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Encyclopedia > Nutrition
The "Nutrition Facts" table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts.

Nutrition is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with good nutrition. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 584 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (619 × 635 pixel, file size: 23 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This U.S. Government Nutrition Facts panel illustrates which nutrients experts recommend you limit and which they recommend you consume in adequate amounts. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 584 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (619 × 635 pixel, file size: 23 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This U.S. Government Nutrition Facts panel illustrates which nutrients experts recommend you limit and which they recommend you consume in adequate amounts. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... This article is about life in general. ...


The diet of an organism refers to what it eats. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, preparation, and so on. They are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as well as to institutions. In nutrition, the diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. ... A dietitian (sometimes spelled dietician) is an expert in food and nutrition. ... The delivery of modern health care depends on an expanding group of highly trained professionals coming together as an interdisciplinary team. ...


Poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy, beriberi, and kwashiorkor; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome, and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. ... Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that increase ones risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone - leading to an increased risk of fracture. ...

Contents

Overview

Nutritional science investigates the metabolic and physiological responses of the body to diet. With advances in the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics, the study of nutrition is increasingly concerned with metabolism and metabolic pathways, the sequences of biochemical steps through which the many substances of living things change from one form to another. Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...


The human body contains chemical compounds, such as water, carbohydrates (sugar, starch, and fiber), amino acids (in proteins), fatty acids (in lipids), and nucleic acids (DNA/RNA). These compounds, in turn, consist of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and so on. All of these chemical compounds and elements occur in various forms and combinations (e.g. hormones/vitamins, phospholipids, hydroxyapatite), both in the human body and in organisms (e.g. plants, animals) that humans eat. Physical Features of the Human Body The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance formed from two or more elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Figure 1: Basic lipid structure. ... Highly simplified diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... Hydroxylapatite is a naturally occurring form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two molecules. ... Physical Features of the Human Body The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ...


The human body consists of elements and compounds ingested, digested, absorbed, and circulated through the bloodstream. Except in the unborn fetus, it is the digestive system which carries out the first steps in feeding the cells of the body. In a typical adult, about seven liters of digestive juices enter the lumen of the digestive tract. They break chemical bonds in ingested molecules and modulate their conformations and energy states. Though some molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream unchanged, digestive processes release them from the matrix of foods in which they occur. Unabsorbed matter is excreted in the feces. For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Lumen can mean: Lumen (unit), the SI unit of luminous flux Lumen (anatomy), the cavity or channel within a tubular structure Thylakoid lumen, the inner membrane space of the chloroplast 141 Lumen, an asteroid discovered by the French astronomer Paul Henry in 1875 Lumen (band), an American post-rock band... In chemistry, a chemical bond is the force which holds together atoms in molecules or crystals. ... Conformation generally means structural arrangement. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ...


Studies of nutritional status must take into account the state of the body before and after experiments, as well as the chemical composition of the diet and the products of excretion. Comparing the food to the waste can help determine the specific compounds and elements absorbed in the body. Their effects may only be discernible after an extended period of time, during which all food and waste must be analyzed. The number of variables involved in such experiments is high, making nutritional studies time-consuming and expensive, which explains why the science of human nutrition is still slowly evolving. A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... In computer science and mathematics, a variable is a symbol denoting a quantity or symbolic representation. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ...


In general, eating a wide variety of fresh, whole (unprocessed), foods has proven favourable compared to monotonous diets based on processed foods. In particular, the consumption of whole plant foods slows digestion and provides higher amounts, and a more favourable balance, of essential nutrients per Calorie, resulting in better management of cell growth, maintenance, and mitosis (cell division), as well as better regulation of appetite and blood sugar. Regularly scheduled meals (every few hours) have also proven more wholesome than infrequent, haphazard ones. A calorie refers to a unit of energy. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ...


Nutrients

Main article: Nutrient

There are seven major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, proteins, vitamins, and water. A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Fats is the plural for fat, a generic term for a class of lipids in biochemistry. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


These nutrient classes can be generally grouped into the categories of macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts), and micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients are carbohydrates, fats, fiber, proteins and water. The other nutrient classes are micronutrients. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Micronutrients are essential nutrients only needed by the human body in small quantities for it to fuction normally. ...


The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide energy, which is measured in kilocalories, often called "Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from small calories. Carbohydrates and proteins provide four (4) Calories of energy per gram, while fats provide nine (9) Calories per gram.[1] Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are necessary for other reasons. Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ...


Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The nitrogen-containing components of protein, called amino acids, fulfill many roles other than energy metabolism, and when they are used as fuel, getting rid of the nitrogen places a burden on the kidneys. In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ...


Other micronutrients not categorized above include antioxidants, essential fatty acids, and phytochemicals. An antioxidant is a chemical that prevents the oxidation of other chemicals. ... Essential fatty acids are fatty acids that are required in the human diet. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ...


Most foods contain a mix of some or all of the nutrient classes. Some nutrients are required on a regular basis, while others are needed less frequently. Poor health can be caused by an imbalance of nutrients, whether an excess or a deficiency.


Carbohydrates

Main article: Carbohydrate

Calories/gram: 4 Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ...


Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides by the number of sugar units they contain. Monosaccharides contain 1 sugar unit, disaccharides contain 2, and polysaccharides contain 3 or more. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are long chains of sugar units, whereas monosaccharides and disaccharides are simple carbohydrates. The difference is important to nutritionists because complex carbohydrates take longer to metabolize since their sugar units are processed one-by-one off the ends of the chains. Simple carbohydrates are metabolized quickly and thus raise blood sugar levels more quickly resulting in rapid increases in blood insulin levels compared to complex carbohydrates.


Fat

Main article: Fat

Calories/gram: 9 For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ...


Fats are composed of fatty acids (long carbon/hydrogen chains) bonded to a glycerol. Fat may be classified as saturated or unsaturated. Saturated fats have all of their carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of their carbon atoms double-bonded in place of a hydrogen atom. Generally, saturated fat is solid at room temperature while unsaturated fat is a liquid. Unsaturated fats may be further classified as mono-unsaturated (one double-bond) or poly-unsaturated (many double-bonds). Trans fats are saturated fats which are typically created from unsaturated fat by adding the extra hydrogen atoms in a process called hydrogenation (also called hydrogenated fat).


Fiber

Main article: Dietary fiber

Calories/gram: 0 Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ...


Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose that is indigestible because we do not have enzymes to digest it. Fruits and vegetables are rich in dietary fiber.


Importance of dietary fiber:

  • provides bulk to the intestinal contents
  • stimulates peristalsis (rhythmic muscular contractions passing along the digestive tract)

Lack of dietary fiber in the diet leads to constipation (failure to pass motions). Peristalsis is the rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles to propel contents through the digestive tract. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ...


Protein

Main article: Protein in nutrition

Calories/gram: 4 Proteins are broken down in the stomach during digestion by enzymes known as proteases into smaller polypeptides to provide amino acids for the organism, including the essential amino acids that the organism cannot biosynthesize itself. ...

Most meats such as chicken contain all the essential amino acids needed for humans.
Most meats such as chicken contain all the essential amino acids needed for humans.

Protein is composed of amino acids, that are body's structural (muscles, skin, hair etc.) materials. The body requires amino acids to produce new body protein (protein retention) and to replace damaged proteins (maintenance) that are lost in the urine. In animals amino acid requirements are classified in terms of essential (an animal cannot produce them) and non-essential (the animal can produce them from other nitrogen containing compounds) amino acids. Consuming a diet that contains adequate amounts of essential (but also non-essential) amino acids is particularly important for growing animals, who have a particularly high requirement. Dietary sources of protein include meats, eggs, grains, legumes, and dairy products such as milk and cheese. Proteins can be converted into carbohydrates through a process called gluconeogenesis. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Meat is animal flesh (mainly muscle tissue) used as food, sometimes with the exception of fish, other seafood, and poultry. ... Roast Chicken Not including 32% bones. ... First, what is an amino acid? Amino Acids are chemical substances that make up protein. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... An essential amino acid for an organism is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by the organism from other available resources, and therefore must be supplied as part of its diet. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ...


Minerals

Main article: Dietary mineral

Calories/gram: 0 mccall is cooool Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ...


Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. The term "mineral" is archaic, since the intent of the definition is to describe ions, not chemical compounds or actual minerals. Some dietitians recommend that these heavier elements should be supplied by ingesting specific foods (that are enriched in the element(s) of interest), compounds, and sometimes including even minerals, such as calcium carbonate. Sometimes these "minerals" come from natural sources such as ground oyster shells. Sometimes minerals are added to the diet separately from food, such as mineral supplements, the most famous being iodine in "iodized salt." The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is distinguished by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... Iodised salt is ordinary table salt mixed with a tiny amount of iodine salts, so that it prevents disease of the thyroid gland. ...

Macrominerals

A variety of elements are required to support the biochemical processes, many play a role as electrolytes or in a structural role.[2] In Human nutrition, the dietary bulk "mineral elements" (RDA > 200 mg/day) are in alphabetical order (parenthetical comments on folk medicine perspective): An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Nutrition is interpreted as the study of the organic process by which an organism assimilates and uses food and liquids for normal functioning, growth and maintenance and to maintain the balance between health and disease. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Daily values. ...

