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Encyclopedia > Nuremberg Laws

The Nuremberg Laws (German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. They used a pseudoscientific basis for racial discrimination against Jewish people. The laws classified people as German if all four of their grandparents were of "German blood" (white circles on the chart), while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or four Jewish grandparents (black circles in top row right). A person with one or two Jewish grandparents was a Mischling, a crossbreed, of "mixed blood". There are many famous Holocaust survivors who survived the Nazi genocides in Europe and went on to achievements of great fame and notability. ... This is a list of victims of Nazism who were noted for their achievements. ... This is a list of people who helped Jewish people and others to escape from the Nazi Holocaust during World War II, often called rescuers. The list is not exhaustive, concentrating on famous cases, or people who saved the lives of many potential victims. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Book cover The Destruction of the European Jews is a three-volume work published in 1961 by historian Raul Hilberg. ... Functionalism versus intentionalism is a historiographical debate about the origins of the Holocaust as well as most aspects of the Third Reich, such as foreign policy. ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Please note: Any racial comments are not intended to be racist. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... Mischling is a term coined during the Third Reich era in Germany to denote persons deemed to have partial Jewish ancestry. ...

Contents

Introduction and History

1935 chart from Nazi Germany used to explain the Nuremberg Laws
1935 chart from Nazi Germany used to explain the Nuremberg Laws

During the spring and summer of 1935, disenchantment with how the Third Reich had developed in practice as opposed to what been promised had led to many in the Nazi Party, especially the Alte Kämpfer (Old Fighters; i.e those who joined the Party before 1930, and who tended to the most ardent anti-Semitics in the Party), and the SA into lashing out against Germany's Jewish minority as a way of expressing their frustrations against a group that the authorities would not generally protect[1]. A Gestapo report from the spring of 1935 stated that the rank and file of the Nazi Party would "set in motion by us from below" a solution to the "Jewish problem", "that the government would then have to follow"[2]. As a result, Nazi Party activists and SA members started a major wave of assaults, vandalism and boycotts against German Jews[3]. A conference of ministers was held on August 20, 1935, to discuss the negative economic effects of Party actions against Jews. Adolf Wagner, the Party representative at the conference, argued that such effects would cease, once the government decided on a firm policy against the Jews. Image File history File links Chart to describe Nuremberg Laws, 1935 he Nuremberg Laws established a pseudo-scientific basis for racial discrimination. ... Image File history File links Chart to describe Nuremberg Laws, 1935 he Nuremberg Laws established a pseudo-scientific basis for racial discrimination. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The seal of SA The  , abbreviated SA, (German for Storm division or Storm section, usually translated as stormtroop(er)s), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Adolf Wagner (March 25, 1835 Erlangen - November 8, 1917 Berlin) was a German Economist and Financial scientist. ...


Dr. Hjalmar Schacht, the Economics Minister, criticized arbitrary behavior by Party members as this inhibited his policy of rebuilding Germany's economy[4]. It made no economic sense since Jews were believed to have certain entrepreneurial skills that could be usefully employed to further his policies. Schacht made no moral condemnation of Jewish policy and advocated the passing of legislation to clarify the situation. Following complaints from Dr. Schacht plus reports that the German public did not approve of the wave of anti-Semitic violence, Hitler ordered a stop to "individual actions" against German Jews on August 8, 1935[5]. On August 20, 1935, the Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick threatened to impose harsh penalties on those Party members who continued to assault Jews[6]. From Hitler's perspective, it was imperative to bring harsh new anti-Semitic laws as a consolation prize for those Party members who were disappointed with Hitler's halt order of August 8, especially because Hitler had only reluctantly gave the halt order for pramatic reasons, and his symapthies were with the Party radicals[7]. Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (22 January 1877 – 3 June 1970) was a German financial expert and Minister of Economics from 1935 until 1937. ... Dr. Wilhelm Frick (March 12, 1877 â€“ October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official. ...


