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Encyclopedia > Nylon
Nylon
Density 1.15 g/cm³
Electrical conductivity (σ) 10-12 S/m
Thermal conductivity 0.25 W/(m·K)
Melting point 463 K-624 K
190°C-350°C
374°F-663°F

Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers first produced on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. Nylon is one of the most common polymers used as a fiber. Nylon or Nylons may refer to: Nylon, a polymer Nylon (magazine), an American pop culture and fashion magazine pantyhose or tights, a type of leggings Stockings, held up by a suspender belt or top elastic, also known as nylon stockings or sussies. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (850x537, 139 KB) Summary 3D diagram showing the variants nylon 6 and nylon 6,6. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see G (disambiguation). ... On cubic metre of concrete (figuring the world annual production per inhabitant) The cubic metre (symbol m3) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Electrical conductivity or specific conductivity is a measure of a materials ability to conduct an electric current. ... The siemens (symbol: S) is the SI derived unit of electric conductance. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... K value redirects here. ... For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Synthetic polymers are often referred to as plastics, such as the well-known polyethylene and nylon. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Wallace Hume Carothers (April 27, 1896 – April 29, 1937) was an American chemist, inventor, and the leader of organic chemistry at DuPont, who is credited with the invention of nylon. ... Dupont, DuPont, Du Pont, or du Pont may refer to: // E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, the worlds third largest chemical company Du Pont Motors Gilbert Dupont, a French stock brokerage part of retail banking network Crédit du Nord ST Dupont, a French manufacturer of fine...

Contents

Overview

Nylon is a thermoplastic silky material, first used commercially in a nylon-bristled toothbrush (1938), followed more famously by women's “nylons” stockings (1940). It is made of repeating units linked by peptide bonds (another name for amide bonds) and is frequently referred to as polyamide (PA). Nylon was the first commercially successful polymer and the first synthetic fiber to be made entirely from coal, water and air. These are formed into monomers of intermediate molecular weight, which are then reacted to form long polymer chains. For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... A bristle is a stiff hair or feather. ... Three toothbrushes The toothbrush is an instrument used to clean teeth, consisting of a small brush on a handle. ... A pair of dark grey nylon stockings. ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... A peptide bond is a chemical bond that is formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O). ... Amide functional group Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... A polyamide is a polymer containing monomers joined by peptide bonds. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ...


Nylon was intended to be a synthetic replacement for silk and substituted for it in many different products after silk became scarce during World War II. It replaced silk in military applications such as parachutes, flak vests, and was used in many types of vehicle tires. For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... This article is about the device. ...


Nylon fibers are used in a great many applications, including fabrics, bridal veils, carpets, guitar strings and rope. This article is about the type of fabric. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ...


Solid nylon is used for mechanical parts such as gears and other low- to medium-stress components previously cast in metal. Engineering grade nylon is processed by extrusion, casting, and injection molding. Type 6/6 Nylon 101 is the most common commercial grade of nylon, and Nylon 6 is the most common commercial grade of cast nylon. Nylon is available in glass-filled and molybdenum-filled variants which increase structural and impact strength and rigidity. This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Injection molding is a manufacturing technique for making parts from thermoplastic material in production. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ...


