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Encyclopedia > Nuremberg
Nürnberg
Nuremberg
Nuremberg Kaiserburg
Nuremberg Kaiserburg
Coat of arms Location
Administration
Country Flag of Germany Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Middle Franconia
District Urban district
Mayor Ulrich Maly (SPD)
Basic statistics
Area 186.38 km² (72 sq mi)
Elevation 302 m  (991 ft)
Population 500,132  (09/05/2008)
 - Density 2,683 /km² (6,950 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate N
Postal codes 90000-90491
Area code 0911
Website nuernberg.de

Coordinates: 49°27′0″N 11°5′0″E / 49.45, 11.08333 Nürnberg or Nuremberg may refer to: // Nürnberg (Nuremberg) is a city in Germany. ... Nürnberg coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Image File history File links Karte_Deutschland. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... A Regierungsbezirk is an government region of Germany, a subdivision of certain federal states (Bundesländer). ... Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia) is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. ... There are 439 German districts (Kreise), administrative units in Germany. ... This is a list of urban districts in Germany. ... Burgomaster (alternatively spelled Burgomeister, literally translated meaning master of the citizens) is the English form, rendering (often the Anglo-Saxon equivalent Mayor is substituted) various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate and/or chairman of the executive council of a sub-national level of administration... Dr. Ulrich Maly (born August 8, 1960 in Nuremberg, Bavaria) is a German politician, member of the SPD and since May 1, 2002 the Mayor of Nuremberg. ... SPD redirects here. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... German car number plates (Kfz-Kennzeichen) show the place where the car carrying them is registered. ... German Postleitzahl map of the first two digits Postal codes in Germany, Postleitzahl (plural Postleitzahlen, abbreviated to PLZ), consist of five digits, which indicate the wider area (first two digits), and the postal district (last three digits). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg ['nʏɐ̯nbεɐ̯k]) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. It is situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal and is Franconia's largest city. It is located about 170 kilometres north of Munich, at 49.27° N 11.5° E. Population (as of 01/2006) is 500,132. For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... In some federations, a province (subnational entity) is called a state. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... A Regierungsbezirk is an government region of Germany, a subdivision of certain federal states (Bundesländer). ... Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia) is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. ... The Pegnitz is a small river in Franconia in the German federal state of Bavaria. ... the Rhine-Main Danube Canal (in the foreground) near Nuremberg The Rhine-Main-Danube Canal (also called Main-Danube Canal, RMD Canal or Europa Canal) connects the Main and Danube from Bamberg by Nuremberg to Regensburg. ... For other uses, see Franconia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Middle Ages

Old fortifications of Nuremberg
Old fortifications of Nuremberg

From 1050 to 1571, the city expanded and rose dramatically in importance due to its location on key trade routes. It is often referred to as having been the 'unofficial capital' of the Holy Roman Emperor, particularly because Reichstage (Imperial Diets) and courts met at Nuremberg Castle. The Diets of Nuremberg were an important part of the administrative structure of the empire. In 1219 Nuremberg became an Imperial Free City under Emperor Frederick II.[1] Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe. In 1298, the Jews of the town were accused of having desecrated the host and 698 were slain in one of the many Rintfleisch Massacres. Behind the massacre in 1298 was also the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz River. Jews had been settled in that flood-prone area, but as the city leaders realized, this center of town was crucial to its future development. Hence, the Jewish population had to be removed. This area is now the place of the City Market, Frauenkirche and Rathaus (City Hall). Not to be confused with capitol. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Nuremberg castle Nuremberg Castle is located on a mountain north of the historical city of Nuremberg. ... The Diet of Nuremberg is often called the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg. ... In the Holy Roman Empire, an imperial free city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) Frederick II (December 26, 1194 - (December 13, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212, unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 until his death... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Host desecration is a form of sacrilege in Christianity, involving the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated Host, or communion wafer. ... Big and small host tongs for baking hosts detail of tongs for baking hosts jagger for making hosts A host is a thin, round wafer made from bread and used for Holy Communion in many Christian churches. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Pegnitz is a small river in Franconia in the German federal state of Bavaria. ...


