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Encyclopedia > Nurse
A nurse working in a nursing home.
A nurse working in a nursing home.

A nurse is responsible—along with other health care professionals—for the treatment, safety, and recovery of acutely or chronically ill or injured people, health maintenance of the healthy, and treatment of life-threatening emergencies in a wide range of health care settings. Nurses may also be involved in medical and nursing research and perform a wide range of non-clinical functions necessary to the delivery of health care. Nurses also provide care at birth and death. This article is about the practice in general. ... Nurse may refer to: Nurse, the healthcare professional Nurse (album), an album by Therapy? Nurses (TV series), a television show Nursing, the task or profession of a nurse Nursing in the sense of breastfeeding This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1000, 214 KB) From http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1000, 214 KB) From http://www. ... Rest home for seniors in ÄŒeský Těšín, Czech Republic SNF redirects here. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... A professional does something as a profession, or receives payment for some activity. ... In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ... In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent. ... Nursing research is the term used to describe the evidence used to support Nursing practice. ...

Contents

Education and regulation

Nursing education, regulation, roles, and titles vary in different countries, but in general reflect an increasing level of responsibility and status.


The nursing career structure varies considerably throughout the world. Typically there are several distinct levels of nursing practitioner distinguished by increasing education, responsibility, and skills. The major distinction is between task-based nursing and professional nursing. Nurses throughout the world are increasingly employed as advanced practice nurses, such as clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, who diagnose health problems and prescribe medications and other therapies. At the top of the educational ladder is the doctoral-prepared nurse. Nurses may gain a PhD or another doctoral degree, specializing in research, clinical nursing, and so forth. These nurses practice nursing, teach nursing, and carry out nursing research. As the science and art of nursing has advanced, so has the demand for doctoral-prepared nurses. Advanced Practice Nurses (APN), also known as Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs), are Registered Nurses with advanced education, knowledge, skills, and scope of practice. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A nurse practitioner is a registered nurse who has completed specific advanced nursing education (generally a masters degree) and training in the diagnosis and management of common medical conditions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Aquatint of a Doctor of Divinity at the University of Oxford, in the scarlet and black academic robes corresponding to his position. ...


In various parts of the world, the educational background for nurses varies widely. In some parts of eastern Europe, nurses are high school graduates with twelve to eighteen months of training. In contrast, Chile requires any registered nurse to have at least a bachelor's degree. Nurse education is how nurses are prepared to engage in the delivery of nursing care. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ...


Nurses are the largest group of providers in the health care system--there are over two million registered nurses in the United States of America (U.S.) alone, comprising about 13% of the fifteen million workers in the health care and social assistance category tracked by the U.S. Department of Labor.[1] The United States Department of Labor is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, re-employment services, and some economic statistics. ...


Nursing is one of the most female-dominated occupations but the number of males entering the profession is increasing quickly. For example, in the U.S., only 5.4% of the registered nurse population was male in 2000, but that percent represented a 226% increase in two decades.[2].


Governments regulate the profession of nursing to protect the public.


Other healthcare workers

Health care settings generally involve a wide range of medical professionals who work in collaboration with nurses.


Examples include:

  • Nursing assistants, orderlies, auxiliary nurses, healthcare assistants. These types of healthcare workers work both in acute and primary settings, under the supervision of registered nurses or licensed practical nurses (in the US). They assist nurses by giving basic care, taking vital signs, administering hygienic care, assisting with feeding, giving basic psychosocial care, housekeeping, and similar duties. See also hospital volunteers.
  • EMTs and Paramedics work closely with emergency and critical care nurses to stabilize life-threatening trauma and medical emergencies and to provide a seamless transfer of care from incoming ambulances to awaiting medical/surgical teams.
  • Technicians: for example, certified medication aides in the US, are trained to administer medications in a long-term care setting. There are also phlebotomy technicians, who perform venipuncture; surgical technologists (US), and technicians trained to operate most kinds of diagnostic and laboratory equipment, such as X-ray machines, electrocardiographs, and so forth.
  • Physicians rely on nurses' skills, observations, and experience to ensure a continuity of patient care.
  • Pharmacists and pharmacy assistants are responsible for the safe dispensing of medicine and offering of expert advice on drug therapies.
  • Allied health professionals such as respiratory therapists, medical technologists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, operating department practitioners (UK) and physical therapists work closely with nursing staff and work collaboratively in multi-disciplinary teams.