Chemistry

Nylons are condensation copolymers formed by reacting equal parts of a diamine and a dicarboxylic acid, so that peptide bonds form at both ends of each monomer in a process analogous to polypeptide biopolymers. The numerical suffix specifies the numbers of carbons donated by the monomers; the diamine first and the diacid second. The most common variant is nylon 6-6 which refers to the fact that the diamine (hexamethylene diamine) and the diacid (adipic acid) each donate 6 carbons to the polymer chain. As with other regular copolymers like polyesters and polyurethanes, the "repeating unit" consists of one of each monomer, so that they alternate in the chain. Since each monomer in this copolymer has the same reactive group on both ends, the direction of the amide bond reverses between each monomer, unlike natural polyamide proteins which have overall directionality: C terminal → N terminal. In the laboratory, nylon 6,6 can also be made using adipoyl chloride instead of adipic It is difficult to get the proportions exactly correct, and deviations can lead to chain termination at molecular weights less than a desirable 10,000 daltons (u). To overcome this problem, a crystalline, solid "nylon salt" can be formed at room temperature, using an exact 1:1 ratio of the acid and the base to neutralize each other. Heated to 285 °C, the salt reacts to form nylon polymer. Above 20,000 daltons, it is impossible to spin the chains into yarn, so to combat this, some acetic acid is added to react with a free amine end group during polymer elongation to limit the molecular weight. In practice, and especially for 6,6, the monomers are often combined in a water solution. The water used to make the solution is evaporated under controlled conditions, and the increasing concentration of "salt" is polymerized to the final molecular weight. Condensation polymers are any class of polymers formed through a condensation reaction, releasing (or condensing) a small molecule by-product such as water or methanol, as opposed to addition polymers which involve the reaction of unsaturated monomers. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... Dicarboxylic acids are organic compounds that are substituted with two carboxylic acid functional groups. ... A peptide bond is a chemical bond that is formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O). ... Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... Biopolymers are a class of polymers produced by living organisms. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Nylon 6-6 is a type of nylon, there are two groups: nylon 6 and nylon 6. ... Hexamethylene diamine or 1,6-Hexanediamine is a organic compound with a hexamethylene hydrocarbon chain and two amine functional groups at either end. ... Adipic acid is the common name of 1,6-hexanedioic acid, a chemical compound of the class of carboxylic acids. ... A heteropolymer, also called a copolymer, is a polymer formed when two different types of monomer are linked in the same polymer chain. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... A polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of organic units joined by urethane links. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... A peptide bond is a chemical bond that is formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... A carboxyl or carboxylic group is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom and an oxygen atom doubly bonded to each other. ... In chemistry, especially in organic chemistry and biochemistry, an amino group is an ammonia-like functional group. ... Adipoyl chloride (or adipoyl dichloride) is an acyl chloride, with formula C6H8Cl2O2. ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ... The atomic mass unit (amu), unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... A ratio is a quantity that denotes the proportional amount or magnitude of one quantity relative to another. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3COOH best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ...


DuPont patented[1] nylon 6,6, so in order to compete, other companies (particularly the German BASF) developed the homopolymer nylon 6, or polycaprolactam — not a condensation polymer, but formed by a ring-opening polymerization (alternatively made by polymerizing aminocaproic acid). The peptide bond within the caprolactam is broken with the exposed active groups on each side being incorporated into two new bonds as the monomer becomes part of the polymer backbone. In this case, all amide bonds lie in the same direction, but the properties of nylon 6 are sometimes indistinguishable from those of nylon 6,6 — except for melt temperature (N6 is lower) and some fiber properties in products like carpets and textiles. There is also nylon 9. This article is about the German chemical company. ... A homopolymer is a polymer which is formed from only one type of monomer. ... Caprolactam molecule used to synthesize Nylon 6 by ring opening polymerization Nylon 6 or polycaprolactam is a polymer developed to reproduce the properties of nylon 6,6 withiout violating the patent on its production. ... Caprolactam (C6H11ON) is the monomer used in the production of nylon 6. ... In chemistry, ring-opening polymerization is a subset of addition polymerization, in that an end of a growing polymer chain acts as a reactive center that can react with additional monomers to propagate the chain. ... Aminocaproic acid (marketed as Amicar) is a drug used to treat bleeding disorders. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ...