Early modern age

Jews being exiled from Nuremberg, 1670
Jews being exiled from Nuremberg, 1670

The cultural flowering of Nuremberg in the 15th and 16th centuries made it the center of the German Renaissance. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 851 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 448 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1712 × 2288 pixel, file size: 851 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


In 1525, Nuremberg accepted the Protestant Reformation, and in 1532, the religious Peace of Nuremberg, by which the Lutherans gained important concessions, was signed there. In 1632 during the Thirty Years' War, the city, occupied by the forces of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, was besieged by the army of Imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein. The city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the nineteenth century, when it grew as an industrial center. At the beginning of the nineteenth century Nuremberg was practically bankrupt. In 1806 with the Holy Roman Empire formally being dissolved, Nuremberg passed to Bavaria. The Bavarian state took over the city's debts and guaranteed their amortization. The first German railway, from Nuremberg to nearby Fürth, was opened in 1835. Reformation redirects here. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly. ... The Siege of Nuremberg took place in 1632 during the Thirty Years War. ...   (also Waldstein; Czech: ;[1] September 24, 1583 – February 25, 1634)[2] was a Bohemian soldier and politician who gave his services (an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men) during the Danish Period of the Thirty Years War to Ferdinand II for no charge except the right to plunder... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Bayerische Ludwigs Bahn 1835/69 share certificate Railway monument in Nuremberg in memory of the first German railway, Nürnberg-Fürth The Bayerische Ludwigseisenbahn (Bavarian Ludwig Railway) was the first steam-hauled railway opened in Germany. ... South part of the city, seen from the Alte Veste (Zirndorf), 2004 The city of Fürth is located in northern Bavaria, Germany in the district of Middle Franconia. ...


Nazi period

Nuremberg party rally 1935
Nuremberg party rally 1935

Nuremberg held great significance during the Nazi Germany period. Because of the city's relevance to the Holy Roman Empire and its position in the center of Germany, the Nazi Party chose the city to be the site of huge Nazi Party conventions–the Nuremberg rallies. The rallies were held annually from 1927 to 1938 in Nuremberg. After Hitler's rise to power in 1933 the Nuremberg rallies became huge state propaganda events, a center of anti-Semitism and other Nazi ideals. At the 1935 rally, Hitler specifically ordered the Reichstag to convene at Nuremberg to pass the anti-Semitic Nuremberg Laws which revoked German citizenship for all Jews. A number of premises were constructed solely for these assemblies, some of which were not finished. Today many examples of Nazi architecture can still be seen in the city. The city was also the home of the Nazi propagandist Julius Streicher, the publisher of Der Stürmer. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 404 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 3038 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 404 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 3038 pixel, file size: 1. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... The Nazi partys 1936 Nuremberg Rally was its largest. ... Hitlers rise to power was marked at first by a period of the NSDAP as a fringe party before the events of the Beer hall putsch and the release of Mein Kampf introduced Hitler to a wider audience. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Reichstag may refer to: Reichstag (institution), the Diets or parliaments of the Holy Roman Empire, of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy and of Germany from 1871 to 1945 Reichstag building, Berlin location where the German legislature met from 1894 to 1933 and again since 1999 The Reichstag fire in 1933, which... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ... Julius Streicher (February 12, 1885 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. ... 1943 Stürmer issue: Satan Der Stürmer (literally, The Stormer) was a weekly Nazi newspaper published by Julius Streicher from 1923 to the end of World War II in 1945, with brief suspensions in circulation due to legal difficulties. ...