  • Calcium (for muscle and digestive system health, builds bone, neutralizes acidity, clears toxins, helps blood stream)
  • Chloride
  • Magnesium required for processing ATP and related reactions (health, builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, increases flexibility, increases alkalinity)
  • Phosphorus required component of bones (see apatite) and energy processing and many other functions (bone mineralization)[3]
  • Potassium required electrolyte (heart and nerves health)
  • Sodium electrolyte
  • Sulfur for three essential amino acids and many proteins and cofactors (skin, hair, nails, liver, and pancreas health)
Trace minerals

A variety of elements are required in trace amounts, unusually because they play a role in catalysis in enzymes.[4] Some trace mineral elements (RDA < 200 mg/day) are (alphabetical order): For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-, F-, or Cl- ions, respectively, in the crystal. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Catalyst redirects here. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ...

Iodine is required in larger quantities than the other trace minerals in this list and is sometimes classified with the bulk minerals. Sodium is not generally found in dietary supplements, despite being needed in large quantities, because the ion is very common in food. For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Coenzyme A Coenzymes are small organic non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Cytochrome c oxidase The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (PDB 2OCC, EC 1. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Structure of hemoglobin. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... Xanthine Oxidase The enzyme xanthine oxidase, or XO, (bovine milk enzyme is PDB 1FIQ, EC 1. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Helicobacter Pylori Urease drawn from PDB 1E9Z. Urease (EC 3. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Glutathione Peroxidase 1 A peroxidase (eg. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Carboxypeptidase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the first peptide or amide bond at the carboxyl or C-terminal end of proteins and peptides. ... Alcohol Dehydrogenase Alcohol dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones. ... Carbonic anhydrase (carbonate dehydratase) is a family of metalloenzymes (enzymes that contain one or more metal atoms as a functional component of the enzyme) that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons, and bicarbonate ions. ...


Vitamins

Main article: Vitamin

Calories/gram: 0 Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ...


Mineral and/or vitamin deficiency or excess may yield symptoms of diminishing health such as goitre, scurvy, osteoporosis, weak immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain forms of cancer, symptoms of premature aging, and poor psychological health (including eating disorders), among many others.[5] mccall is cooool Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ... A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone - leading to an increased risk of fracture. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Ageing or aging is the process of getting older. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Eating disorders are a group of mental disorders that interfere with normal food consumption. ...


As of 2005, twelve vitamins and about the same number of minerals are recognized as "essential nutrients", meaning that they must be consumed and absorbed - or, in the case of vitamin D, alternatively synthesized via UVB radiation - to prevent deficiency symptoms and death. Certain vitamin-like substances found in foods, such as carnitine, have also been found essential to survival and health, but these are not strictly "essential" to eat because the body can produce them from other compounds. Moreover, thousands of different phytochemicals have recently been discovered in food (particularly in fresh vegetables), which have many known and yet to be explored properties including antioxidant activity (see below). Other essential nutrients include essential amino acids, choline and the essential fatty acids. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components (generally all references are to humans) by any known chemical pathways; and therefore must be obtained from the diet. ...


Water

A manual water pump in China
A manual water pump in China
Main article: Drinking water

Calories/gram: 0 Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1004 KB) 老式的压水的自来水设施。在一些农村还可以看到。 Shizhao2005年摄于诸暨乡间。 File links The following pages link to this file: Water Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1004 KB) 老式的压水的自来水设施。在一些农村还可以看到。 Shizhao2005年摄于诸暨乡间。 File links The following pages link to this file: Water Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... This article is about a mechanical device. ... Tap water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested through drinking by humans. ...


About 70% of the non-fat mass of the human body is made of water. To function properly, the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration; the precise amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and other factors. With physical exertion and heat exposure, water loss will increase and daily fluid needs may increase as well. This article is about modern humans. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ...


It is not clear how much water intake is needed by healthy people, although some experts assert that 8–10 glasses of water (approximately 2 liters) daily is the minimum to maintain proper hydration.[6] The notion that a person should consume eight glasses of water per day cannot be traced back to a scientific source.[7] The effect of water on weight loss and constipation is also still unknown.[8] Original recommendation for water intake in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council read: "An ordinary standard for diverse persons is 1 milliliter for each calorie of food. Most of this quantity is contained in prepared foods."[9] The latest dietary reference intake report by the United States National Research Council in general recommended (including food sources): 2.7 liters of water total for women and 3.7 liters for men.[10] Specifically, pregnant and breastfeeding women need additional fluids to stay hydrated. According to the Institute of Medicine—who recommend that, on average, women consume 2.2 litres and men 3.0 litres—this is recommended to be 2.4 litres (approx. 9 cups) for pregnant women and 3 litres (approx. 12.5 cups) for breastfeeding women since an especially large amount of fluid is lost during nursing.[11]-1... The National Research Council (NRC) of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academy of Sciences and the United States National Academy of Engineering, carrying out most of the studies done in their names. ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Suckling redirects here. ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ...


For those who have healthy kidneys, it is rather difficult to drink too much water, but (especially in warm humid weather and while exercising) it is dangerous to drink too little. People can drink far more water than necessary while exercising, however, putting them at risk of water intoxication, which can be fatal. Water intoxication (also known as hyperhydration or water poisoning) is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain function that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside of safe limits, ironically by that which makes up the majority of it - common water. ...


Normally, about 20 percent of water intake comes from food, while the rest comes from drinking water and beverages (caffeinated included). Water is excreted from the body in multiple forms; through urine and feces, through sweating, and by exhalation of water vapor in the breath. For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... SWEAT is an OLN/TSN show hosted by Julie Zwillich that aired in 2003-2004. ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ...


Other nutrients

Calories/gram: 0


Other micronutrients include antioxidants, essential fatty acids, and phytochemicals. These substances are generally more recent discoveries which: have not yet been recognized as vitamins; are still under investigation; or contribute to health but are not necessary for life. Phytochemicals may act as antioxidants, but not all phytochemicals are antioxidants.


Antioxidants

Main article: Antioxidant

Antioxidants are recent discovery. As cellular metabolism/energy production requires oxygen, potentially damaging (e.g. mutation causing) compounds known as radical oxygen species or free radicals form as a result. For normal cellular maintenance, growth, and division, these free radicals must be sufficiently neutralized by antioxidant compounds, some produced by the body with adequate precursors (glutathione, Vitamin C in most animals) and those that the body cannot produce may only be obtained through the diet through direct sources (Vitamin C in humans, Vitamin A, Vitamin K) or produced by the body from other compounds (Beta-carotene converted to Vitamin A by the body, Vitamin D synthesized from cholesterol by sunlight). Phytochemicals (Section Below) and their subgroup polyphenols comprise of the majority of antioxidants, some 4,000 known, and therefore there is much overlap. Different antioxidants are now known to function in a cooperative network, e.g. vitamin C can reactivate free radical-containing glutathione or vitamin E by accepting the free radical itself, and so on. Some antioxidants are more effective than others at neutralizing different free radicals. Some cannot neutralize certain free radicals. Some cannot be present in certain areas of free radical development (Vitamin A is fat-soluble and protects fat areas, Vitamin C is water soluble and protects those areas). When interacting with a free radical, some antioxidants produce a different free radical compound that is less dangerous or more dangerous than the previous compound. Having a variety of antioxidants allows any byproducts to be safely dealt with by more efficient antioxidants in neutralizing a free radical's butterfly effect. Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... In chemistry a precursor is a compound that participates in the chemical reaction that produces another compound. ... Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide. ... Fat soluble refers to properties of compounds in our bodies that are attracted to and accumulated in fat cells within the body. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Point attractors in 2D phase space. ...


Essential fatty acids

Main article: Essential fatty acids

Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, however, at least two fatty acids are essential and must be consumed in the diet. An appropriate balance of essential fatty acids - omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids - has been discovered to be important for maintaining health. Both of these unique "omega" long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for a class of eicosanoids known as prostaglandins which function as hormones. The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (which can be made in the body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (LNA), or taken in through marine food sources), serves as building block for series 3 prostaglandins (e.g. weakly-inflammation PGE3). The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) serves as building block for series 1 prostaglandins (e.g. anti-inflammatory PGE1), whereas arachidonic acid (AA) serves as building block for series 2 prostaglandins (e.g. pro-inflammatory PGE 2). Both DGLA and AA are made from the omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) in the body, or can be taken in directly through food. An appropriately balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 partly determines the relative production of different prostaglandins, which partly explains the importance of omega-3/omega-6 balance for cardiovascular health. In industrialised societies, people generally consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils that have reduced amounts of essential fatty acids along with an excessive amount of omega-6 relative to omega-3. Essential fatty acids are fatty acids that are required in the human diet. ... Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids found in certain fish tissues, and in vegetable sources such as flax seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. ... Omega-6 fatty acids are fatty acids where the term omega-6 signifies that the first double bond in the carbon backbone of the fatty acid, counting from the end opposite the acid group, occurs in the sixth carbon-carbon bond. ... An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. ... For other uses, see Substrate. ... In biochemistry, eicosanoids are a class of oxygenated hydrophobic hormones that largely function as paracrine mediators. ... A prostaglandin is any member of a group of lipid compounds that are derived from fatty acids and have important functions in the animal body. ... Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid. ... Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Linoleic acid (LA) is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. ...