Nylon 5,10, made from pentamethylene diamine and sebacic acid, was studied by Carothers even before nylon 6,6 and has superior properties, but is more expensive to make. In keeping with this naming convention, "nylon 6,12" (N-6,12) or "PA-6,12" is a copolymer of a 6C diamine and a 12C diacid. Similarly for N-5,10 N-6,11; N-10,12, etc. Other nylons include copolymerized dicarboxylic acid/diamine products that are not based upon the monomers listed above. For example, some aromatic nylons are polymerized with the addition of diacids like terephthalic acid (→ Kevlar) or isophthalic acid (→ Nomex), more commonly associated with polyesters. There are copolymers of N-6,6/N6; copolymers of N-6,6/N-6/N-12; and others. Because of the way polyamides are formed, nylon would seem to be limited to unbranched, straight chains. But "star" branched nylon can be produced by the condensation of dicarboxylic acids with polyamines having three or more amino groups. Cadaverine is a foul-smelling molecule produced by protein hydrolysis during putrefaction of animal tissue. ... Sebacic acid (IUPAC name: 1,10-Decanedioic Acid ) is a bi-carboxylic acid with structure (HOOC)-(COOH), and is naturally occurring. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Terephthalic acid is one isomer of the three phthalic acids. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... Isophthalic acid, or benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, is a dicarboxylic acid, with formula C6H4(COOH)2. ... NOMEX® is the brand name of a flame retardant meta-aramid material marketed and first discovered by DuPont in the 1970s. ... The polyamines are organic compounds having two or more primary amino groups - such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine - that are growth factors in both eucaryotic and procaryotic cells. ... In chemistry, especially in organic chemistry and biochemistry, an amino group is an ammonia-like functional group. ...


The general reaction is:

A molecule of water is given off and the nylon is formed. Its properties are determined by the R and R' groups in the monomers. In nylon 6,6, R' = 6C and R = 4C alkanes, but one also has to include the two carboxyl carbons in the diacid to get the number it donates to the chain. In Kevlar, both R and R' are benzene rings. Image File history File links Condensation_polymerization_diacid_diamine. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Carbon, C, 6 Chemical series Nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14 (IVA), 2, p Density, Hardness 2267 kg/m3 0. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ...


Nylon Fiber

The Federal Trade Commissions' Definition for Nylon Fiber: A manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is a long-chain synthetic polyamide in which less than 85% of the amide-linkages are attached directly (-CO-NH-) to two aliphatic groups. | logo_caption = | seal = US-FederalTradeCommission-Seal. ...

  • A synthetic thermoplastic fiber (Nylon melts/glazes easily at relatively low temperatures)
  • Round, smooth, and shiny filament fibers
  • cross sections can be either
    • trilobal to imitate silk
    • multilobal to increase staple like appearance and hand
  • It's most widely used structures are multifilament, monofilament, staple or tow and is available as partially drawn or as finished filaments.
  • Regular nylon has a round cross section and is perfectly uniform. The filaments are generally completely transparent unless they have been delustered or solution dyed. Thus, they are microscopically recognized as glass rods.
  • Molecular chains of nylon are long and straight variations but have no side chains or linkages.
    • Cold drawing (step 18 on the model) can align the chains so they are oriented with the lengthwise direction and are highly crystalline.
  • Nylon is related chemically to the protein fibers silk and wool.
    • They both have similar dye sites but nylon has many fewer dye sites than wool.

For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... A filament is a fine, thinly spun thread, fiber, or wire. ... Look up staple in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A tow is an untwisted bundle of continuous filaments. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ...

Basic Concepts of Nylon Production

  • The first approach: combining molecules with an acid (COOH) group on each end are reacted with two chemicals that contain amine(NH2)groups on each end.

This process creates nylon 6,6, made of hexamethylene diamine with six carbon atoms and acidipic acid, as well as six carbon atoms. Nylon 6-6, also referred to as nylon 6,6, is a type of nylon. ...

  • The second approach: a compound has an acid at one end and an amine at the other and is polymerized to for a chain with repeating units of(-NH-[CH2]n-CO-)x.
    • In other words, nylon 6 is made from a single six-carbon substance called caprolactam.
    • In this equation, if n=5, then nylon 6 is the assigned name. (may also be referred to as polymer)

Nylon 6,6 Caprolactam molecule used to synthesize Nylon 6 by ring opening polymerization Nylon 6 or polycaprolactam is a polymer developed to reproduce the properties of nylon 6,6 withiout violating the patent on its production. ...

