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Encyclopedia > Nutrient

A nutrient is a substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from the environment. Non-autotrophic organisms typically acquire nutrients by the ingestion of foods. Methods for nutrient intake vary, with animals and protists having an internal digestive system, while plants digest nutrients externally and then ingested. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all...


Organic nutrients include carbohydrates, fats, proteins (or their building blocks, amino acids), and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as minerals; water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide may also be considered nutrients. A nutrient is essential to an organism if it cannot be synthesized by the organism in sufficient quantities and must be obtained from an external source. Nutrients needed in relatively large quantities are called macronutrients and those needed in relatively small quantities are called micronutrients. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) A vitamin is a nutrient that is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ... Micronutrients for plants: There are about eight nutrients essential to plant growth and health that are only present in very small quantities. ...


See healthy diet for information on the role of nutrients in human nutrition. Maintaining a healthy diet is the practice of making choices about what to eat with the intent of improving or maintaining good health. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ...

Contents

Types of human nutrients

Macronutrients are defined in several different ways.

The remaining vitamins, minerals, or elements, are called micronutrients because they are required in relatively small quantities. The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... This article is about common table salt. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... mccall is cooool Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... Micronutrients are essential nutrients only needed by the human body in small quantities for it to fuction normally. ...


Substances that provide energy

Fat has an energy content of 9 kcal/g (~37.7 kJ/g); proteins and carbohydrates 4 kcal/g (~16.7 kJ/g). Ethanol (grain alcohol) has an energy content of 7 kcal/g (~29.3 kJ/g).[citation needed] Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Sucrose, a common disaccharide A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Glycogen Structure Segment Glycogen is a polysaccharide of glucose (Glc) which functions as the primary short term energy storage in animal cells. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... An organic compound is any of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with exception of carbides, carbonates and carbon oxides. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... A peptide bond is a chemical bond that is formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O). ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... First, what is an amino acid? Amino Acids are chemical substances that make up protein. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Protein catabolism is the breakdown of proteins into amino acids and simple derivative compounds, for transport into the cell through the plasma membrane and ultimately for the polymerisation into new proteins via the use of ribonucleic acids (RNA) and ribosomes. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Proteases (proteinases, peptidases, or proteolytic enzymes) are enzymes that break peptide bonds between amino acids of proteins. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Glycerin, also well known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Essential fatty acids are fatty acids that are required in the human diet. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ...


Substances that support metabolism

  • Dietary minerals are generally trace elements, salts, or ions such as copper and iron. Some of these minerals are essential to human metabolism.
  • Vitamins are organic compounds essential to the body. They usually act as coenzymes or cofactors for various proteins in the body.
  • Water is an essential nutrient and is the solvent in which all the chemical reactions of life take place.

mccall is cooool Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) A vitamin is a nutrient that is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Coenzyme A Coenzymes are small organic non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes. ... A cofactor is any substance that needs to be present in addition to an enzyme to catalyze a certain reaction. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ...

Nutrients and plants

Main articles: Plant nutrition and Fertilizer
The strip of a green alga (Enteromorpha) along this shore indicates that there is a nearby source of nutrients (probably nitrates or ammonia from a small estuary).
The strip of a green alga (Enteromorpha) along this shore indicates that there is a nearby source of nutrients (probably nitrates or ammonia from a small estuary).

The chemical elements consumed in the greatest quantities by plants are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. These are present in the environment in the form of water and carbon dioxide; energy is provided by sunlight. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur are also needed in relatively large quantities. Together, these are the elemental macronutrients for plants, often represented by the acronym CHNOPS. Usually they are sourced from inorganic (e.g. carbon dioxide, water, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate) or organic (e.g. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) compounds, although elemental diatomic molecules of nitrogen and (especially) oxygen are often used. Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Download high resolution version (980x735, 193 KB)Photo of green algal growth (Enteromorpha sp. ... Download high resolution version (980x735, 193 KB)Photo of green algal growth (Enteromorpha sp. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Look up acronym, initialism, alphabetism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Sulfate is the IUPAC name for the SO42- ion, consisting of a central sulfur atom single bonded to four tetrahedrally oriented oxygen atoms. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Some common lipids. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A space-filling model of the diatomic molecule dinitrogen, N2. ...