During World War II, Nuremberg was the headquarters of Wehrkreis (military district) XIII, and an important site for military production, including airplanes, submarines, and tank engines. A subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was located here. Extensive use was made of slave labour.[2] The city was severely damaged in Allied strategic bombing from 1943-1945. On January 2, 1945, the medieval city centre was systematically bombed by the Royal Air Force and the U.S. Army Air Forces and about ninety percent of it was destroyed in only one hour, with 1,800 residents killed and roughly 100,000 displaced. In February 1945, additional attacks followed. In total, about 6,000 Nuremberg residents are estimated to have been killed in air raids. Despite this, the city was rebuilt after the war and was to some extent, restored to its pre-war appearance including the reconstruction of some of its medieval buildings. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Military districts are territorial entities used for the purposes of military planning and strategizing. ... Flossenbürg concentration camp was a German prison built in 1938 at Flossenbürg, in the Oberpfalz region of Bavaria. ... Slavery is any of a number of related conditions involving control of a person against his or her will, enforced by violence or other clear forms of coercion. ... Strategic bombing during World War II was greater in scale than any wartime attack the world had previously witnessed. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... RAF redirects here. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as...

Defendants in the dock at Nuremberg Trials
Defendants in the dock at Nuremberg Trials

Between 1945 and 1946, German officials involved in the Holocaust and other war crimes were taken in front of an international tribunal in the Nuremberg Trials. The Soviet Union had wanted the trials to take place in Berlin, but Nuremberg was chosen as the site for the trials for specific reasons: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...

  • It was located in the American occupation zone
  • The Nuremberg Palace of Justice was spacious and largely undamaged (one of the few that had remained largely intact through extensive Allied bombing of Germany). A large prison was also part of the complex.
  • The city had been the location of the Nazi party's Nuremberg rallies; there was symbolic value in making it the place of the Nazi demise.
  • As a compromise it was agreed that Berlin would become the permanent seat of the International Military Tribunal and that the first trial (several were planned) would take place in Nuremberg. Because of the Cold War, there were no subsequent trials.

The same courtroom in Nuremberg was the venue of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals, organised by the United States as occupying power in the area. The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Nuremberg Palace of Justice is a building complex in Nuremberg, Bavaria, Germany which is most famous for being the location of the famous Nuremberg Trials that were held after the Second World War for the henchmen of Adolf Hitler, between 1945 and 1949 for those who were still presumed to... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Chief prosecutor Telford Taylor opens the prosecution case in the Krupp Trial The Subsequent Nuremberg Trials (or, more formally, the Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals (NMT)) were a series of twelve U.S. military trials for war crimes against surviving members of the military, political, and...


Economy

Hl. Geistspital, Holy Spirit Hospital
Hl. Geistspital, Holy Spirit Hospital

Nuremberg for many people is still associated with its traditional gingerbread (Lebkuchen) products, sausages, and handmade toys. The first pocket watchesNuremberg eggs — were made here in the sixteenth century. In the nineteenth century Nuremberg became the "industrial heart" of Bavaria with companies such as Siemens and MAN establishing a strong base in the city. Nuremberg is still an important industrial center with a strong standing in the markets of Central and Eastern Europe. Items manufactured in the area include electrical equipment, mechanical and optical products, motor vehicles, and printed materials. The city is also strong in the fields of automation, energy, and medical technology. Siemens is still the largest industrial employer in the Nuremberg region but a good third of German market research agencies is also located in the city. The Nuremberg International Toy Fair is the largest of its kind in the world. The city also hosts several specialist hi-tech fairs every year, attracting experts from every corner of the globe. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Freshly baked Lebkuchen Lebkuchen are a traditional German Christmas cookies form of gingerbread, which were probably invented by Medieval monks in Franconia, Germany in the 13th century. ... This article is about the portable timepiece. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Siemens redirects here. ... MAN AG (German: Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg AG, ISIN: DE0005937007) is a German transportation company. ... The Nuremberg International Toy Fair (Nürnberger Spielwarenmesse) is a international toy and game trade show which takes place annually in Nuremberg, Germany. ...


Culture

Towers of Saint Sebald and the Castle as seen from Saint Lorenz.
Towers of Saint Sebald and the Castle as seen from Saint Lorenz.