The rate of conversions of omega-6 DGLA to AA largely determines the production of the respective prostaglandins PGE1 and PGE2. Omega-3 EPA prevents AA from being released from membranes, thereby skewing prostaglandin balance away from pro-inflammatory PGE2 made from AA toward anti-inflammatory PGE1 made from DGLA. Moreover, the conversion (desaturation) of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme delta-5-desaturase, which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin (up-regulation) and glucagon (down-regulation). Because different types and amounts of food eaten/absorbed affect insulin, glucagon and other hormones to varying degrees, not only the amount of omega-3 versus omega-6 eaten but also the general composition of the diet therefore determine health implications in relation to essential fatty acids, inflammation (e.g. immune function) and mitosis (i.e. cell division). A Desaturase is an enzyme which removes two hydrogen atoms from an organic compound, creating a carbon/carbon double bond. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ...


Phytochemicals

Main article: Phytochemical

A growing area of interest is the effect upon human health of trace chemicals, collectively called phytochemicals. These nutrients are typically found in edible plants, especially colorful fruits and vegetables, but also other organisms including seafood, algae, and fungi. The effects of phytochemicals increasingly survive rigorous testing by prominent health organizations. One of the principal classes of phytochemicals are polyphenol antioxidants, chemicals which are known to provide certain health benefits to the cardiovascular system and immune system. These chemicals are known to down-regulate the formation of reactive oxygen species, key chemicals in cardiovascular disease. Phytochemicals are plant or fruit derived chemical compounds. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x841, 267 KB)Blackberry fruits Taken by User:Fir0002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x841, 267 KB)Blackberry fruits Taken by User:Fir0002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Molecular structure of flavone, a common polyphenol antioxidant A polyphenol antioxidant is a member of a class of multi-phenolic compounds known for their role in down-regulating free radical formation in mammals . ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... Molecular structure of apigenin, a polyphenol antioxidant A polyphenol antioxidant is a type of antioxidant containing a polyphenolic substructure. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) include oxygen ions, free radicals and peroxides both inorganic and organic. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ...


Perhaps the most rigorously tested phytochemical is zeaxanthin, a yellow-pigmented carotenoid present in many yellow and orange fruits and vegetables. Repeated studies have shown a strong correlation between ingestion of zeaxanthin and the prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).[12] Less rigorous studies have proposed a correlation between zeaxanthin intake and cataracts.[13] A second carotenoid, lutein, has also been shown to lower the risk of contracting AMD. Both compounds have been observed to collect in the retina when ingested orally, and they serve to protect the rods and cones against the destructive effects of light. Zeaxanthin is one of the two carotenoids contained within the retina. ... This article or section should be merged with macular degeneration Treatment Those with AMD can sometimes benefit from the treatment tested in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. ... Cataract is also used to mean a waterfall or where the flow of a river changes dramatically. ...


Another caretenoid, beta-cryptoxanthin, appears to protect against chronic joint inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis. While the association between serum blood levels of beta-cryptoxanthin and substantially decreased joint disease has been established, neither a convincing mechanism for such protection nor a cause-and-effect have been rigorously studied.[14] Similarly, a red phytochemical, lycopene, has substantial credible evidence of negative association with development of prostate cancer. Cryptoxanthin is a natural carotenoid pigment. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ...


The correlations between the ingestion of some phytochemicals and the prevention of disease are, in some cases, enormous in magnitude.


Even when the evidence is obtained, translating it to practical dietary advice can be difficult and counter-intuitive. Lutein, for example, occurs in many yellow and orange fruits and vegetables and protects the eyes against various diseases. However, it does not protect the eye nearly as well as zeaxanthin, and the presence of lutein in the retina will prevent zeaxanthin uptake. Additionally, evidence has shown that the lutein present in egg yolk is more readily absorbed than the lutein from vegetable sources, possibly because of fat solubility.[15] At the most basic level, the question "should you eat eggs?" is complex to the point of dismay, including misperceptions about the health effects of cholesterol in egg yolk, and its saturated fat content.


As another example, lycopene is prevalent in tomatoes (and actually is the chemical that gives tomatoes their red color). It is more highly concentrated, however, in processed tomato products such as commercial pasta sauce, or tomato soup, than in fresh "healthy" tomatoes. Yet, such sauces tend to have high amounts of salt, sugar, other substances a person may wish or even need to avoid. Tomato soup is a soup made from tomatoes. ...


The following table presents phytochemical groups and common sources, arranged by family:

Family Sources Possible Benefits
flavonoids berries, herbs, vegetables, wine, grapes, tea general antioxidant, oxidation of LDLs, prevention of arteriosclerosis and heart disease
isoflavones (phytoestrogens) soy, red clover, kudzu root general antioxidant, prevention of arteriosclerosis and heart disease, easing symptoms of menopause, cancer prevention[16]
isothiocyanates cruciferous vegetables cancer prevention
monoterpenes citrus peels, essential oils, herbs, spices, green plants, atmosphere[17] cancer prevention, treating gallstones
organosulfur compounds chives, garlic, onions cancer prevention, lowered LDLs, assistance to the immune system
saponins beans, cereals, herbs Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperglycemia, Antioxidant, cancer prevention,

Anti-inflammatory Molecular structure of the flavone backbone (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. ... This article is about the fruit. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... // Introduction Arteriosclerosis means the hardening of the arteries in Greek. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... The chemical structure of the isoflavone backbone (3-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyr-4-one) Isoflavones are a class of organic compounds and biomolecules related to the flavonoids [1]. They act as phytoestrogens in mammals. ... Phytoestrogens are chemicals produced by plants that act like estrogens in animal/+human cells and bodies. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Binomial name Trifolium pratense L. Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) is a species of clover, native to Europe, western Asia and northwest Africa. ... For the comic strip, see Kudzu (comic strip). ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... // Introduction Arteriosclerosis means the hardening of the arteries in Greek. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... The word menopause literally means the permanent physiological, or natural, cessation of menstrual cycles, from the Greek roots meno (month) and pausis (a pause, a cessation). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Isothiocyanate is the chemical group -N=C=S, formed by substituting sulfur for oxygen in the isocyanate group. ... Cabbage plants Edible plants in the family Brassicaceae (also called Cruciferae) are termed Cruciferous vegetables. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Monoterpenes consist of two isoprene units and have the molecular formula C10H16. ... For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color Space-filling model of the chlorophyll molecule Chlorophyll is a green photosynthetic pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... In medicine, gallstones are crystalline bodies formed within the body by accretion or concretion of normal or abnormal bile components. ... Organosulfur compounds are organic compounds that contain sulfur. ... Binomial name Allium schoenoprasum L. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum), is the smallest species of the onion family[1] Alliaceae, native to Europe, Asia and North America[2]. They are referred to only in the plural, because they grow in clumps rather than as individual plants. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Saponins are the glycosides of 27 carbon atom steroids, or 30 carbon atom triterpenes. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Grain redirects here. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood [1]. It is not a disease but a metabolic derangement that can be secondary to many diseases and can contribute to many forms of disease, most notably cardiovascular disease. ... Hyperglycemia, hyperglycaemia, or high blood sugar is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ...

capsaicinoids all capiscum (chile) peppers topical pain relief, cancer prevention, cancer cell apoptosis

The chemical compound capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component of chile peppers ( Capsicum). ... The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... Pain therapy is treatment given to patients experiencing chronic or acute pain. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ...

Intestinal bacterial flora

Main article: Gut flora

It is now also known that the human digestion system contains a population of a range of bacteria and yeast such as Bacteroides, L. acidophilus and E. coli which are essential to digestion, and which are also affected by the food we eat. Bacteria in the gut fulfill a host of important functions for humans, including breaking down and aiding in the absorption of otherwise indigestible food; stimulating cell growth; repressing the growth of harmful bacteria, training the immune system to respond only to pathogens; and defending against some diseases. Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ... Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ... Species etc. ... Binomial name Lactobacillus acidophilus (Moro 1900) Hansen & Mocquot 1970 Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of several bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus. ... See also Entamoeba coli. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ...


Balanced diet

Balanced diet is a diet which consists of all the nutrients in a required proportion with water and roughage.


Junk food

Junk food is a slang name for food items containing limited nutritional value. It includes food high in salts, fats, sugar, and calories, and low nutrient content.


Sports nutrition

Main article: Sports nutrition

Sports Nutrition is a multi-disciplinary field of study that incorporates exercise physiology, nutrition, biochemistry, integrative physiology, and cell/molecular biology. ...

Protein

The protein requirements of athletes, once the source of great controversy, has settled into a current consensus. Sedentary people and recreational athletes[18] have similar protein requirements, about 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body mass. These needs are easily met by a balanced diet containing about 70 grams of protein for a 70 kg (150 pound) man or 60 grams of protein for a 60 kg (130 pound) woman.


People who exercise at greater intensity, and especially those whose activity grows muscle bulk, have significantly higher protein requirements. According to Clinical Sports Nutrition (see footnote above), active athletes playing power sports (such as football), those engaged in muscle-development training, and elite endurance athletes, all require approximately 2 grams of protein per day per kilogram of body weight, roughly double that of a sedentary persons. Older athletes seeking primarily to maintain developed muscle mass require 2 to 3 g per day per kg.