The Nazi Party Rally held at Nuremberg in September 1935 had featured the first session of the Reichstag held at that city since 1543. Hitler had planned to have the Reichstag pass a law making the Nazi Swastika flag the flag of the German Reich, and a major speech in support of the impeding Italian aggression against Ethiopia[8]. However, at the last minute, the German Foreign Minister Baron Konstantin von Neurath persuaded Hitler to cancel his speech as being too provocative to public opinion abroad, thus leaving Hitler with the sudden need to have something else to address the historic first meeting of the Reichstag in Nuremberg since 1543 other the Reich Flag Law[9]. On September 13, 1935, Br. Bernhard Lösener, the Interior Ministry official in charge of drafting anti-Semitic laws was hasty summoned to Nuremberg Party Rally by plane together with another Interior Ministry official Ministeralrat (Ministerial Counsellor) Franz Albrecht Medicus to start drafting at once a law for Hitler to present to the Reichstag for September 15[10]. Lösener and Medicus, who arrived in Nuremberg on the morning of September 14, and because of the short time available for the drafting of the laws, both measures were hastily improvised (there was even a shortage of drafting paper so that menu cards had to be used)[11] On the evening of September 15, two measures were announced at the annual Party Rally in Nuremberg, becoming known as the Nuremberg Laws[12]. // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Konstantin von Neurath Konstantin Freiherr von Neurath (February 2, 1873 – August 14, 1956) was a German diplomat, Foreign Minister of Germany (1932-1938) and Reichsprotektor (nazi representative in the Czech puppet state) of Bohemia and Moravia (1939-1943). ... The Nuremberg Rally (officially, Reichsparteitag, meaning national party convention) was the annual rally of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) in the years 1923 to 1938 in Germany. ...


The first law, The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor,[13] prohibited marriages and extramarital intercourse between “Jews” (the name was now officially used in place of “non-Aryans”) and “Germans” and also the employment of “German” females under forty-five in Jewish households. The second law, The Reich Citizenship Law [14], stripped persons not considered of German blood of their German citizenship and introduced a new distinction between “Reich citizens” and “nationals.” . The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ... Citizen redirects here. ... The word citizen may refer to: A person with a citizenship Citizen Watch Co. ...


The Nuremberg Laws by their general nature formalized the unofficial and particular measures taken against Jews up to 1935. The Nazi leaders made a point of stressing the consistency of this legislation with the Party program which demanded that Jews should be deprived of their rights as citizens. The laws were passed unanimously by the Reichstag, or German Parliament, in a special session held during a Nuremberg Rally. After the example of the Nuremberg Laws, The Law for Protection of the Nation was passed in Bulgaria during World War II, which also had a strong antisemitic character. 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... The Nuremberg Rally (officially, Reichsparteitag, meaning national party convention) was the annual rally of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) in the years 1923 to 1938 in Germany. ... The Law for protection of the nation (Bulgarian: ) was a Bulgarian law from 23 January 1943 to 27 November 1944 , which directed measures against Jews. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ...


Several authors have argued that the Nuremberg Laws were inspired partly by the anti-miscegenation laws of the United States of America.[15] Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ...


The Laws for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor

(September 15, 1935)
Entirely convinced that the purity of German blood is essential to the further existence of the German people, and inspired by the uncompromising determination to safeguard the future of the German nation, the Reichstag has unanimously resolved upon the following law, which is promulgated herewith: Image File history File links Portal. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...

Section 1
  1. Marriages between Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden. Marriages concluded in defiance of this law are void, even if, for the purpose of evading this law, they were concluded abroad.
  2. Proceedings for annulment may be initiated only by the Public Prosecutor.
Section 2
  1. Extramarital intercourse between Jews and subjects of the state of Germany or related blood is forbidden.

(Supplementary decrees set Nazi definitions of racial Germans, Jews, and half-breeds or Mischlinge --- see the latter entry for details and citations. Jews could not vote or hold public office.) Matrimony redirects here. ... In countries adopting the common law adversarial system or the civil law inquisitorial system, the prosecutor is the chief legal representative of the prosecution. ... Mischling is a term coined during the Third Reich era in Germany to denote persons deemed to have partial Jewish ancestry. ...

Section 3
Jews will not be permitted to employ female citizens of German or kindred blood as domestic workers under the age of 45.
Section 4
  1. Jews are forbidden to display the Reich and national flag or the national colours.
  2. On the other hand they are permitted to display the Jewish colours. The exercise of this right is protected by the State.
Section 5
  1. A person who acts contrary to the prohibition of Section 1 will be punished with hard labour.
  2. A person who acts contrary to the prohibition of Section 2 will be punished with imprisonment or with hard labor.
  3. A person who acts contrary to the provisions of Sections 3 or 4 will be punished with imprisonment up to a year and with a fine, or with one of these penalties.
Section 6
The Reich Minister of the Interior in agreement with the Deputy Fuhrer and the Reich Minister of Justice will issue the legal and administrative regulations required for the enforcement and supplementing of this law.
Section 7
The law will become effective on the day after its promulgation; Section 3, however, not until January 1, 1936.