Nuremberg was an early center of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Northern facade of St. ...


The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. In 1471 Johannes Mueller of Königsberg (Bavaria), later called Regiomontanus, built an astronomical observatory in Nuremberg and published many important astronomical charts. In 1515, Albrecht Dürer, a native of Nuremberg, mapped the stars of the northern and southern hemispheres, producing the first printed star charts, which had been ordered by Johann Stabius. Around 1515 Dürer also published the "Stabiussche Weltkarte", the first perspective drawing of the terrestrial globe. Perhaps most famously, the main part of Nicolaus Copernicus' work was published in Nuremberg in 1543. For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Königsberg is a town in the Haßberge district, in Bavaria, Germany. ... Johannes Müller von Königsberg (June 6, 1436 – July 6, 1476), known by his Latin pseudonym Regiomontanus, was an important German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced ) (May 21, 1471 – April 6, 1528)[1] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. ... Copernicus redirects here. ...


Printers and publishers have a long history in Nuremberg. Many of these publishers worked with well-known artists of the day to produce books that could also be considered works of art. In 1470 Anton Koberger opened Europe's first print shop in Nuremberg. In 1493, he published the Nuremberg Chronicles, also know as the World Chronicles (Schedelsche Weltchronik), an illustrated history of the world from the creation to the present day. It was written in the local Franconian dialect by Hartmann Schedel and had illustrations by Michael Wohlgemuth, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and Albrecht Dürer. Others furthered geographical knowledge and travel by map making. Notable among these was navigator and geographer Martin Behaim, who made the first world globe. Anton Koberger[1] (ca. ... Hartmann Schedel, a german humanist and historian (* February 13, 1440 in Nuremberg, † November 28, 1514 in Nuremberg), was one of the first cartographers to make use of the printing press. ... Michael Wohlgemuth (1434 - 1519), German painter, was born at Nuremberg. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced ) (May 21, 1471 – April 6, 1528)[1] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. ... Martin Behaim (October 6, 1459 – July 29, 1507), or Behem, was a navigator and geographer of great pretensions. ...


Sculptors such as Veit Stoss and Peter Vischer are also associated with Nuremberg. Veit Stoss painted by Jan Matejko Veit Stoss (Polish: Wit Stwosz) (ca. ... Peter Vischer may refer to one of several people: Peter Vischer the Elder, a German sculptor Peter Vischer the Younger, a German sculptor This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Composed of prosperous artisans, the guilds of the Meistersingers flourished here. Richard Wagner made their most famous member, Hans Sachs, the hero of his opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel was born here and was organist of St. Sebaldus Church. A Meistersinger (German for master-singer) was a German lyric poet of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, who carried on and developed the traditions of the medieval Minnesingers. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Hans Sachs (November 5, 1494 - January 19, 1576) was a German meistersinger (mastersinger), poet, playwright and shoemaker. ... Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Master Singers of Nuremberg) is an opera in three acts, written and composed by Richard Wagner. ... Johann Pachelbel (pronounced , German IPA: , , or [1]) (August 28, 1653 – March 6, 1706) was a German Baroque composer, organist and teacher who brought the south German organ tradition to its peak. ... Northern facade of St. ...


Nuremberg is also famous for its Christmas market, which draws well over a million shoppers each year. The market is famous for its handmade ornaments and delicacies. "Nürem-biscotti" is a tourist favorite. It is a fried biscotti dipped in alternating layers of dark, white, and milk chocolate with nuts (usually almonds) sprinkled on top.