Protein intake in excess of that required to build muscle (and other) tissue is broken-down by gluconeogenesis to be used as energy. Pyruvic acid Oxaloacetic acid Phosphoenolpyruvate Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate Fructose 6-phosphate Glucose-6-phosphate Glucose Gluconeogenesis is the generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids (primarily alanine and glutamine). ...


Water and salts

Maintaining hydration during periods of physical exertion is key to good performance. While drinking too much water during activities can lead to physical discomfort, dehydration in excess of 2% of body mass (by weight) markedly hinders athletic performance. It is recommended that an athlete drink about 400-600 mL 2-3 hours before activity, during exercise he or she should drink 150-350mL every 15 to 20 minutes and after exercise that he or she replace sweat loss by drinking 450-675 mL for every 0.5 kg body weight loss during activity.[citation needed] Some studies have shown that an athlete that drinks before they feel thirsty stays cooler and performs better than one who drinks on thirst cues, although recent studies of such races as the Boston Marathon have indicated that this recommendation can lead to the problem of overhydration.[citation needed] Additional carbohydrates and protein before, during, and after exercise increase time to exhaustion as well as speed recovery. Dosage is based on work performed, lean body mass, and environmental factors, especially ambient temperature and humidity.


Carbohydrates

The main fuel used by the body during exercise is carbohydrates, which is stored in muscle as glycogen- a form of sugar. During exercise, muscle glycogen reserves can be used up, especially when activities last longer than 90 min.[citation needed] When glycogen is not present in muscles, the muscle cells perform anaerobic respiration producing lactic acid, which is responsible for fatigue and burning sensation, and post exercise stiffness in muscles.[citation needed] Because the amount of glycogen stored in the body is limited, it is important for athletes to replace glycogen by consuming a diet high in carbohydrates. Meeting energy needs can help improve performance during the sport, as well as improve overall strength and endurance.
There are different kinds of carbohydrates--simple or refined, and unrefined. A typical American consumes about 50% of their carbohydrates as simple sugars, which are added to foods as opposed to sugars that come naturally in fruits and vegetables. These simple sugars come in large amounts in sodas and fast food. Over the course of a year, the average American consumes 54 gallons of soft drinks, which contain the highest amount of added sugars.[19] Even though carbohydrates are necessary for humans to function, they are not all equally healthful. When machinery has been used to remove bits of high fiber, the carbohydrates are refined. These are the carbohydrates found in white bread and fast food.[20]


Longevity

Main article: Healthy diet

A healthy diet is the practice of making choices about what to eat with the intent of improving or maintaining good health. ...

Whole plant food diet

Heart disease, cancer, obesity, and diabetes are commonly called "Western" diseases because these maladies were once rarely seen in developing countries. One study in China found some regions had essentially no cancer or heart disease, while in other areas they reflected "up to a 100-fold increase" coincident with diets that were found to be entirely plant-based to heavily animal-based, respectively.[21] In contrast, diseases of affluence like cancer and heart disease are common throughout the United States. Adjusted for age and exercise, large regional clusters of people in China rarely suffered from these "Western" diseases possibly because their diets are rich in vegetables, fruits and whole grains.[21] The China Study The China Study (ISBN 1-932100-38-5) is a book by T. Colin Campbell and his son, Thomas M. Campbell II, that was published in 2005. ...


The United Healthcare/Pacificare nutrition guideline recommends a whole plant food diet, and recommends using protein only as a condiment with meals. A National Geographic cover article from November, 2005, entitled The Secrets of Living Longer, also recommends a whole plant food diet. The article is a lifestyle survey of three populations, Sardinians, Okinawans, and Adventists, who generally display longevity and "suffer a fraction of the diseases that commonly kill people in other parts of the developed world, and enjoy more healthy years of life. In sum, they offer three sets of 'best practices' to emulate. The rest is up to you." In common with all three groups is to "Eat fruits, vegetables, and whole grains." The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Adventist is also commonly used as an abbreviation for Seventh-day Adventist. ...


The National Geographic article noted that an NIH funded study of 34,000 Seventh-Day Adventists between 1976 and 1988 "...found that the Adventists' habit of consuming beans, soy milk, tomatoes, and other fruits lowered their risk of developing certain cancers. It also suggested that eating whole grain bread, drinking five glasses of water a day, and, most surprisingly, consuming four servings of nuts a week reduced their risk of heart disease." NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA), colloquially referred to as the Adventists, is an evangelical Protestant Christian denomination that grew out of the prophetic Millerite movement in the United States during the middle part of the 19th century. ...


The French "paradox"

Main article: French paradox

It has been discovered that people living in France live longer. Even though they consume more saturated fats than Americans, the rate of heart disease is lower in France than in North America. A number of explanations have been suggested: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Reduced consumption of processed carbohydrate and other junk foods;
  • Ethnic genetic differences allowing the body to be harmed less by fats;[citation needed]
  • Regular consumption of red wine; or
  • Living in the South requires the body to produce less heat, allowing a slower, and therefore healthier, metabolic rate.[citation needed]
  • More active lifestyles involving plenty of daily exercise, especially walking; the French are much less dependent on cars than Americans are.
  • Higher consumption of artificially produced trans-fats by Americans, which has been shown to have greater lipoprotein impacts per gram than saturated fat.[22]

However, a growing number of French health researchers[citation needed] doubt the theory that the French are healthier than other populations. Statistics collected by the WHO from 1990-2000 show that the incidence of heart disease in France may have been underestimated and in fact be similar to that of neighboring countries.[23] This article is about the beverage. ...


Malnutrition

Main article: Malnutrition

Malnutrition refers to insufficient, excessive, or imbalanced consumption of nutrients. In developed countries, the diseases of malnutrition are most often associated with nutritional imbalances or excessive consumption. Although there are more people in the world who are malnurished due to excessive consumption, according to the United Nations World Health Organization, the real challenge in developing nations today, more than starvation, is insufficient malnutrition — the lack of nutrients necessary for growth and the maintenance of vital functions. Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... WHO redirects here. ...


Illnesses caused by improper nutrient consumption

NUTRIENTS DEFICIENCY EXCESS
Calories Starvation Obesity, diabetes mellitus, Cardiovascular disease
Simple carbohydrates Marasmus, starvation diabetes mellitus
Complex carbohydrates Marasmus, starvation Obesity
Saturated fat / trans fat none Cardiovascular disease,
Unsaturated fat Rabbit starvation Obesity
Cholesterol none Cardiovascular disease
Protien Marasmus Ketoacidosis, Rabbit starvation, kidney disease
Sodium hyponatremia Hypernatremia, hypertension
Iron Anaemia Hepatitis C, cirrhosis, heart disease
Iodine Goitre, hypothyroidism Iodine Toxicity (goitre, hypothyroidism)
Vitamin A Xeropathalmia and Night Blindness Hypervitaminosis A (cirrhosis, hair loss, birth defects)
Vitamin B1 Beri-Beri
Vitamin B2 Cracking of skin and Corneal Unclearation
Niacin Pellagra dyspepsia, cardiac arrhythmias, birth defects
Vitamin B12 Pernicious Anaemia
Vitamin C Scurvy
Vitamin D Rickets Hypervitaminosis D (deyhration, vomiting, constipation)
Vitamin E Hypervitaminosis E (anticoagulant: excessive bleeding)
Vitamin K Hemorrhage

A calorie refers to a unit of energy. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Marasmus is a form of severe protein-energy malnutrition characterised by calorie deficiency and energy deficiency. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Marasmus is a form of severe protein-energy malnutrition characterised by calorie deficiency and energy deficiency. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. ... Rabbit starvation is the form of acute malnutrition caused by excess consumption of rabbit meat (and possibly other lean meats) coupled with a lack of other sources of nutrients. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Marasmus is a form of severe protein-energy malnutrition characterised by calorie deficiency and energy deficiency. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Diabetic ketoacidosis. ... Rabbit starvation is the form of acute malnutrition caused by excess consumption of rabbit meat (and possibly other lean meats) coupled with a lack of other sources of nutrients. ... See the article on the kidney for the anatomy and function of healthy kidneys and a list of diseases involving the kidney. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... Hypernatremia is an electrolyte disturbance consisting of an elevated sodium level in the blood (compare to hyponatremia, meaning a low sodium level). ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... This page is for the disease. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... The effects of excessive vitamin A intake include: birth defects liver abnormalities, reduced bone mineral density that may result in osteoporosis coarse bone growths hair loss excessive skin dryness/peeling Signs of acute toxicity include nausea and vomiting, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, and loss of muscular coordination. ... Beri-beri is a nutritional disease, deficiency in vitamin 1 (thiamine). ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease caused by dietary lack of niacin (vitamin B3) and protein, especially proteins containing the essential amino acid tryptophan. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Rickets is a softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. ... Hypervitaminosis D is a state of Vitamin D toxicity. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Mental agility

Main article: Nootropic

Research indicates that improving the awareness of nutritious meal choices and establishing long-term habits of healthy eating has a positive effect on a cognitive and spatial memory capacity, potentially increasing a student's potential to process and retain academic information. Nootropics, popularly referred to as smart drugs, smart nutrients, cognitive enhancers and brain enhancers, are substances which claim to boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). ...