  • Pleats and creases can be heat-set at higher temperatures
  • Difficult to dye

Nylon 6

  • Better dye Affinity
  • Softer Hand
  • Greater elasticity and elastic recovery
  • Better weathering properties; better sunlight resistance

Full Nylon Production Model


Producers The producers of nylon include: Honeywell Nylon Inc., Invista, Wellman Inc. among many others. The Dupont Company, is the most famous pioneer of the nylon we know today. The companies above now produce the nylon used in our everyday lives.


Characteristics

  • Variation of luster: nylon has the ability to be very lusterous, semilusterous or dull.
  • Durability: its high tenacity fibers are used for seatbelts, tire cords, ballistic cloth and other uses.
  • High elongation
  • Excellent abrasion resistance
  • Highly resilient (nylon fabrics are heat-set)
  • Paved the way for easy-care garments
  • High resistance to:
    • insects and fungi
    • molds, mildew, rot
    • many chemicals
  • Used in carpets and nylon stockings
  • Melts instead of burns
  • Used in many military applications

Bulk properties

Above their melting temperatures, Tm, thermoplastics like nylon are amorphous solids or viscous fluids in which the chains approximate random coils. Below Tm, amorphous regions alternate with regions which are lamellar crystals.[1] The amorphous regions contribute elasticity and the crystalline regions contribute strength and rigidity. The planar amide (-CO-NH-) groups are very polar, so nylon forms multiple hydrogen bonds among adjacent strands. Because the nylon backbone is so regular and symmetrical, especially if all the amide bonds are in the trans configuration, nylons often have high crystallinity and make excellent fibers. The amount of crystallinity depends on the details of formation, as well as on the kind of nylon. Apparently it can never be quenched from a melt as a completely amorphous solid. The glass transition temperature is the temperature below which the physical properties of amorphous materials vary in a manner similar to those of a solid phase (glassy state), and above which amorphous materials behave like liquids (rubbery state). ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Wax and paraffin are amorphous. ... A fluid is defined as a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress regardless of the magnitude of the applied stress. ... Illustration of a 3-dimensional polypeptide A random coil is a polymer conformation where the monomer subunits are oriented randomly while still being bonded to adjacent units. ... Lamellae are gill-shaped structures: fine sheets of material held near one another, with fluid in between. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Something is called planar if it is made up of flat planes, or pertaining to planes. ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ... Cis-2-butene Trans-2-butene In chemistry, geometric isomerism or cis-trans isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism and describes the orientation of functional groups within the molecule. ... A quench refers to a rapid cooling. ... Physics In physics, melting is the process of heating a solid substance to a point (called melting point) where it turns liquid. ...


Nylon 6,6 can have multiple parallel strands aligned with their neighboring peptide bonds at coordinated separations of exactly 6 and 4 carbons for considerable lengths, so the carbonyl oxygens and amide hydrogens can line up to form interchain hydrogen bonds repeatedly, without interruption. Nylon 5,10 can have coordinated runs of 5 and 8 carbons. Thus parallel (but not antiparallel) strands can participate in extended, unbroken, multi-chain β-pleated sheets, a strong and tough supermolecular structure similar to that found in natural silk fibroin and the β-keratins in feathers. (Proteins have only an amino acid α-carbon separating sequential -CO-NH- groups.) Nylon 6 will form uninterrupted H-bonded sheets with mixed directionalities, but the β-sheet wrinkling is somewhat different. The three-dimensional disposition of each alkane hydrocarbon chain depends on rotations about the 109.47° tetrahedral bonds of singly-bonded carbon atoms. Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ... Diagram of β-pleated sheet with H-bonding between protein strands The β sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins — the first is the alpha helix — consisting of beta strands connected laterally by three or more hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet. ... Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ... Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... An example of a quadruple hydrogen bond between a self-assembled dimer complex reported by Meijer and coworkers. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... When chain refers to a sequence, it can refer to: A chain of islands such as in an archipelago A chain of molecules such as in Nylon A chain of hills or mountains such as would form a mountain range Terms which use the term chain to refer to a... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ...


