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Encyclopedia > Nuremberg Code

The Nuremberg Code is a set of principles for human experimentation set as a result of the Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War. Specifically, they were in response to the inhumane Nazi human experimentation carried out during the war by individuals such as Dr. Josef Mengele. Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_browser. ... Human experimentation (medical experiments performed on human beings) is an important part of medical research, and many people volunteer for clinical trials of medical treatments. ... The Nuremberg Trials were the sets of trials of officials involved in World War II and the Holocaust during the Nazi regime. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... This is horrible. ... Josef Mengele Josef Mengele, M.D., Ph. ...


In August 1947, the judges delivered their verdict in the "Doctors' Trial" against Karl Brandt and several others. They also delivered their opinion on medical experimentation on human beings. Several of the accused had argued that their experiments differed little from pre-war ones and that there was no law that differentiated between legal and illegal experiments. 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Karl Brandt at the Doctors Trial The Doctors Trial (or, officially, United States of America v. ... Brandt at the Doctors Trial Karl Brandt (January 8, 1904 – June 2, 1948) was the personal physician to Adolf Hitler and headed the administration of the Nazi euthanasia programme from 1939. ...


In April of the same year, Dr. Leo Alexander had submitted to the Counsel for War Crimes six points defining legitimate medical research. The trial verdict adopted these points and added an extra four. The ten points constituted the "Nuremberg Code". Although the legal force of the document was not established and it was not incorporated directly into either the American or German law, the Nuremberg Code and the related Declaration of Helsinki are the basis for the Code of Federal Regulations Title 45 Volume 46[1], which are the regulations issued by the United States Department of Health and Human Services governing federally funded research in the United States. In addition, the Nuremberg code has also been incorporated into the law of individual states such as California, and other countries. Medical research is research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ... The Declaration of Helsinki, developed by the World Medical Association, is a set of ethical principles for the medical community regarding human experimentation. ... The United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ...


The Nuremberg code includes such principles as informed consent and absence of coercion; properly formulated scientific experimentation; and beneficence towards experiment participants. Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of any actions. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of harm (usually physical force, sometimes other forms of harm). ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Beneficence Beneficence serves as the motto and logo for Ball State University, located in Muncie, Indiana. ...


The ten points are:

  1. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of the subject matter involved as to enable him to make an understanding and enlightened decision. This latter element requires that before the acceptance of an affirmative decision by the experimental subject there should be made known to him the nature, duration, and purpose of the experiment; the method and means by which it is to be conducted; all inconveniences and hazards reasonable to be expected; and the effects upon his health or person which may possibly come from his participation in the experiment. The duty and responsibility for ascertaining the quality of the consent rests upon each individual who initiates, directs or engages in the experiment. It is a personal duty and responsibility which may not be delegated to another with impunity.
  2. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature.
  3. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment.
  4. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.
  5. No experiment should be conducted where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur; except, perhaps, in those experiments where the experimental physicians also serve as subjects.
  6. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment.
  7. Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability, or death.
  8. The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons. The highest degree of skill and care should be required through all stages of the experiment of those who conduct or engage in the experiment.
  9. During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible.
  10. During the course of the experiment the scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probable cause to believe, in the exercise of the good faith, superior skill and careful judgment required of him that a continuation of the experiment is likely to result in injury, disability, or death to the experimental subject.

See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Nuremberg Code

  Results from FactBites:
 
www.newsaic.com (1102 words)
In the Nuremberg Medical Trial, the United States prosecuted 23 defendants, 20 of whom were doctors, for war crimes, conspiracy, crimes against humanity, and membership in criminal organizations.
The Nuremberg Code is the most famous articulation of how ethical research involving human subjects should be conducted, but, on its own, it is not actually law in the United States or the world (for more on the code, go here).
That same year, the U.S. military adopted a formal policy reiterating the principles of the Nuremberg Code, requiring the written and witnessed consent from human subjects, and prohibiting the use of prisoners of war.
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