Some organizations have begun working with teachers, policymakers, and managed foodservice contractors to mandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeterias from primary to university level institutions. Health and nutrition have been proven to have close links with overall educational success (Behrman, 1996). Currently less than 10% of American college students report that they ate the recommended five servings of fruit and vegetables daily.[24] Better nutrition has been shown to have an impact on both cognitive and spatial memory performance; a study showed those with higher blood sugar levels performed better on certain memory tests.[25] In another study, those who consumed yogurt performed better on thinking tasks when compared to those who consumed caffeine free diet soda or confections.[26] Nutritional deficiencies have been shown to have a negative effect on learning behavior in mice as far back as 1951.[27]

"Better learning performance is associated with diet induced effects on learning and memory ability".[28]

The "nutrition-learning nexus" demonstrates the correlation between diet and learning and has application in a higher education setting.

"We find that better nourished children perform significantly better in school, partly because they enter school earlier and thus have more time to learn but mostly because of greater learning productivity per year of schooling."[29]
91% of college students feel that they are in good health while only 7% eat their recommended daily allowance of fruits and vegetables.[24]
Nutritional education is an effective and workable model in a higher education setting.[30][31]
More "engaged" learning models that encompass nutrition is an idea that is picking up steam at all levels of the learning cycle.[32]

There is limited research available that directly links a student's Grade Point Average (G.P.A.) to their overall nutritional health. Additional substantive data is needed to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that overall intellectual health is closely linked to a person's diet, rather than just another correlation fallacy.


Mental disorders

Nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder, the four most common mental disorders in developed countries.[33] On the Threshold of Eternity. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... For other things named OCD, see OCD (disambiguation). ...


Cancer

Cancer is now common in developing countries. According a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, "In the developing world, cancers of the liver, stomach and esophagus were more common, often linked to consumption of carcinogenic preserved foods, such as smoked or salted food, and parasitic infections that attack organs." Lung cancer rates are rising rapidly in poorer nations because of increased use of tobacco. Developed countries "tended to have cancers linked to affluence or a 'Western lifestyle' – cancers of the colon, rectum, breast and prostate – that can be caused by obesity, lack of exercise, diet and age."[34] The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ...


Metabolic syndrome

Several lines of evidence indicate lifestyle-induced hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin function (i.e. insulin resistance) as a decisive factor in many disease states. For example, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are strongly linked to chronic inflammation, which in turn is strongly linked to a variety of adverse developments such as arterial microinjuries and clot formation (i.e. heart disease) and exaggerated cell division (i.e. cancer). Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance (the so-called metabolic syndrome) are characterized by a combination of abdominal obesity, elevated blood sugar, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood triglycerides, and reduced HDL cholesterol. The negative impact of hyperinsulinemia on prostaglandin PGE1/PGE2 balance may be significant. Hyperinsulinemia, present in people with Diabetes mellitus type 2 or insulin resistance where excess levels of circulating insulin in blood. ... Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that increase ones risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. ... In medicine, blood sugar is a term used to refer to levels of glucose in the blood. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Triglyceride (blue: fatty acid; red: glycerol backbone) Triglycerides are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ...


The state of obesity clearly contributes to insulin resistance, which in turn can cause type 2 diabetes. Virtually all obese and most type 2 diabetic individuals have marked insulin resistance. Although the association between overweight and insulin resistance is clear, the exact (likely multifarious) causes of insulin resistance remain less clear. Importantly, it has been demonstrated that appropriate exercise, more regular food intake and reducing glycemic load (see below) all can reverse insulin resistance in overweight individuals (and thereby lower blood sugar levels in those who have type 2 diabetes). See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ... The glycemic load (GL) is a ranking system for carbohydrate content in food portions based on their glycemic index (GI) and the portion size. ...


Obesity can unfavourably alter hormonal and metabolic status via resistance to the hormone leptin, and a vicious cycle may occur in which insulin/leptin resistance and obesity aggravate one another. The vicious cycle is putatively fuelled by continuously high insulin/leptin stimulation and fat storage, as a result of high intake of strongly insulin/leptin stimulating foods and energy. Both insulin and leptin normally function as satiety signals to the hypothalamus in the brain; however, insulin/leptin resistance may reduce this signal and therefore allow continued overfeeding despite large body fat stores. In addition, reduced leptin signalling to the brain may reduce leptin's normal effect to maintain an appropriately high metabolic rate. RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Leptin (from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin) is a 16 kDa protein hormone that plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including the regulation (decrease) of appetite and (increase) of metabolism. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ...


There is a debate about how and to what extent different dietary factors -- e.g. intake of processed carbohydrates, total protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake, intake of saturated and trans fatty acids, and low intake of vitamins/minerals -- contribute to the development of insulin- and leptin resistance. In any case, analogous to the way modern man-made pollution may potentially overwhelm the environment's ability to maintain 'homeostasis', the recent explosive introduction of high Glycemic Index- and processed foods into the human diet may potentially overwhelm the body's ability to maintain homeostasis and health (as evidenced by the metabolic syndrome epidemic). Homeostasis (from Greek: ὅμος, homos, equal; and ιστημι, histemi, to stand lit. ... Glycemic index (also glycaemic index, GI) is a ranking system for carbohydrates based on their effect on blood glucose levels. ...


Hyponatremia

Excess water intake, without replenishment of sodium and potassium salts, leads to hyponatremia, which can further lead to water intoxication at more dangerous levels. A well-publicized case occurred in 2007, when Jennifer Strange died while participating in a water-drinking contest.[35] More usually, the condition occurs in long-distance endurance events (such as marathon or triathlon competition and training) and causes gradual mental dulling, headache, drowsiness, weakness, and confusion; extreme cases may result in coma, convulsions, and death. The primary damage comes from swelling of the brain, caused by increased osmosis as blood salinity decreases. Effective fluid replacement techniques include Water aid stations during running/cycling races, trainers providing water during team games such as Soccer and devices such as Camel Baks which can provide water for a person without making it too hard to drink the water. The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... Water intoxication (also known as hyperhydration or water poisoning) is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain function that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside of safe limits, ironically by that which makes up the majority of it - common water. ... Jennifer Lea Strange was a 28-year-old woman who died of water intoxication on January 12, 2007 after taking part in a Sacramento, California, radio stations water-drinking contest. ... For other senses of this word, see Marathon (disambiguation). ... The three components of triathlon: Swimming, Cycling, Running A triathlon is an athletic event consisting of swimming, cycling and running over various distances. ...


Processed foods

Main article: Food processing

Since the Industrial Revolution some two hundred years ago, the food processing industry has invented many technologies that both help keep foods fresh longer and alter the fresh state of food as they appear in nature. Cooling is the primary technology used to maintain freshness, whereas many more technologies have been invented to allow foods to last longer without becoming spoiled. These latter technologies include pasteurisation, autoclavation, drying, salting, and separation of various components, and all appear to alter the original nutritional contents of food. Pasteurisation and autoclavation (heating techniques) have no doubt improved the safety of many common foods, preventing epidemics of bacterial infection. But some of the (new) food processing technologies undoubtedly have downfalls as well. Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans or animals. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Pasteurization is the process of heating food for the purpose of killing harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... Front loading autoclaves are common Image:Autoclave cassette. ... Drying is a mass transfer process resulting in the removal of water moisture or moisture from another solvent, by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid (hereafter product) to end in a solid state. ... Salting is the preparation of food with salt. ...


Modern separation techniques such as milling, centrifugation, and pressing have enabled upconcentration of particular components of food, yielding flour, oils, juices and so on, and even separate fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Inevitably, such large scale upconcentration changes the nutritional content of food, saving certain nutrients while removing others. Heating techniques may also reduce food's content of many heat-labile nutrients such as certain vitamins and phytochemicals, and possibly other yet to be discovered substances.[36] Because of reduced nutritional value, processed foods are often 'enriched' or 'fortified' with some of the most critical nutrients (usually certain vitamins) that were lost during processing. Nonetheless, processed foods tend to have an inferior nutritional profile than do whole, fresh foods, regarding content of both sugar and high GI starches, potassium/sodium, vitamins, fibre, and of intact, unoxidized (essential) fatty acids. In addition, processed foods often contain potentially harmful substances such as oxidized fats and trans fatty acids. Milling may refer to: Grinding grain and other materials in a mill Cutting and shaping materials into products with milling machines Miller Category: ... Centrifugation is a process that involves the use of the centrifugal force for the separation of mixtures. ... Peine forte et dure, (Law French for strong and hard punishment) was formerly a method of torture in the common law legal system, where the defendant who refused to plead would be subjected to having subsequently larger stones pressed upon the chest until a plea was entered, or as the... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ...


A dramatic example of the effect of food processing on a population's health is the history of epidemics of beri-beri in people subsisting on polished rice. Removing the outer layer of rice by polishing it removes with it the essential vitamin thiamine, causing beri-beri. Another example is the development of scurvy among infants in the late 1800s in the United States. It turned out that the vast majority of sufferers were being fed milk that had been heat-treated (as suggested by Pasteur) to control bacterial disease. Pasteurisation was effective against bacteria, but it destroyed the vitamin C. Beri-beri is a nutritional disease, deficiency in vitamin 1 (thiamine). ... For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist who demonstrated the germ theory of disease and developed techniques of inoculation, most notably the first vaccine against rabies. ...