When extruded into fibers through pores in an industrial spinneret, the individual polymer chains tend to align because of viscous flow. If subjected to cold drawing afterwards, the fibers align further, increasing their crystallinity, and the material acquires additional tensile strength.[2] In practice, nylon fibers are most often drawn using heated rolls at high speeds. Extruded aluminium; slots allow bars to be joined with special connectors. ... A spinneret is a spiders silk spinning organ. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... Rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of matter under the influence of an applied stress. ... Cold drawing is a process, for example used in cable core production. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ...


Block nylon tends to be less crystalline, except near the surfaces due to shearing stresses during formation. Nylon is clear and colorless, or milky, but is easily dyed. Multistranded nylon cord and rope is slippery and tends to unravel. The ends can be melted and fused with a heat source such as a flame or electrode to prevent this. In physics and mechanics, shear refers to a deformation that causes parallel surfaces to slide past one another (as opposed to compression and tension, which cause parallel surfaces to move towards or away from one another). ... Stress is a measure of force per unit area within a body. ... Clear means: In common usage, clear is a synonym for transparent. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Physics In physics, melting is the process of heating a solid substance to a point (called melting point) where it turns liquid. ... Flame generated by the burning of a candle. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ...


There are carbon fiber/nylon composities with higher density than pure nylon. A cloth of woven carbon fiber filaments, a common element in composite materials Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ...


When dry, polyamide is a good electrical insulator. However, polyamide is hygroscopic. The absorption of water will change some of the material's properties such as its electrical resistance. Nylon is less absorbant than wool or cotton. A hygroscopic substance is a substance that absorbs water readily from its surroundings. ... Look up material in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Electrical resistance is a measure of the degree to which an electrical component opposes the passage of current. ...


Historical uses

Bill Pittendreigh, DuPont, and other individuals and corporations worked diligently during the first few months of World War II to find a way to replace Asian silk with nylon in parachutes. It was also used to make tires, tents, ropes, ponchos, and other military supplies. It was even used in the production of a high-grade paper for U.S. currency. At the outset of the war, cotton accounted for more than 80% of all fibers used and manufactured, and wool fibers accounted for the remaining 20%. By August 1945, manufactured fibers had taken a market share of 25% and cotton had dropped. Bill Pittendreigh was a business executive and was highly involved in promoting the textile industry in the late 20th century. ... Dupont, DuPont, Du Pont, or du Pont may refer to: // E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, the worlds third largest chemical company Du Pont Motors Gilbert Dupont, a French stock brokerage part of retail banking network Crédit du Nord ST Dupont, a French manufacturer of fine... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... This article is about the device. ... Firestone tire This article is about pneumatic tires. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... Typical Andes poncho in a flea market in Genoa, Italy A poncho is a simple garment designed to keep the body warm, or if made from an impermeable material, to keep dry during rain. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ...


Some of the terpolymers based upon nylon are used every day in packaging. Nylon has been used for meat wrappings and sausage sheaths. This article is about the food. ... This article is about the prepared meat. ...


Etymology

In 1940 John W. Eckelberry of DuPont stated that the letters "nyl" were arbitrary and the "on" was copied from the suffixes of other fibers such as cotton and rayon. A later publication by DuPont (Context, vol. 7, no. 2, 1978) explained that the name was originally intended to be "No-Run" ("run" meaning "unravel"), but was modified to avoid making such an unjustified claim and to make the word sound better. The story goes that Carothers changed one letter at a time until DuPont's management was satisfied. But he was not involved in the nylon project during the last year of his life, and committed suicide before the name was coined. For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...


Two theories about the origin of the name claim that it is an acronym of "Now you've lost, Old Nippon" (N.Y.L.O.N.), or that it stands for "New York-London". In the latter case, it is claimed that these were the two cities where the product was researched and developed, or that the inspiration came from a New York to London airplane ticket. There is no evidence for the 'airline ticket' theory, though some compelling evidence of the latter from contemporary researchers at Oxford University who assisted in development...Oxford can be viewed as London from New York, but Nylox would have been more accurate. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... The true name of Japan as said in Japanese ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