In the United States, Certified Nursing Assistants or Certified Nurse Assistants (CNAs) assist residents or patients with activities of daily living (ADLs) and provide bedside care--including basic nursing procedures--all under the supervision of a Registered Nurse (RN) or Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) (Meyer, 2001:1-33,1-36). ... This article is about orderlies in medical work. ... Hospital volunteers work without regular pay in a variety of health care settings, usually under the supervision of a nurse. ... The Star of Life, a global symbol for medical service EMTs loading an injured skier into an ambulance An Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) is an emergency responder trained to provide emergency medical services to the critically ill and injured. ... Typical view of the defibrillator operator. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... For a definition of the Technician profession, see wiktionary:Technician. ... The phrase phlebotomy is used for different purpose today than it was in medieval times. ... Venipuncture using a vacutainer. ... The word physician should not be confused with physicist, which means a scientist in the area of physics. ... The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ... Pharmaconomist (Danish: farmakonom) means expert in pharmaceuticals. ... Professionals in the healthcare industry [1] are often referred to as allied health professionals which usually need formal training before they are hired, for example, medical assistants [2], dental hygienists and assistants, phlebotomists [3], physical therapists and physical therapy assistants, hemodialysis technicians, laboratory technicians, electrocardiographic technicians, x-ray technicians, medical... Respiratory therapy is an allied health field involved in the treatment of breathing disorders which include chronic lung problems (i. ... A medical technologist (MT) is a healthcare professional who performs diagnostic analytic tests on human body fluids such as blood, urine, sputum, stool, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, and synovial fluid, as well as other specimens. ... It has been suggested that Speech-Language Pathology, Speech pathology, Phoniatrics be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Occupational therapy. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ...

Australia

Main article: Nursing in Australia

// Prior to the transfer of nursing education to the university sector, nurses were trained in a course of instruction in hospital nursing schools that awarded a certificate in general nursing. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Education

Registration as a registered nurse now requires an associate degree at least, considered the foundation for any future specialization within nursing any other type of medical ways. Postgraduate diplomas provide further vocational training for specialist areas. Masters level courses are available in both research and course work streams; a specialist course has been developed to provide preparation for registration as a nurse practitioner. Professional doctorates are also available. The Graduate Diploma or Higher Diploma in Ireland is a postgraduate award taken after a Bachelors degree. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Australia has a long tradition of post-basic courses, usually of a six month (minor) or twelve month (major) duration, which included midwifery, maternal and child welfare, psychiatric, peri-operative ("theatre nursing"), intensive care, and coronary care in later years, as well as a myriad of other courses. They are now provided by the university sector as postgraduate diplomas or post graduate certificates, depending on the length and complexity. // Midwifery is the term traditionally used to describe the art of assisting a woman through childbirth. ... “Intensive Care” redirects here. ... A coronary care unit (CCU) is a hospital ward specialised in the care of patients with heart attacks, unstable angina and (in practice) various other cardiac conditions that require continuous monitoring and treatment. ... A postgraduate diploma is a qualification awarded typically after a bachelors degree. ...


There are options available for hospital trained nurses to upgrade their qualifications to a Bachelor of Nursing (post registration). However, most opt instead to undertake specialist courses such as a postgraduate diploma or certification in the area of their clinical interest.


Enrolled nurses are trained in the "technical and further education" (TAFE) sector of approximately twelve months duration. In some states, this length has been increased to 18 months to include a module that permits enrolled nurses to dispense oral, topical, enteral medications, and intramuscular and subcutaenous injections. In some areas of Australia NSW in particular Enrolled nurses are also allowed to admiister intravenous medications via a peripheral cannula up to a schedule 4d. For the Texas educational association, see Texas Association of Future Educators. ...


Legal regulation

The practice of nursing is governed by state and territorial nursing regulation authorities. The Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council (ANMC) was established in 1992 and works with these authorities to facilitate a national approach to nursing and midwifery regulation. The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ...


Types of nurses


In all states other than Victoria, nurses fall into the following major categories: VIC redirects here. ...