Main sights

View over old Nuremberg from Spittlertor-Tower
View over old Nuremberg from Spittlertor-Tower
Dutzendteich and Kongresshalle in the background
Dutzendteich and Kongresshalle in the background
The Frauenkirche (Church of our lady) as seen from the Hauptmarkt
The Frauenkirche (Church of our lady) as seen from the Hauptmarkt

The southern part of the old town, known as Lorenzer Seite, is separated from the north by the river Pegnitz and encircled to the south by the city walls. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

  • Nuremberg Castle: the three castles that tower over the city including central burgraves' castle, with Free Reich's buildings to the east, the Imperial castle to the west.
  • Heilig-Geist-Spital. In the centre of the city, on the bank of the river Pegnitz, stands the Hospital of the Holy Spirit. Founded in 1332, this is one of the largest hospitals of the Middle Ages. Lepers were kept here at some distance from the other patients. It now houses elderly persons and a restaurant.
  • Hauptmarkt, which provides a picturesque setting and famous market for gingerbread. Nuremberg's star attraction is the Gothic Schöner Brunnen (Beautiful Fountain) which was erected around 1385 but subsequently replaced with a replica (the original fountain is kept in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum). The unchanged Renaissance bridge Fleischbrücke crosses the Pegnitz nearby.
  • The following churches are located inside the city walls: St. Sebaldus Church, St. Lorenz, Frauenkirche (Our Lady's Church), Saint Klara, Saint Martha, Saint Jakob, Saint Egidien, and Saint Elisabeth.
  • Gothic St Lorenz-Kirche (St. Lorenz church, St. Lorenz), one of the most important buildings in Nuremberg. The main body was built around 1270-1350.
  • The church of the former Katharinenkloster is preserved as a ruin, the Cartause is integrated into the building of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum and the choir of the former Franzikanerkirche is part of a modern building.
  • The Walburga Chapel and the Romanesque Doppelkapelle (Chapel with two floors) are part of Nuremberg Castle.
  • The Johannisfriedhof is a medieval cemetery, containing many old graves (Albrecht Dürer, Willibald Pirckheimer, and others). The Rochusfriedhof or the Wöhrder Kirchhof are near the Old Town.
  • The Tiergarten Nürnberg is a zoo stretching over more than 60 ha in the Nürnberger Reichswald.
  • There is also a medieval market just inside the city walls, selling handcrafted goods.
  • The German National Railways Museum (German) (an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage) is located in Nuremberg.
  • The Nuremberg Ring (now welded within an iron fence) is said to bring good luck to those that touch it.

Nuremberg castle Nuremberg Castle is located on a mountain north of the historical city of Nuremberg. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Germanisches Nationalmuseum, founded in Nuremberg, Germany in 1852, houses a significant collection of items relating to German culture and art extending from prehistoric times through to the present day. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Northern facade of St. ... International Gothic is a subset of Gothic art developed in Burgundy, Bohemia and northern Italy in the late 1300s and early 1400s. ... Germanisches Nationalmuseum, founded in Nuremberg, Germany in 1852, houses a significant collection of items relating to German culture and art extending from prehistoric times through to the present day. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced ) (May 21, 1471 – April 6, 1528)[1] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. ... Willibald Pirckheimer (1470-1530) was a wealthy and prominent figure in Nuremburg in the sixteenth century. ... The Reichswald Forest, near the Dutch/ German border, was the scene of a Second World War battle in February, 1945. ... The European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) is a network of the most important industrial heritage sites in Europe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1440x2160, 756 KB) The Nuremberg Ring. ...

Transport

The city's location next to numerous highways, railways, and a waterway has contributed to its rising importance for trade with Eastern Europe.