As mentioned, lifestyle- and obesity-related diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent all around the world. There is little doubt that the increasingly widespread application of some modern food processing technologies has contributed to this development. The food processing industry is a major part of modern economy, and as such it is influential in political decisions (e.g. nutritional recommendations, agricultural subsidising). In any known profit-driven economy, health considerations are hardly a priority; effective production of cheap foods with a long shelf-life is more the trend. In general, whole, fresh foods have a relatively short shelf-life and are less profitable to produce and sell than are more processed foods. Thus the consumer is left with the choice between more expensive but nutritionally superior whole, fresh foods, and cheap, usually nutritionally inferior processed foods. Because processed foods are often cheaper, more convenient (in both purchasing, storage, and preparation), and more available, the consumption of nutritionally inferior foods has been increasing throughout the world along with many nutrition-related health complications.


Advice and guidance

Governmental policies

Witnesses give recommendations to the US Senate Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committee on school nutrition and childhood obesity.
The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption for humans.
The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption for humans.

In the US, dietitians are registered with the national Commission for Dietetic Registration and the American Dietetic Association, and are only able to use the label "Dietitian" when they have met specific educational and experiential prerequisites and passed a national registration examination.[citation needed] Anyone may call themselves a nutritionist, including unqualified personnel, as this term is unregulated. Some states have begun to include the title "nutritionist" in state licensure requirements, such as the State of Florida. Most governments provide guidance on nutrition, and some also impose mandatory disclosure/labeling requirements for processed food manufacturers and restaurants to assist consumers in complying with such guidance. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 720 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (720 × 480 pixel, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) source: TV Broadcast author: C-SPAN copyright 2007 National Cable Satellite Corporation (C-SPAN). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 720 × 480 pixelsFull resolution (720 × 480 pixel, file size: 87 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) source: TV Broadcast author: C-SPAN copyright 2007 National Cable Satellite Corporation (C-SPAN). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1584x1224, 532 KB) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1584x1224, 532 KB) Source: http://www. ... USDA redirects here. ... The current food guide pyramid, called My Pyramid MyPyramid, released by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) on April 19, 2005, is an update on the ubiquitous U.S. food guide pyramid. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Mandatory labelling of consumer products enables moral purchasing and avoidance of health problems like allergies. ...


In the US, nutritional standards and recommendations are currently controlled by the US Department of Agriculture. Dietary and exercise guidelines from the USDA are presented in the concept of a food pyramid, which superseded the Four Food Groups. The Senate committee currently responsible for oversight of the USDA is the Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Committee. Committee hearings are often televised on C-SPAN as seen here. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The current food guide pyramid, called My Pyramid MyPyramid, released by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) on April 19, 2005, is an update on the ubiquitous U.S. food guide pyramid. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services provides a sample week-long menu which fulfills the nutritional recommendations of the government.[2] The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ...


Canada's Food Guide is another governmental recommendation. Canadas Food Guide is a diet planning tool produced by Health Canada. ...


Teaching

Nutrition is taught in schools in many countries. In England and Wales the Personal and Social Education and Food Technology curricula nutrition included, stressing the importance of a balanced diet and teaching how to read nutrition labels on packaging. In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. ... Personal and Social Education (PSE) is a component of the state school curriculum in Wales. ...


History

Humans have evolved as omnivorous hunter-gatherers over the past 250,000 years. The diet of early modern humans varied significantly depending on location and climate. The diet in the tropics tended to be based more heavily on plant foods, while the diet at higher latitudes tended more towards animal products. Analysis of postcranial and cranial remains of humans and animals from the Neolithic, along with detailed bone modification studies have shown that cannibalism was also prevalent among prehistoric humans.[37] Pigs are omnivores. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ...


Agriculture developed about 10,000 years ago in multiple locations throughout the world, providing grains such as wheat, rice, and maize, with staples such as bread and pasta. Farming also provided milk and dairy products, and sharply increased the availability of meats and the diversity of vegetables. The importance of food purity was recognized when bulk storage led to infestation and contamination risks. Cooking developed as an often ritualistic activity, due to efficiency and reliability concerns requiring adherence to strict recipes and procedures, and in response to demands for food purity and consistency.[38] Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ...

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ...

Antiquity through 1900

  • The first recorded nutritional experiment is found in the Bible's Book of Daniel. Daniel and his friends were captured by the king of Babylon during an invasion of Israel. Selected as court servants, they were to share in the king's fine foods and wine. But they objected, preferring vegetables (pulses) and water in accordance with their Jewish dietary restrictions. The king's chief steward reluctantly agreed to a trial. Daniel and his friends received their diet for 10 days and were then compared to the king's men. Appearing healthier, they were allowed to continue with their diet.
  • c. 475 BC: Anaxagoras states that food is absorbed by the human body and therefore contained "homeomerics" (generative components), thereby deducing the existence of nutrients.
  • c. 400 BC: Hippocrates says, "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food."
  • 1500s: Scientist and artist Leonardo da Vinci compared metabolism to a burning candle.
  • 1747: Dr. James Lind, a physician in the British navy, performed the first scientific nutrition experiment, discovering that lime juice saved sailors who had been at sea for years from scurvy, a deadly and painful bleeding disorder. The discovery was ignored for forty years, after which British sailors became known as "limeys." The essential vitamin C within lime juice would not be identified by scientists until the 1930s.
  • 1770: Antoine Lavoisier, the "Father of Nutrition and Chemistry" discovered the details of metabolism, demonstrating that the oxidation of food is the source of body heat.
  • 1790: George Fordyce recognized calcium as necessary for fowl survival.
  • Early 1800s: The elements carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen were recognized as the primary components of food, and methods to measure their proportions were developed.
  • 1816: François Magendie discovers that dogs fed only carbohydrates and fat lost their body protein and died in a few weeks, but dogs also fed protein survived, identifying protein as an essential dietary component.
  • 1840: Justus Liebig discovers the chemical makeup of carbohydrates (sugars), fats (fatty acids) and proteins (amino acids.)
  • 1860s: Claude Bernard discovers that body fat can be synthesized from carbohydrate and protein, showing that the energy in blood glucose can be stored as fat or as glycogen.
  • Early 1880s: Kanehiro Takaki observed that Japanese sailors (whose diets consisted almost entirely of white rice) developed beriberi (or endemic neuritis, a disease causing heart problems and paralysis) but British sailors and Japanese naval officers did not. Adding various types of vegetables and meats to the diets of Japanese sailors prevented the disease.
  • 1896: Baumann observed iodine in thyroid glands.
  • 1897: Christiaan Eijkman worked with natives of Java, who also suffered from beriberi. Eijkman observed that chickens fed the native diet of white rice developed the symptoms of beriberi, but remained healthy when fed unprocessed brown rice with the outer bran intact. Eijkman cured the natives by feeding them brown rice, discovering that food can cure disease. Over two decades later, nutritionists learned that the outer rice bran contains vitamin B1, also known as thiamine.

For other uses, see Book of Daniel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Pulses are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve grains or seeds of variable size, shape and color within a pod. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (Greek: Αναξαγόρας, c. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... James Lind (1716 in Edinburgh – 1794 in Gosport) was the pioneer of naval hygiene in the Royal Navy. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Scurvy (N.Lat. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Lavoisier redirects here. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... George Fordyce (18 November 1736- 25 May 1802) was a Scottish physician and chemist. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... François Magendie (1783 - 1855), French physiologist. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Freiherr Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt, Germany - April 18, 1873 in Munich, Germany) was a German chemist. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Not to be confused with fats. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... For the 17th Century Roman Catholic priest who popularized the Memorare, see Father Claude Bernard. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ... Kanehiro Takaki(October 30 1849 - April 13 1920) is a Japanese naval physician. ... Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Christiaan Eijkman (August 11, 1858—November 5, 1930) was a Dutch physician and pathologist whose demonstration that beriberi is caused by poor diet led to the discovery of vitamins. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... For the similarly spelled nucleic acid, see Thymine Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is one of the B vitamins. ...

1900 through 1941

  • Early 1900s: Carl von Voit and Max Rubner independently measure caloric energy expenditure in different species of animals, applying principles of physics in nutrition.
  • 1906: Wilcock and Hopkins showed that the amino acid tryptophan was necessary for the survival of mice. Gowland Hopkins recognized "accessory food factors" other than calories, protein and minerals, as organic materials essential to health but which the body cannot synthesise.
  • 1907: Stephen M. Babcock and Edwin B. Hart conduct the single-grain experiment. This experiment runs through 1911.
  • 1912: Casimir Funk coined the term vitamin, a vital factor in the diet, from the words "vital" and "amine," because these unknown substances preventing scurvy, beriberi, and pellagra, were thought then to be derived from ammonia.
  • 1913: Elmer McCollum discovered the first vitamins, fat soluble vitamin A, and water soluble vitamin B (in 1915; now known to be a complex of several water-soluble vitamins) and names vitamin C as the then-unknown substance preventing scurvy. Lafayette Mendel and Thomas Osborne also perform pioneering work on vitamin A and B.
  • 1919: Sir Edward Mellanby incorrectly identified rickets as a vitamin A deficiency, because he could cure it in dogs with cod liver oil.[39]
  • 1922: McCollum destroys the vitamin A in cod liver oil but finds it still cures rickets, naming vitamin D
  • 1922: H.M. Evans and L.S. Bishop discover vitamin E as essential for rat pregnancy, originally calling it "food factor X" until 1925.
  • 1925: Hart discovers trace amounts of copper are necessary for iron absorption.
  • 1927: Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus synthesizes vitamin D, for which he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1928.
  • 1928: Albert Szent-Györgyi isolates ascorbic acid, and in 1932 proves that it is vitamin C by preventing scurvy. In 1935 he synthesizes it, and in 1937 he wins a Nobel Prize for his efforts. Szent-Györgyi concurrently elucidates much of the citric acid cycle.
  • 1930s: William Cumming Rose identifies essential amino acids, necessary protein components which the body cannot synthesize.
  • 1935: Underwood and Marston independently discover the necessity of cobalt.
  • 1936: Eugene Floyd Dubois shows that work and school performance are related to caloric intake.
  • 1938: The chemical structure of vitamin E is discovered by Erhard Fernholz, and it is synthesised by Paul Karrer.
  • 1940 UK institutes rationing according to nutritional principles drawn up by Elsie Widdowson and others
  • 1941: The first Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) were established by the National Research Council.