Professional titles A nurse practitioner is a registered nurse who has completed specific advanced nursing education (generally a masters degree) and training in the diagnosis and management of common medical conditions. ... A registered nurse (RN), is a health care professional responsible for implementing the practice of nursing through the use of the nursing process (in concert with other health care professionals). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The professional courtesy title "sister" has fallen into disuse and disapproval, even though it was formerly used by both male and female registered general nurses. The title "nurse" was used when addressing enrolled nurses. The term "matron" is inadvisable. Matron is the job title of a very senior nurse in several countries, including the United Kingdom. ...


In keeping with the relaxed attitude to formalities in Australia, most nurses are happy to be addressed by their first name and describe themselves either as "an RN" or "an EN". In Victoria, an enrolled nurse will commonly describe themselves as a "Div. 2".[citation needed]


Nurse practitioners

Nurse practitioners are being introduced into the Australian healthcare community, with Victoria having had nurse practitioners since 2000[citation needed]. // Nurse Practitioner Description The Womens Health Channel gives this description of Nurse Practitioners (NPs): A nurse practitioner (NP) is a registered nurse (RN) who has completed advanced education [generally a minimum of a masters degree] and training in the diagnosis and management of common medical conditions, including chronic...


In some instances, it could be argued that this is as a natural professional evolution and recognition of the outstanding clinical expertise some nurses have attained over the course of their careers in areas such as wound management.


Canada

Two nurses with baby in nursery at Toronto East General and Orthopaedic Hospital, 1955
Two nurses with baby in nursery at Toronto East General and Orthopaedic Hospital, 1955

Education

Most provinces in Canada prefer any registered nurse to have at least a bachelor's degree (preferably a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BScN)), although Quebec grants RN status to graduates from CEGEP. Many practicing nurses are still college graduates, but those entering nursing now are required or encouraged to enter at the university level. The Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) is a four year academic degree in the science and principles of nursing, granted by a tertiary education university or similarly accredited school. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... A CEGEP (IPA: or ; French: Cégep) is a post-secondary education institution exclusive to the province of Quebec in Canada. ...


Types of nurses

  • Registered nurse (RN).
  • Licensed practical nurse (LPN) or licensed vocational nurse (LVN), known as registered practical nurse (RPN) in Ontario.
  • Registered psychiatric nurse (RPN) - are licensed to practice only in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and the territories.

Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797...

Legal regulation

The profession of nursing is regulated at the provincial and territorial level in keeping with the principles of professional regulation endorsed by the International Council of Nurses. The College of Nurses of Ontario regulates both RNs and RPNs in contrast to the other provinces and territories where RNs and LPNs are regulated by separate bodies. In the western provinces, psychiatric nurses are governed by distinct legislation. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) is a federation of more than 120 national nurses associations. ... Psychiatric nursing or mental health nursing is the branch of nursing that cares for people of all ages with mental illness or mental distress, such as psychosis, depression or dementia. ...


All registered nurses and nurse practitioners in the province of Alberta are expected to maintain their clinical competence in order receive an annual practice permit from the College and Association of Registered Nurses of Albertawhich also sets standards for scope of practice and provides practice support.


External links

  • CIHI Regulated Nursing Professions Database - provides supply and distribution statistics for the three nursing professions in Canada.
  • Canadian Nurses Association

India

Main article: Nursing in India

The Indian Nursing Council is the regulatory body for profession of nursing. A person practising nursing must be registered with the nursing council. For a person to be registered, he or she has to undergo and pass the prescribed course stipulated by the council. In India, diplomas, bachelor degrees (BSc Nursing) postgraduate degrees (MSc Nursing) and Doctorates (PhD) are offered.


External links

Ireland

Nursing is self regulated in Ireland. The regulatory body is An Bord Altranais (The Nursing Board). The board was established under the 1950 Nurses Act and currently operates under the 1985 Nurses Act. a There are currently over 82,000 nurses registered by An Bord Altranais of which over 65,000 are on the active register ABA Statistics 2006. An Bord Altranais (Irish Nursing Board) is a statutory body regulating the nursing profession in the Republic of Ireland. ...


There are seven divisions of the register; general, psychiatric, children's, intellectual disability, midwifery, public health and tutor.