Other chemical elements are also necessary to carry out various life processes and build structures; see fertilizer and micronutrient for more information. Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Micronutrients for plants: There are about eight nutrients essential to plant growth and health that are only present in very small quantities. ...


Some of these are considered macronutrients in certain organisms. The acronym C. HOPKiN'S CaFe Mg (to be used as C. Hopkins coffee mug) is used by some students to remember the list as: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Potassium (K), Nitrogen, Sulfur, Calcium, Iron (Fe), and Magnesium (Mg). Silicon, chloride, sodium, copper, zinc, and molybdenum are sometimes also included, but are in other cases considered micronutrients.


Oversupply of plant nutrients in the environment can cause excessive plant and algae growth. Eutrophication, as this process is called, may cause imblances in population numbers and other nutrients that can be harmful to certain species. For example, an algal bloom can deplete the oxygen available for fish to breathe. Causes include water pollution from sewage or runoff from farms (carrying excess agricultural fertilizer). Nitrogen and phosphorus are most commonly the limiting factor in growth, and thus the most likely to trigger eutrophication when introduced artificially. Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... Algal blooms can present problems for ecosystems and human society An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... Run-off or runoff may refer to one of the following. ... In biology, agricultural science, physiology, and ecology, a limiting factor is one that controls a process, such as organism growth or species population size or distribution. ...


Essential and non-essential nutrients

Main article: Essential nutrient

Nutrients are frequently categorized as essential or nonessential. Essential nutrients are unable to be synthesized internally (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and so must be consumed by an organism from its environment. An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ... An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ...


For humans, these include essential fatty acids, essential amino acids, vitamins, and certain dietary minerals. Oxygen and water are also essential for human survival, but are generally not considered "food" when consumed in isolation. Essential fatty acids are fatty acids that are required in the human diet. ... First, what is an amino acid? Amino Acids are chemical substances that make up protein. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... Dietary minerals are chemical elements required by living organisms. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Humans can derive energy from a wide variety of fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and ethanol, and can synthesize other needed amnio acids from the essential nutrients. For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ...


Non-essential nutrients can still have a significant impact on health, whether beneficial or toxic. For example, most dietary fiber is not absorbed by the human digestive tract, but is important in digestion and absorption of otherwise harmful substances. Interest has recently increased in phytochemicals, which include many non-essential nutrients which may have health benefits. Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... Phytochemicals are plant or fruit derived chemical compounds. ...


References

  • Donatelle, Rebecca J. "Health: The Basic"

See also

Ecological sanitation, also known as ecosan, is a modern alternative to conventional sanitation techniques. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nutrient Pollution - general info (999 words)
Just as the nitrogen and phosphorus in fertilizer aids the growth of agricultural crops, both nutrients are vital to the growth of plants within the Bay and rivers.
Nutrients from septic systems are increasing throughout the watershed as development spreads farther into the countryside, beyond the reach of sewer systems.
Runoff from farms is generally declining as farmers adopt nutrient management and runoff control techniques, and because the overall amount of farmland is declining.
Unasylva - No. 185 - Forest influences - Nutrient cycling and agroforestry in Africa (3061 words)
Nutrient inputs are additions originating from outside the system, such as nitrogen fixed from the air by legumes or the use of chemical fertilizers.
Nutrient cycling refers to the transfer of nutrients already in the soil plant system from one component to another, for example the release of nitrogen from soil organic matter as ammonium or nitrate and its subsequent uptake by plants.
Nutrient inputs from atmospheric deposition, biological nitrogen fixation and weathering of primary soil minerals are in balance with nutrient losses owing to leaching, denitrification, runoff and erosion.
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