Max Rubner [ru:bner] (June 2, 1854, Munich - April 27, 1932, Berlin) was a German physiologist (Physiologe), hygienist (Hygieniker). ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... Tryptophan (abbreviated as Trp or W)[1] is one of the 20 standard amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, and an essential amino acid in the human diet. ... Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins OM FRS (June 20, 1861 Eastbourne, Sussex - May 16, 1947 Cambridge) was an English biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins. ... mccall is cooool Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon. ... Stephen Moulton Babcock (1843 - 1931) was a U.S. agricultural chemist. ... Edwin B. Hart (1874-1953) was an American biochemist. ... The single-grain experiment was an experiment that carried out at the University of Wisconsin from May 1907 to 1911 that would lead to the development of modern nutrition. ... Kazimierz Funk (February 23, 1884 - January 19, 1967), commonly anglicized as Casimir Funk, was a Polish biochemist, generally credited with the first formulation of the concept of Vitamins in 1912, which he called vital amines or vitamines. ... Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ... Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease caused by dietary lack of niacin (vitamin B3) and protein, especially proteins containing the essential amino acid tryptophan. ... Associated with the discovery of Vitamin A, Elmer McCollum was a biochemist at the University of Wisconsin, who in 1913, along with colleague Marguerite Davis identified a fat-soluble nutrient in butterfat and cod liver oil[1]. McCollum and Davis research validated that of Thomas Osborne and Lafayette Mendel, then... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Vitamin B is a complex of several vitamins. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Lafayette Benedict Mendel (February 5, 1872 – December 9, 1935) was an American biochemist known for his work in nutrition including the study of Vitamin A, Vitamin B, lysine and tryptophan. ... Professor Edward Mellanby (1884 - 1955) discovered vitamin D and the role of the vitamin in preventing rickets in 1919. ... Rickets is a softening of the bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (December 25, 1876 – June 9, 1959) was a significant German chemist. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Albert Szent-Györgyi at the time of his appointment to the National Institutes of Health Albert Szent-Györgyi de Nagyrápolt (September 16, 1893 – October 22, 1986) was a Hungarian physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937. ... This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid. ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle, after Hans Adolf Krebs who identified the cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part... William Cumming Rose (April 4, 1887 — September 25, 1985) was an American nutritionist whose research in the 1930s discovered the essential amino acid threonine. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... Paul Karrer (April 21, 1889 – June 18, 1971) was a Swiss organic chemist best known for his work on vitamins. ... // Preface At the beginning of World War II Britain imported 55 million tons of foodstuffs per year, including more than 50% of its meat, 70% of its cheese and sugar, nearly 80% of fruits and about 90% of cereals and fats. ... Dr Elsie Widdowson (1908 - June 14, 2000, Cambridge, England), was a British scientist responsible for overseaing the government mandated addition of vitamins to food and war-time rationing in Britain during World War II. She graduated with a PhD in chemistry from Imperial College, London in 1928; her thesis was... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Daily values. ... The National Research Council (NRC) of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academy of Sciences and the United States National Academy of Engineering, carrying out most of the studies done in their names. ...

Recent

Natural justice is a legal philosophy used in some jurisdictions in the determination of just, or fair, processes in legal proceedings. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ...

See also

Main list: List of basic nutrition topics

Biology: Nutrition or nutrition science studies the relationship between diet and states of health and disease. ...

Dangers of poor nutrition For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...

Food: In mathematics, a deficient number or defective number is a number n for which σ(n) < 2n. ... Avitaminosis is any disease caused by chronic or long-term vitamin deficiency or caused by a defect in metabolic conversion, such as tryptophan to niacin. ... Boron deficiency is a pathology which may occur in animals due to a lack of boron. ... Chromium deficiency is a disorder that results from an insufficient dietary intake of chromium. ... For a more specific and detailed discussion of anemia caused by iron deficiency, see the Wikipedia article iron deficiency anemia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Magnesium deficiency refers to an absolute lack of magnesium, the result of numerous conditions. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Eating disorders are a group of mental disorders that interfere with normal food consumption. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... These children vary in their proportion of body fat. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ...

Food (portal)

Healthy diet: 5 A Day is the name of a number of programmes in various countries to encourage the consumption of at least five portions of fruit and vegetables each day, following requests by the World Health Organization. ... Canadas Food Guide is a diet planning tool produced by Health Canada. ... Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food restaurant or shop at low cost. ... The food groups are part of a method of classification for the various foods that humans consume in their everyday lives, based on the nutritional properties of these types of foods and their location in a hierarchy of nutrition. ... This 1992 food pyramid diagram can still be found on much of the food packaging in the United States The improved American food guide pyramid, informally known as the food pyramid, was a nutrition guide created by the USDA. Released in 1992, the food pyramid suggested how much of each... A food supplement is, typically, a nutrient added to a foodstuff which would otherwise not contain that nutrient. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Functional food or medicinal food is any fresh or processed food claimed to have a health-promoting and/or disease-preventing property beyond the basic nutritional function of supplying nutrients, although there is no consensus on an exact definition of the term. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Cheetos The Luther Burger, a bacon cheeseburger which employs a glazed donut in place of each bun. ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... A healthy diet is the practice of making choices about what to eat with the intent of improving or maintaining good health. ...

Lists: Measuring body weight on a scale Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve a particular objective. ... // For eat or EAT as an abbreviation or acronym, see EAT. In general terms, eating (formally, ingestion) is the process of consuming nutrition, i. ... poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo poo... Nutritional rating systems are methods of ranking or rating food products or food categories to communicate the nutritional value of food in a simplified manner to a target audience. ... The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research. ... The China Study The China Study (ISBN 1-932100-38-5) is a book by T. Colin Campbell and his son, Thomas M. Campbell II, that was published in 2005. ...

Nutrients: Well-known nutritional diets: Abs Diet Atkins diet Banta Diet Best Bet Diet Blood Type diet Body for Life Breatharian diet Buddhist diet Cabbage soup diet Calorie restriction The Cambridge Diet Candida control diet Diabetic diet Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension or the DASH Diet Dr. Hay diet Detox diet... This is (intended to be) a comprehensive alphabetical list of food additives. ... Many diseases in humans are thought to be directly or indirectly related to nutrition, These include, but are not limited to, deficiency diseases, caused by a lack of essential nutrients. ... Following is a list of topics related to life extension: Accelerated aging disease Cockaynes syndrome Progeria Werners syndrome Xeroderma pigmentosum Accident Advanced Cell Technology Corporation Aerobic exercise Age-adjusted life expectancy Age-Related Eye Disease Study Age-Related Macular Degeneration Aging Aging and memory Aging brain Aging population... Foundations De Materia Medica Author: Pedanius Dioscorides Publication data: De Materia Medica, 50–70 Online version: Online version of first volume Description: This five-volume work was a precursor to all modern pharmacopeias. ... // Cane molasses Ephemerals Florida Crystals jaggers Muscovy panels (or pillowcases) Steens cane syrup Fanatics Curbings sugar Sugar beet molasses Sugar beet syrup Ballasts Pekmez Many fresh fruits, dried fruits and fruit juices are used as sweeteners: See List of fruits Amazon Barley malt syrup Brown rice syrup... A nutrient is a substance used in an organisms metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. ...

Profession: Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... mccall is cooool Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... Dietary minerals are chemical elements required by living organisms. ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components (generally all references are to humans) by any known chemical pathways; and therefore must be obtained from the diet. ... Macronutrients are essential nutrients needed by the human body in large quantities for it to fuction normally. ... Micronutrients for plants: There are about eight nutrients essential to plant growth and health that are only present in very small quantities. ... Nootropics, popularly referred to as smart drugs, smart nutrients, cognitive enhancers and brain enhancers, are substances which claim to boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). ... Nutraceutical is a portmanteau of [Nutrition] and [pharmaceutical] and refers to foods thought to have a beneficial effect on human health. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... A complete protein or whole protein is a protein that contains all amino acids, most notably the nine essential amino acids to humans and most animals, in ratios appropriate to the body. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... Protein combining (also protein complementing) is the theory, now largely discredited (citation needed), that vegetarians must eat foods such as beans and rice together, or at least on the same day, so the different amino acids in the foods combine to form a complete protein, containing all eight essential amino... Protein combining (also protein complementing) is the theory, now largely discredited (citation needed), that vegetarians must eat foods such as beans and rice together, or at least on the same day, so the different amino acids in the foods combine to form a complete protein, containing all eight essential amino... Proteins are broken down in the stomach during digestion by enzymes known as proteases into smaller polypeptides to provide amino acids for the organism, including the essential amino acids that the organism cannot biosynthesize itself. ... Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ... In nutrition and CAM, megavitamin therapy makes use of large amounts of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), to treat many types of diseases. ... It has been suggested that Dynamic Flow be merged into this article or section. ...