Developments

Significant changes have occurred in Irish nursing since the publication of Report of The Commission on Nursing, A blueprint for the future.


Nurse education

Pre-registration nurse education in university and college based. All pre-registration programmes are at degree level (NQAI level 8). Nurse registration education programmes are governed An Bord Altranais Requirements & Standards.


Significant developments have occued in post registration nurse education with a variety of programmes available to nurses to support their practice and develop their career.


External links

  • An Bord Altranais
  • National Council for the Professional Development of Nursing & Midwifery
  • Irish Nurses Organisation
  • Listing Of Nursing Programs and Educational Degrees Currently Available

New Zealand

Members of the New Zealand Nurses Organisation on the steps of Parliament House seeking pay parity for the primary health care sector
Members of the New Zealand Nurses Organisation on the steps of Parliament House seeking pay parity for the primary health care sector

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1642 KB) Summary Members of the New Zealand Nurses Organisation seeking pay parity on the steps of Parliament House, photographed by DONeil. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1642 KB) Summary Members of the New Zealand Nurses Organisation seeking pay parity on the steps of Parliament House, photographed by DONeil. ... The NZNO is New Zealands largest trade union that represents the nursing profession. ... The Beehive (left) and Parliament House (right), Wellington New Zealand Parliament Buildings houses the New Zealand Parliament and is situated on a 45,000 square metre site in and around the northern end of Lambton Quay, Wellington. ... Primary health care was a new approach to health care that came into existence following an international conference in Alma Ata in 1978 organised by the World Health Organisation and the UNICEF. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as follows: Primary health care is essential health care based...

History

New Zealand originally had nurse education as a part of the hospital system, but, as early as the 1900s, post registration and post graduate programs of study for nurses were in existence. Reforms in the 1970s disestablished the original hospital-based schools and moved these into the tertiary education sector, namely polytechnics and universities. Within the hospital system were an array of titles and levels, which often focused upon clinical specialty rather than generic nursing knowledge. The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers technical education, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...


Education

Today all nurses in New Zealand are educated to degree level via a three year, two semesters per annum, program, with an approximate 50/50 mix of theory to practice. All current students graduate as a registered comprehensive nurse. Legislation exists keeping the number of schools to no more than 21, although some schools run courses in more than one geographical location. Recently, attempts were made to reintroduce the title enrolled nurse with this causing some disagreement between trade unions, the registering body, and health providers.[3] Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) are also known as Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVNs) in California and Texas and as Registered Practical Nurses (RPNs) in Ontario. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas of wages, hours, and working conditions. ...


Legal regulation

All nurses in New Zealand are expected to maintain both professional knowledge and clinical competence in order to receive an annual practicing certificate from the Nursing Council of New Zealand (NCNZ). Recent legislation (the 2004 Health Practitioners Competency Assurance Act) sets standards for both scope of practice and requirements in terms of ongoing development..[4] Setup originally in 1902 the Nursing Council of New Zealand are the professional body resposible for the registration of nurses in New Zealand, setting standards for Nurse education and nursing practice. ...


Similarly the NCNZ caused minor controversy when they gave the title nurse practitioner trade mark status, thus preventing those with the title from using it. In order to become a nurse practitioner, the nurse must undertake an approved course of study and present a portfolio of evidence to NCNZ for approval. There are now approximately 20 NP's in New Zealand with a smaller number granted prescribing rights. A nurse practitioner is a registered nurse who has completed specific advanced nursing education (generally a masters degree) and training in the diagnosis and management of common medical conditions. ... The Bass Red Triangle, was the first trademark registered in Britain in 1876. ...


Ongoing issues

New Zealand has historically provided many nurses for the global market place; the salaries in overseas countries (notably Australia, USA, United Kingdom and the Middle East) have proved attractive to NZ nurses. This has resulted in a drop in the number of NZ-educated nurses practicing within New Zealand; recently the flow has been decreased by a substantial pay award for hospital based nurses. This pay award was given to those employed within district health boards but not other public sector providers which caused a degree of conflict within the profession and a return to hospital practice for many in the primary healthcare sector. There has also been an increase in nurses from the United Kingdom, India, South Africa and Philippines migrating to New Zealand. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... District Health Boards are health management units accountable to the Ministry of Health. ... Primary health care was a new approach to health care that came into existence following an international conference in Alma Ata in 1978 organised by the World Health Organisation and the UNICEF. The Alma Ata conference defined primary health care as follows: Primary health care is essential health care based...


