir's original 1908 lyrics, consisting of three verses, were not gender specific (using the somewhat archaic "thou dost in us command"), and contained no religious reference.[15] Weir changed the lyrics to "in all thy sons command" in 1914,[16] and in 1926 added a fourth verse of a religious nature.[17]


In June 1990, the city council of Toronto voted 12-7 to change the words of the Canadian national anthem, “O Canada”, because they thought the words were offensive to immigrants. They voted to change "our home and native land", to "our home and cherished land". It is not, however, within the power of Toronto city council to change the words of the national anthem.[18]


Media

Image File history Links O_Canada_English_Weir_1928. ... Image File history File links O_Canada_instrumental_1916. ... Image File history File links O_Canada_and_God_Save_the_King_instrumental_1927. ... The Netherlands Carillon in Arlington, Virginia, USA. A carillon (Dutch: beiaard) is a musical instrument composed of at least 23 cup-shaped bells played from a baton keyboard using fists and feet (such an instrument with fewer than this number of bells is known as a chime). ... The Peace Tower in view on Parliament Hill The Peace Tower at night For other uses, see Peace Tower (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ...

References

  1. ^ a b National Anthem: O Canada. Department of Canadian Heritage. Retrieved on 2008-04-22.
  2. ^ "'O Canada'", The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2008-04-22. 
  3. ^ National Anthem of Canada. Marianopolis College. Retrieved on 2008-04-22.
  4. ^ a b Colombo, John Robert (February 1995). Colombo's All-Time Great Canadian Quotations. Stoddart. ISBN 0773756396. 
  5. ^ National anthem: O Canada. Canadian Online Explorer (2004-05-26). Retrieved on 2008-05-04.
  6. ^ The Coat of Arms, Emblems and the Manitoba Tartan Amendment Act. Government of Manitoba (1993-07-27). Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
  7. ^ O Canada. Lieutenant Governor of Alberta. Retrieved on 2008-04-17.
  8. ^ Turin Bids Arrivederci to Winter Olympics. The New York Times (2006-02-26). Retrieved on 2008-05-04.
  9. ^ "The NHL When Blues Sent Liut to Hartford, It Broke the Ice in Trade Activity", Los Angeles Times, 1985-03-01, p. 11. 
  10. ^ Sharks fans boo 'O Canada' before Game 5 vs. Oilers. ESPN. Retrieved on 2008-04-22.
  11. ^ Edmonton girl to sing anthem in NHL first at Saddledome. CBC (2007-02-01). Retrieved on 2008-04-17.
  12. ^ The National Anthem. Senate of Canada (2002-02-19). Retrieved on 2008-04-17.
  13. ^ Thomas, Doug (2006-05-17). Is Canada a Secular Nation? Part 3: Post-Charter Canada. Institute for Humanist Studies. Retrieved on 2008-04-17.
  14. ^ Byfield, Ted (2006-07-01). Secular anthem lost in translation. WorldNetDaily. Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
  15. ^ To All Lovers of their Country. Senate of Canada. Retrieved on 2008-04-17.
  16. ^ Press Release. Senate of Canada (2002-02-21). Retrieved on 2008-04-17.
  17. ^ Second Reading of Bill S-39. Senate of Canada (2002-02-21). Retrieved on 2008-04-17.
  18. ^ American Renaissance. American Renaissance. Retrieved on 2008-04-17.

The Department of Canadian Heritage, also referred to as Heritage Canada or simply Department of Heritage, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies regarding the arts, culture, media, communications networks, and sports and multiculturalism. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canadian Encyclopedia is the most authoritative resource on Canada. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marianopolis College is a private subsidized college nestled against the side of Mount Royal in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Robert Colombo is a Canadian poet, editor and humorist, best known as a writer of reference works and editor of anthologies pertaining to Canadian culture, history and geography. ... CANOE (acronym for Canadian Online Explorer, commonly called Canoe. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the lieutenant-governors of Alberta, Canada, since its establishment in 1905. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ESPN, formerly an acronym for Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, is an American cable television network dedicated to broadcasting and producing sports-related programming 24 hours a day. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Cipher-block chaining ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Upper House Speaker Noël Kinsella, Conservative since February 8, 2006 Leader of the Government in the Senate Marjory LeBreton, Conservative since February 6, 2006 Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Céline Hervieux-Payette, Liberal since January 18, 2007 Members 105 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party... Also see: 2002 (number). ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Internet service, see AT&T WorldNet. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Upper House Speaker Noël Kinsella, Conservative since February 8, 2006 Leader of the Government in the Senate Marjory LeBreton, Conservative since February 6, 2006 Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Céline Hervieux-Payette, Liberal since January 18, 2007 Members 105 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Upper House Speaker Noël Kinsella, Conservative since February 8, 2006 Leader of the Government in the Senate Marjory LeBreton, Conservative since February 6, 2006 Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Céline Hervieux-Payette, Liberal since January 18, 2007 Members 105 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Upper House Speaker Noël Kinsella, Conservative since February 8, 2006 Leader of the Government in the Senate Marjory LeBreton, Conservative since February 6, 2006 Leader of the Opposition in the Senate Céline Hervieux-Payette, Liberal since January 18, 2007 Members 105 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... American Renaissance (AR) is a monthly white separatist magazine published by the New Century Foundation. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... This article is about the anthem La Marseillaise. A sculpture popularly called La Marseillaise is part of the sculptural program of the Arc de Triomphe. ... This article is about the anthem La Marseillaise. A sculpture popularly called La Marseillaise is part of the sculptural program of the Arc de Triomphe. ...

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