Tools: A dietitian (sometimes spelled dietician) is an expert in food and nutrition. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • Nutrition scale

Organizations: Nutrition scales are generally weighing instruments that output precise nutritional information for foods or liquids placed upon them. ...

Related topics The American Dietetic Association (ADA) is the United States largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, with nearly 65,000 members. ... The British Dietetic Association is a professional association for dietitians founded in 1936. ...

Main article: Health

Auxology is a meta-term covering the study of all aspects of human physical growth; though it is also a fundamental of biology generally. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... General fitness training works towards broad goals of overall health and well-being, rather than narrow goals of sport competition, larger muscles or concerns over appearance. ... Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. ... Orthomolecular medicine and optimum nutrition are controversial medical and health approaches[1] that posit that many diseases and abnormalities result from various chemical imbalances or deficiencies and can be prevented, treated, or sometimes cured by achieving optimal levels of naturally occurring chemical substances, such as vitamins, dietary minerals, enzymes, antioxidants... Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all military forces. ...

Further reading

  • Galdston, I., Human Nutrition Historic and Scientific (New York: International Universities Press, 1960)
  • Mahan, L.K. and Escott-Stump, S. eds. (2000) Krause's Food, Nutrition, and Diet Therapy. 10th ed. (Phaladelphia: W.B. Saunders Harcourt Brace)
  • Thiollet, J-P, Vitamines & minéraux (Paris, Anagramme, 2001)
  • Walter C. Willett and Meir J. Stampfer. 2003. Rebuilding the Food Pyramid. Scientific American January 2003.

References

  1. ^ Berg J, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L (2002). Biochemistry, 5th ed., San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, page 603. ISBN 0716746840. 
  2. ^ Nelson, D. L.; Cox, M. M. "Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry" 3rd Ed. Worth Publishing: New York, 2000. ISBN 1-57259-153-6.
  3. ^ D. E. C. Corbridge "Phosphorus: An Outline of its Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Technology" 5th Edition Elsevier: Amsterdam 1995. ISBN 0-444-89307-5.
  4. ^ Lippard, S. J. and Berg, J. M., Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry, University Science Books: Mill Valley, CA, 1994.
  5. ^ Shils et al. (2005) Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-4133-5.
  6. ^ Healthy Water Living. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  7. ^ "Drink at least eight glasses of water a day." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 × 8"? by Heinz Valdin, Department of Physiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire
  8. ^ Drinking Water - How Much?, Factsmart.org web site and references within
  9. ^ Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Sciences. Recommended Dietary Allowances, revised 1945. National Research Council, Reprint and Circular Series, No. 122, 1945 (Aug), p. 3-18.
  10. ^ Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, Food and Nutrition Board
  11. ^ Water: How much should you drink every day? - MayoClinic.com
  12. ^ Seddon JM et al. JAMA. 1994; 272: 1413-1420; Schepens Eye Institute/Harvard Medical School, Nov. 11, 2003. See http://www.mdsupport.org/library/zeaxanthin.html.
  13. ^ Lyle, B. J., J. A. Mares-Perlman, et al. (1999). "Antioxidant intake and risk of incident age-related nuclear cataracts in the Beaver Dam Eye Study." Am J Epidemiol 149(9): 801-9; Yeum, K. J., A. Taylor, et al. (1995). "Measurement of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in human lenses." Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 36(13): 2756-61; Chasan-Taber, L., W. C. Willett, et al. (1999). "A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women." Am J Clin Nutr 70(4): 509-16; Brown, L., E. B. Rimm, et al. (1999). "A prospective study of carotenoid intake and risk of cataract extraction in US men." Am J Clin Nutr 70(4): 517-24.
  14. ^ Am J Clin Nutr, Vol. 82, No. 2, 451-455, August, 2005 (inflammatory polyarthritis); Am J Epidemiology 2006 163(1).
  15. ^ Am J Clin Nutr, Vol. 70, No. 2, 247-251, August 1999.
  16. ^ Note that some isoflavone studies have linked isoflavones to increased cancer risk.
  17. ^ Monoterpenes are enormously widespread among green plant life (including algae). Many plants, notably coniferous trees, emit beneficial monoterpenes into the atmosphere.
  18. ^ The definition of recreational athlete here is taken from Burke and Deakin's Clinical Sports Nutrition(3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd, 2006 ): people exercising two to three hours a week at less than 55% maximum VO2 uptake.
  19. ^ William D. McArdle, Frank I. Katch, Victor L. Katch. Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006.
  20. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/healthy_living/nutrition/basics_carbos.shtml
  21. ^ a b Campbell T., Campbell T. The China Study, Dallas: Benella Books, 2005
  22. ^ Ducimetière, Pierre. Understanding the Complexity of Trans Fatty Acid Reduction in the American Diet. BMJ.
  23. ^ Ducimetière, Pierre. Rates of coronary events are similar in France and southern Europe. BMJ.
  24. ^ a b American College Health Association. (2007) American College Health Association national college health assessment spring 2006 reference group data report (abridged). Journal of American College Health, 55(4), 195-206.
  25. ^ Benton, D., & Sargent, J. (1992/7). Breakfast, blood glucose and memory. Biological Psychology, 33(2-3), 207-210.
  26. ^ Kanarek, R. B., & Swinney, D. (1990/2). Effects of food snacks on cognitive performance in male college students. Appetite, 14(1), 15-27.
  27. ^ Whitley, J., O'Dell, B., & Hogan, A. (1951). Effect of diet on maze learning in second-generation rats. folic acid deficiency. Journal of Nutrition, 45(1), 153.
  28. ^ Umezawa, M., Kogishi, K., Tojo, H., Yoshimura, S., Seriu, N., Ohta, A., et al. (1999). High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. The Journal of Nutrition, 129(2), 431-437.
  29. ^ Glewwe, P., Jacoby, H., & King, E. (2001). Early childhood nutrition and academic achievement: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Public Economics, 81(3), 345-368.
  30. ^ Managed food service contractors react quickly to the demands of their clients achievement: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Public Economics, 81(3), 345-368.
  31. ^ Guernsey, L. (1993). Many colleges clear their tables of steak, substitute fruit and pasta. Chronicle of Higher Education, 39(26), A30.
  32. ^ Duster, T., & Waters, A. (2006). Engaged learning across the curriculum: The vertical integration of food for thought. Liberal Education, 92(2), 42.
  33. ^ Lakhan SE, Vieira KF (2008). "Nutritional therapies for mental disorders". Nutr J 7: 2. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-2. PMID 18208598. 
  34. ^ Coren, Michael (2005-03-10). Study: Cancer no longer rare in poorer countries. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  35. ^ BBC NEWS | Magazine |Why is too much water dangerous?
  36. ^ Morris, Audrey; Audia Barnett, Olive-Jean Burrows (2004). "Effect of Processing on Nutrient Content of Foods" (PDF). CAJANUS 37 (3): pp. 160-164. Retrieved on 2006-10-26. 
  37. ^ Paola Villa, et al. "Cannibalism in the Neolithic" Science 233 July 1986.
  38. ^ History of the Study of Nutrition in Western Culture (copy at [1])
  39. ^ Unraveling the Enigma of Vitamin D - a paper funded by the United States National Academy of Sciences
  40. ^ "Can a virus make you fat?" at BBC News; "Contagious obesity? Identifying the human adenoviruses that may make us fat" at Science Blog

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... Osborne (talk) 20:17, 5 December 2007 (UTC):For the programming language, see algae (programming language) Laurencia, a marine red alga from Hawaii. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ...

External links

Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...

Databases and search engines

  • Compare the nutrients in 100 calories of any two foods
  • Nutrition Data
  • USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Search By Food
  • USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Nutrient Lists Search By Nutrient

Governmental agencies and intergovernmental bodies

  • UN Standing Committee on Nutrition - In English, French and Portuguese
Food Portal

  Results from FactBites:
 
WHO | Nutrition (267 words)
Nutrition is an input to and foundation for health and development.
Better nutrition is a prime entry point to ending poverty and a milestone to achieving better quality of life.
WHO has traditionally focused on the vast magnitude of the many forms of nutritional deficiency, along with their associated mortality and morbidity in infants, young children and mothers.
Nutrition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6209 words)
Nutrition is a science which studies the relationship between diet and states of health and disease.
Nutrition is the body of science that seeks to explain metabolic and physiologic responses to diet.
There is no apparent consistency in science-based nutritional recommendations between countries, indicating the role of politics as well as cultural bias in research emphasis and interpretation.
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