External links

  • Nursing Council of New Zealand
  • New Zealand Nurses Organisation - trade union

Philippines

Education

All registered nurses in the Philippines are required to have a Bachelor's Degree in Nursing.[5] The Bachelor of Nursing (BN) academic degree is becoming more and more standard and most of the western world requires nursing to hold a degree over a diploma. ...


Legal regulation

The Professional Regulation Commission oversees the licensing of registered nurses as authorized by the Philippine Nursing Act of 2002.


A Professional Regulatory Nursing Board implements and enforces the Nursing Act. The board is composed of a chairperson and six additional members, all of whom are nurses with at least a master's degree and ten years of nursing experience. The board inspects nursing schools, conducts licensure examinations, issues and monitors certificates of licensure, promulgates a code of ethics, participates in recognizing nursing specialty organizations, and prescribes guidelines and regulations governing the profession under the Nursing Act. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


External links

  • Philippine Online Community of Nurses
  • Professional Regulation Commission Nursing Portal

South Africa

History

South African Nursing Council was initially established by the Nursing Act, No. 45 of 1944, and currently by the Nursing Act, No. 50 of 1978 as amended.[6]


Education

In order to be examined to practice as an enrolled nurse, students must complete a two-year academic course which includes 2,000 hours of clinical practice.


Subjects studied in the first year include:

The second year includes study of sciences fundamental to basic nursing and, depending upon the area for which the nursing school has been approved, one of the following subjects: // Nursing ethics is the discipline of evaluating the merits, risks, and social concerns of activities in the field of nursing. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ...

Mental retardation is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. ... Psychiatric nursing or mental health nursing is the branch of nursing that cares for people of all ages with mental illness or mental distress, such as psychosis, depression or dementia. ...

Legal regulation

The South African Nursing Council (SANC) was created by the Nursing Act of 1957. Currently, it functions under the authority of the Nursing Act of 1978 and subsequent amendments. SANC inspects and approves nursing schools and education programs; examines, registers, and enrolls nurses, midwives, and nursing auxiliaries; licenses nursing agencies; and monitors nursing employers. Nurses and nursing auxiliaries are required to wear "distinguishing devices" consisting of pins and colored epaulettes to identify them as licensed professionals. A nursing pin is a type of badge, usually made of metal such as gold or silver, which is worn by nurses to identify the nursing school from which they were graduated. ... Epaulette pronunciation: ĕp-ǝ-lĕt, a French word meaning little shoulders (epaule, referring to shoulder), originally meant only one type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as insignia or rank by military or other organizations. ...


External links

  • The South African Nursing Council

United Kingdom

Nursing in the United Kingdom has a long history, but in its current form probably dates back to the era of Florence Nightingale, who initiated schools of nursing and registration in the latter part of the 19th and early 20th century. ...

Education

Since the 1990s, UK nurses are educated to diploma, bachelor's and even undergraduate master's degree levels. There are also post-graduate courses for graduates with a degree in a health related subject.[7] [8] They undertake their training at universities and in placements in healthcare services. The student will train in adult, child, mental health, or learning disabilities branch. Image File history File links Nursingmc_logo. ... Image File history File links Nursingmc_logo. ... The Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC) is the UKs regulatory body for the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Professions. ... A Diploma of Higher Education (DipHE) is a higher education qualification in the United Kingdom. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts three or four years. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... This article is about the use of the term in the United States and Canada. ...


Registered nurses

To become a nurse within the United Kingdom, one must at the very minimum hold a Diploma in Nursing and have trained for three years, or two years on an 'accelerated' course, (or equivalent if from overseas). After training, the opportunities are vast, with many different areas of nursing, from general ward to teaching or management. Also the practise areas can be in hospital, or in the community or both. A Diploma in Nursing or Nursing Diploma is an entry-level tertiary education nursing degree. ...


The Nursing and Midwifery Council in the UK is the regulatory body for nurses, midwives, and specialist practitioners. It maintains a register that is split into three parts: The Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC) is the UKs regulatory body for the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Professions. ... Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ...