Motorways

Nuremberg is conveniently located at the junction of several important Autobahn routes. The A3 (Netherlands-Frankfurt-Passau-Vienna) passes in a south-easterly direction along the north-east of the city. The A9 (Berlin-Munich) passes in a north-south direction on the east of the city. The A6 (France-Saarbrücken-Prague) passes in an east-west direction to the south of the city. Finally, the A73 begins in the south-east of Nuremberg and travels north-west through the city before continuing towards Fürth and Bamberg. Bundesautobahn 3 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 3, short form Autobahn 3, abbreviated as BAB 3 or A 3) is an autobahn in Germany that links the border to the Netherlands near Wesel in the northwest to the Austrian border near Passau in the southeast. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Passau (Latin: Batavis or Batavia, also Passavium; Italian: Passavia; Czech: Pasov) is a town in Niederbayern, Eastern Bavaria, Germany, known also as the Dreiflüssestadt (City of Three Rivers), because the Danube River is joined there by the Inn River from the South, and the Ilz River coming out of... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Bundesautobahn 9 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 9, short form Autobahn 9, abbreviated as BAB 9 or A 9) is an autobahn in Germany, connecting Berlin and Munich. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Map of the A 6 in Germany Bundesautobahn 6 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 6, short form Autobahn 6, abbreviated as BAB 6 or A 6), also known as Via Carolina (Between Nürnberg and the Czech border continuing to Prague) is a 432 km (268 mi) long German... Capital Saarbrücken Language(s) Rhine Franconian; see language of the Saarland Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Joined Holy Roman Empire 925  - Established ca 1120  - Passed to Nassau-Weilburg 1353  - Occupied by France 1793  - Annexed by France 1797  - Passed to Prussian Grd     Dchy Lwr Rhine   June 9, 1815 Saarbr... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Bundesautobahn 73 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 73, short form Autobahn 73, abbreviated as BAB 73 or A 73) is an autobahn in Germany. ... South part of the city, seen from the Alte Veste (Zirndorf), 2004 The city of Fürth is located in northern Bavaria, Germany in the district of Middle Franconia. ... For other uses, see Bamberg (disambiguation). ...


Railways

Class 101 locomotive at Nuremberg Main Station
Class 101 locomotive at Nuremberg Main Station

Nuremberg Central Station is a stop for IC and ICE trains on the German long-distance railway network. The Nuremberg–IngolstadtMunich High-Speed line with 300 km/h operation opened May 28, 2006, and was fully integrated into the rail schedule on December 10, 2006. Travel times to Munich have been reduced to as little as one hour. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 1821 KB) Beschreibung: 101 in Nürnberg Quelle: mef-presseservice Fotograf: Manfred E. Fritsche Aufnahmedatum: 28. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 1821 KB) Beschreibung: 101 in Nürnberg Quelle: mef-presseservice Fotograf: Manfred E. Fritsche Aufnahmedatum: 28. ... Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof (usually translated from German as Nürnberg Central Station, short form Nürnberg Hbf) is the Hauptbahnhof for the city of Nuremberg in Germany. ... A Romanian InterCity train, run by Romanian Railways, at Arad station in May 2003 InterCity is a name for the inter-city rail services in Europe. ... ICE 3 trainset near Ingolstadt The InterCityExpress or ICE (German pronunciation: ) is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and its neighbouring countries. ... Ingolstadt (Austro-Bavarian: InglstÃ¥dt) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Airport

Nuremberg Airport has flights to major German cities and many European destinations, as well as connecting flights worldwide, for example via Frankfurt or Vienna. Air Berlin uses Nuremberg Airport as the airline's hub, especially in the winter season. Nuremberg Airport (German: Flughafen Nürnberg) is the international airport of the Franconian metropolis and the second-busiest airport in Bavaria. ... Frankfurt Airport Frankfurt Airport (IATA: FRA, ICAO: EDDF), known in German as Rhein-Main-Flughafen or Flughafen Frankfurt am Main, is located near Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ... Vienna International Airport (IATA: VIE, ICAO: LOWW) (German: Flughafen Wien-Schwechat), located 18 kilometers (11 miles) southeast of Vienna, is the busiest airport in Austria. ... Air Berlin (FSE: AB1) is Germanys second largest airline after Lufthansa. ... Nuremberg Airport (German: Flughafen Nürnberg) is the international airport of the Franconian metropolis and the second-busiest airport in Bavaria. ...