It has been suggested that servant (domestic) be merged into this article or section. ... The Dannebrog, national flag of Denmark, is the oldest state flag still in use. ... National colours are frequently part of a countrys set of national symbols. ... The flag of Israel was adopted on October 28, 1948, five months after the countrys establishment. ... Penal labour is a form of the unfree labour. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks: F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) I International Fair Trade Association (IFAT) N Network of European Worldshops (NEWS!) and E European Fair Trade Association (EFTA) // The aim of FINE is to enable these... The Justice Minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Existing Copies

An original typescript of the laws signed by Hitler himself was found by the 203rd Detachment of the U.S. Army's Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC), commanded by Martin Dannenberg, in Eichstätt, Bavaria, Germany, on April 27, 1945. It was appropriated by General George S. Patton, in violation of JCS 1067. During a visit to Los Angeles, California, he secretly handed it over to the Huntington Library. The document was stored until June 26, 1999 when its existence was revealed. Although legal ownership of the document has not been established, it is on permanent loan to the Skirball Cultural Center, which placed it on public display three days later. Eichstätt (not to be confused with Eichstädt) is a city in the federal state of Bavaria, Germany, and capital of the district of Eichstätt. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... George Patton redirects here. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Huntington Library, in a landscape setting by Beatrix Farrand The Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens (or The Huntington[1]) is an educational and research institution established by Henry E. Huntington in San Marino, California, USA. In addition to the library, the site houses a rarefied art collection and... The Skirball Cultural Center is a facility in Los Angeles, California devoted to Jewish culture and heritage. ...


Reactions

After the promulgation of the Nuremberg Laws, Hitler received telegrams of congratulation from all over the Arab and Muslim world, especially from Morocco and Palestine, where the Nazi propaganda had been most active.[16] Arab States redirects here. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...


Endnotes

  1. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999 pages 560-561.
  2. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999 page 561.
  3. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999 pages 561-562.
  4. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999 page 563
  5. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999 page 563
  6. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999 page 563
  7. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999 page 563
  8. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999 page 567
  9. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999 pages 567-568
  10. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999 pages 567
  11. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999 pages 568-570 & 759-760.
  12. ^ Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999 pages 568
  13. ^ Nuremberg Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor, English translation at the University of the West of England
  14. ^ Reich Citizenship Law, English translation at the University of the West of England
  15. ^ [1] David Hollinger (2003) Amalgamation and Hypodescent: The Question of Ethnoracial Mixture in the History of the United States, American Historical Review, Vol. 108, Iss. 5]
  16. ^ Lewis, Bernard. Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry into Conflict and Prejudice. W.W. Norton & Company, 1999. ISBN 0393308397, p. 148

For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ...

Reference

  • Kershaw, Ian Hitler 1889-1936: Hubris, New York: W.W Norton & Company, 1998, 1999, ISBN 0-393-04671-0.

Professor Sir Ian Kershaw (born April 29, 1943 in Oldham, Lancashire, England) is a British historian, noted for his biographies of Adolf Hitler. ...

External links

Segregation means separation. ... Religious segregation involves the separation of people on the basis of religion. ... Religious segregation involves the separation of people on the basis of religion. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of people of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... Public execution of a woman, known as Zarmina, by the Taliban at the Ghazi Sports Stadium, Kabul, November 16, 1999. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Miscegenation is an archaic term invented in 1863 to describe people of different human races (usually one European and one African) producing offspring; the use of this term is invariably restricted to those who believe that the category race is meaningful when applied to human beings. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The Black Codes were laws passed to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... Ghetto Å‚awkowe (the bench ghetto) was a form of segregation in the seating of students, primarily Jewish students, introduced into Polands universities beginning in 1935, first at the Lwów Polytechnic. ... Pillarisation (Verzuiling in Dutch, Pilarisation in French) is a term used to describe the way the Dutch and Belgians used to deal with their multicultural (but not multiethnic) societies. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Second class citizen is an informal term used to describe a person who is discriminated against or generally treated unequally within a state or other political jurisdiction. ... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ... “Separatists” redirects here. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred towards people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the... The term tourist apartheid was coined in the early 1990s after Cuba first opened up to foreign tourists. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nuremberg Laws: Information from Answers.com (960 words)
The Nazi Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed by the government of Nazi Germany.
The first law, The Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor, prohibited marriages and extra-marital intercourse between “Jews” (the name was now officially used in place of “non-Aryans”) and “Germans” and also the employment of “German” females under forty-five in Jewish households.
The Reich Citizenship Law stripped Jews of their German citizenship and introduced a new distinction between “Reich citizens ” and “nationals.” Certificates of Reich citizenship were in fact never introduced, and all Germans other than Jews were provisionally classed as Reich citizens until 1945.
The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies (650 words)
The ‘Nuremberg Laws’ is the common name for two fundamental anti-Semitic laws that were issued in September 1935, during the Nazi Party’s annual rally in Nuremberg.
The laws and a number of subsequent regulations came to constitute the legal basis of the segregation of the Jews from the surrounding society as well as the racial definition of Jewish-ness.
The ‘Nuremberg Laws’ is the common name for two very fundamental pieces of anti-Semitic legislation, which were issued in connection with the Nazi Party’s annual party rally in Nuremberg in September 1935.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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