In addition to this, there are two levels of nurse: first-level nurses trained for three or four years (RGN, RMN, RSCN, RNMH, RNchild, RNadult, RNmental health, RN Learning Disability) whereas second-level nurses are the state enrolled nurses (SENs) who trained for two years. The SEN training has been phased out, with many SENs retiring or converting to level one through further study. Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... Health Visitors are UK registered nurses or midwives who have undertaken further training to work as part of the primary health care team. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Registered Nurses are able to undertake advanced practice training, commonly at advanced degree level to become specialist nurses in various fields, such as Emergency Nurse Practitioner. These nurses will have obtained, in addition to the basic registration with the NMC, an advanced recordable qualification. Nurses in the United Kingdom can also complete an Independent Prescriber course (of which there are various types at present) which legally permits them to prescribe drugs independently of a doctor.


Many nurses are members of trade unions, which represent them both individually and as a profession. The two main unions are UNISON and the Royal College of Nursing. For other uses, see Unison (disambiguation). ... The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) is a membership organisation with over 395,000 members in the United Kingdom. ...


NMC register

All UK nurses are listed on a register and are regulated by the Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC). Nurses need to register every three years, although from 1st January 2006 payment for registration is made annually. They are required to have demonstrated that they have kept up-to-date by undertaking at least 35 hours of professional development and 450 hours of nursing practice within the last three years. [9]. In the United States, a Nurse Registry is a staffing agency which may provide nursing personnel to hospitals, medical offices and individuals. ... The Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC) is the UKs regulatory body for the Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting Professions. ... Professional development often refers to skills required for maintaining a specific career path or to general skills offered through continuing education, including the more general skills area of personal development. ... Nursing practice is the actual provision of nursing care. ...


Prior to the creation of the new three-part register on August 1, 2004, nurses and midwives were divided into a part of the register they held a qualification in. This may be now described as a 'sub-part' of the nursing register. All newly qualified nurses register in 'sub-part' 12, 13, 14 or 15, showing their branch qualification. However, nurses still practising and holding qualifications in 'sub-parts' 1-9 are registered as such. In the United States, a Nurse Registry is a staffing agency which may provide nursing personnel to hospitals, medical offices and individuals. ...


There are approximately 689,000 nurses and midwives on the NMC's register, including those not practising within the UK who have maintained their registration. Approximately 12% of registrants are male, and this is increasing. As of August 2005, the NMC register split into three parts: nurses, midwives, and specialist community public health nurses. There are 'sub-parts' that the nurse or midwife is registered to practice in.


Nursing titles

  • State enrolled nurse (SEN) These nurses are expected to perform to a lower level scope of practice, although in reality enrolled nurses often perform to a similar or higher level as staff nurses. Some areas specifically exclude aspects of practice such as the administration of medications. As such enrolled nurses are technically supposed to work under the supervision of an RN.
  • Staff nurse/senior staff nurse: All newly qualified nurses begin at this level and make up the majority of the registered nursing staff. Senior staff nurses are more experienced and usually take "charge" in the absence of senior staff.
  • Junior sister/junior charge nurse/deputy ward manager: These nurses are deputy to the ward manager/charge nurse and as such have more of a managerial role.
  • Sister/charge nurse/ward manager: Responsible for the management of their ward/clinic/unit usually with budgetary control.
  • Clinical nurse manager: Usually manages an area, for example, accident and emergency.
  • Matron: Usually manages a directorate, such as medical or surgical. Historically managed the hospital, although this role is obsolete.

There are various other higher managerial and specialist nurse roles; however these are less well defined on a national scale. Note that charge nurse is used when the "sister" is a male. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Matron is the job title of a very senior nurse in several countries, including the United Kingdom. ...


External links

  • The Nursing and Midwifery Council
  • NHSCareers website
  • The Royal College of Nursing

United States

// Nurses in the United States can practice nursing in a wide variety of specialties. ...

Education

Registered nurses (RN) in the U.S. generally receive their basic preparation through one of four avenues: A registered nurse (RN), is a health care professional responsible for implementing the practice of nursing through the use of the nursing process (in concert with other health care professionals). ...