Uses

For other uses, see Carpet (disambiguation). ... Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... Fishing line is any cord made for fishing. ... High-heeled shoe Footwear consists of garments worn on the feet. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Sheer pantyhose Pantyhose (also called tights) are sheer, close fitting coverings of the body from the waist to the feet, most frequently worn by women. ... Three toothbrushes The toothbrush is an instrument used to clean teeth, consisting of a small brush on a handle. ... A bristle is a stiff hair or feather. ... Velcro: hooks (left) and loops (right). ... For the Mozilla crash reporting software previously called Airbag, see Breakpad. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... Left side of a Ford Cologne V6 engine, clearly showing a (rusty) cast iron exhaust manifold - three exhaust ports into one pipe. ... Petrol redirects here. ... The word sling may refer to one of the following: A sling (weapon) is a device used to hurl projectiles A sling is one of any sort of mixed alcoholic drink, also known as a cocktail. ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... A wide range of equipment is used during climbing. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Spur gears found on a piece of farm equipment A gear is a wheel with teeth around its circumference, the purpose of the teeth being to mesh with similar teeth on another mechanical device -- possibly another gear wheel -- so that force can be transmitted between the two devices in a... A bearing is a device to permit constrained relative motion between two parts, typically rotation or linear movement. ... This article is about the device. ... For other uses, see Balloon (disambiguation). ... A classical guitar, also called a Spanish guitar, is a musical instrument from the family of musical instruments called chordophones. ... Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre with strong, rhythmic undertones and is often accompanied with a similarly impassioned style of dance involving vigorous movements, such as hand-clapping and foot-stamping. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... A woodsball player firing at opponents from behind cover. ... Racquetball racquet and ball Racquetball is a sport played with racquets and a hollow rubber ball on an indoor or outdoor court. ... Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation Squash is an indoor racquet sport that was formerly called Squash racquets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Squash racquet and ball Racquetball racquet and ball A racquet (or racket) is a sports implement consisting of a handled frame with an open hoop across which a network of cord is stretched. ... A vibration in a string is a wave. ... The strings of a harp A string is the vibrating element which is the source of vibration in string instruments, such as the guitar, harp, piano, and members of the violin family. ... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... A drum stick is an item used to hit percussion instruments to produce sound. ...

See also

A polymer (from Greek: πολυ, polu, many; and μέρος, meros, part) is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... The nylon riots refer to a series of publicized disturbances at American stores created by a nylon stocking shortage between August 1945 and March 1946. ... Cordura is the registered name of a certified fabric from INVISTA. It is used in a wide range of products from luggage and backpacks to boots, to military wear and performance apparel. ... Caprolactam molecule used to synthesize Nylon 6 by ring opening polymerization Nylon 6 or polycaprolactam is a polymer developed to reproduce the properties of nylon 6,6 withiout violating the patent on its production. ... Nylon 6-6 is a type of nylon, there are two groups: nylon 6 and nylon 6. ...

References

  1. ^ History of Nylon US Patent 2,130,523 'Linear polyamides suitable for spinning into strong pliable fibers', U.S. Patent 2,130,947 'Diamine dicarboxylic acid salt' and U.S. Patent 2,130,948 'Synthetic fibers', all issued 20 September 1938

is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

For historical perspectives on nylon, see the Documents List of "The Stocking Story: You Be The Historian" at the Smithsonian website, by The Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ...

  • A chemical demonstration of the synthesis of nylon in Carleton University's CHEM 1000 course. (Video)
  • Article on making Nylon at home
  • Typical physical characteristics of nylon
  • Polyamide material description
  • Nylon at fibersource.com
  • Textiles by Sara J. Kadolph, ISBN 0131187694

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Nylon - Encyclopedia Article (545 words)
Nylon is a synthetic polymer, a plastic, invented on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at the E. du Pont de Nemours chemical company (Du Pont) of Wilmington, Delaware, USA.
The material was announced in 1938 and the first nylon products; a nylon bristle toothbrush made with nylon yarn (went on sale on February 24, 1938) and more famously, women's stockings (went on sale on May 15, 1940).
Chemically, nylon is a condensation polymer made of repeating units with amide linkages between them: hence it is frequently referred to as a polyamide.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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