An academic course of study at any level typically includes such topics as anatomy and physiology, pharmacology and medication administration, psychology, ethics, nursing theory and legal issues. Additionally, extensive clinical training in nursing practice is required. A Diploma in Nursing or Nursing Diploma is an entry-level tertiary education nursing degree. ... An Associate of Science in Nursing (ASN) is an entry-level tertiary education nursing degree. ... The Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) is a four year academic degree in the science and principles of nursing, granted by a tertiary education university or similarly accredited school. ... A Masters of Science in Nursing is an advanced degree a Registered Nurse may obtain to become an advanced practice nurse, such as a Nurse Practitioner or Clinical Nurse Specialist. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... Human Physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... // Nursing ethics is the discipline of evaluating the merits, risks, and social concerns of activities in the field of nursing. ... Nursing models are conceptual models, constructed of theories and concepts. ...


All U.S. states and territories require graduation from an accredited nursing program and successful completion of the NCLEX-RN to obtain state licensure as an RN. Accreditation is a process by which a facilitys services and operations are examined by a third-party accrediting agency to determine if applicable standards are met. ... The NCLEX-RN (National Council Licensure EXamination-Registered Nurse) is a computer-adaptive test of entry-level nursing competence. ...


Legal regulation

In the U.S., the individual states have authority over nursing practice and its scope. Nurses may be licensed in more than one state, either by examination or endorsement of a license issued by another state. Licenses must be periodically renewed. Some states require continuing education in order to renew licenses. For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... The term state may refer to: a sovereign political entity, see state unitary state nation state a non-sovereign political entity, see state (non-sovereign). ... Nursing practice is the actual provision of nursing care. ... Scope of Practice is a terminology used by licensing boards for various medically-related fields that defines the procedures, actions, and processes that are permitted for the licensed individual. ... Continuing education is an all encompassing term within a broad spectrum of post-secondary learning activities and programs. ...


Types of nurses

  • Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) usually have eighteen months to two years of training in anatomy and physiology, medications, and practical patient care.
  • Licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) is a title used in some states which is roughly equivalent to Licensed practical nurse.
  • Registered nurses (RNs) are professional nurses who often supervise the tasks performed by LPNs, orderlies, and nursing assistants. They provide direct care and make decisions regarding plans of care for individuals and groups of healthy, ill, and injured people. RNs are the largest healthcare occupation in the U.S.
  • Advanced practice nurses (APNs) are registered nurses with advanced education, knowledge, skills, and scope of practice. They perform primary health care, provide mental health services, diagnose and prescribe, carry out research, and educate the public and other professionals.

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) are also known as Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVNs) in California and Texas and as Registered Practical Nurses (RPNs) in Ontario. ... A registered nurse (RN), is a health care professional responsible for implementing the practice of nursing through the use of the nursing process (in concert with other health care professionals). ... Advanced Practice Nurses (APN), also known as Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs), are Registered Nurses with advanced education, knowledge, skills, and scope of practice. ...

External links

  • American Nurses' Association
  • National Council of State Boards of Nursing (USA)

References

  1. ^ May 2005 National Industry-Specific Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates. US Department of Labor. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  2. ^ Caring Knows No Gender. American Journal of Nursing. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  3. ^ Nursing Council of New Zealand, Standards for Education. Nursing Council of New Zealand.
  4. ^ Nursing Council of New Zealand, Standards for Registration. Nursing Council of New Zealand.
  5. ^ Nurse Immigration Information
  6. ^ http://www.sanc.co.za/about01.htm .accessed 30 march 2008
  7. ^ Graduate Diploma in Nursing. University of Central England. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  8. ^ Nursing Programmes for Graduates. NHS Careers. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  9. ^ Maintaining Registration. Nursing & Midwifery Council. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Nursing Portal 
Look up Nurse in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nurse education is how nurses are prepared to engage in the delivery of nursing care. ... This article is about the practice in general. ... Nursing school is a type of educational institution, or part thereof, where people undergo formal education and training to become a nurse. ... In the US and Canada, many nurses who choose a specialty become certified in that area, signifying that they possess expert knowledge. ... International Nurses Day (IND) is celebrated around the world every May 12. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

External links

  • International Council of Nurses

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