City and regional transport

Nuremberg U-Bahn train
Nuremberg U-Bahn train

The first segment of the Nuremberg U-Bahn metro system was opened in 1972. The system, along with trams and buses, are operated by the VAG Nürnberg (Verkehrsaktiengesellschaft Nürnberg or Nuremberg Transport Corporation), itself a member of the VGN (Verkehrsverbund Großraum Nürnberg or Greater Nuremberg Transport Network). There is also a Nuremberg S-Bahn suburban metro railway and a regional train network, both centred on Nuremberg Central Station. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 190 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) U-Bahn Nürnberg / Nuremberg, train type DT2, January 28 2005 by Jcornelius File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 190 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) U-Bahn Nürnberg / Nuremberg, train type DT2, January 28 2005 by Jcornelius File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Nuremberg U-Bahn train type DT1 Nuremberg U-Bahn train type DT2 U-Bahn station Opernhaus The Nuremberg U-Bahn is a metro run by the VAG Nürnberg (Verkehrsaktiengesellschaft Nürnberg or Nuremberg Transport Corporation), which itself is a member of the VGN (Verkehrsverbund Großraum Nürnberg or... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Autobus redirects here. ... Network map of the Nuremberg S-Bahn The Nuremberg S-Bahn (in German S-Bahn Nürnberg) is an S-Bahn network covering the region of Nuremberg, Fürth and Erlangen which was founded in 1987 and is now integrated in the Transport Association Region Nuremberg (Verkehrsverbund Großraum N... Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof (usually translated from German as Nürnberg Central Station, short form: Nürnberg Hbf) is the Hauptbahnhof for the city of Nuremberg in Germany. ...


Canals

Nuremberg is an important port on the Main-Danube Canal. the Rhine-Main Danube Canal (in the foreground) near Nuremberg The Rhine-Main-Danube Canal (also called Main-Danube Canal, RMD Canal or Europa Canal) connects the Main and Danube from Bamberg by Nuremberg to Regensburg. ...


Sport

Soccer

1. FC Nuremberg, known locally as Der Club, was founded in 1900 and is steeped in tradition. The team plays in the First Bundesliga. The official colours of the association are red and white, but the traditional colours are red and black. The current president is Michael A. Roth. 1. ... The Bundesliga is the highest level of Germanys football league system. ...


They play in the EasyCredit Stadium, which was rebuilt for the World Championship in 2006 and accommodates 46,000. Frankenstadion Nuremberg The Frankenstadion was inaugurated in 1928 in Nuremberg as home stadium to the Bundesliga club 1. ...

  • German Champion: 1920, 1921, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1936, 1948, 1961, 1968
  • German Cup winners: 1935, 1939, 1962, 2007

Sister cities

Worldwide, Nuremberg is twinned with the following cities: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the French city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in Macedonia Country Macedonia Municipality Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - Total 1,854 km² (715. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... San Carlos is the capital city of the Río San Juan department of Nicaragua. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Gera is the largest Town in the east of Thuringia, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... For other uses, see Kharkiv (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Haderas Great Synagogue Hadera (Hebrew: חדרה) is a city in the Haifa District between Tel Aviv and Haifa in Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... For other uses, see Shenzhen (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... This article is mostly about the Antalya City; for the province, see Antalya Province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Kavala (also seen as Kavála, Kavalla, (Greek) (2001 pop. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...

Partner cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...

Nuremberg districts

Several old villages now belong to the city of Nuremberg, for example Großgründlach, Kraftshof, Thon, and Neunhof in the north-west; Ziegelstein in the north-east, Altenfurt and Fischbach in the south-east; and Katzwang, Kornburg in the south. Langwasser is a modern suburb. Annunciation church in St. ... The previous village Katzwang is part of Nuremberg since 1972-07-01 . ... Langwasser is a district of Nuremberg in the southeastern area of the city. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ...


Famous citizens

Alexander Schreiner was one of the most noted organists of the Salt Lake Tabernacle. ... Chaya Arbel (Germany, 1921) is a female Israeli composer. ... Kaspar Hauser Kaspar Hauser or Casparus Hauser (April 30, 1812–December 17, 1833) was a mysterious foundling in 19th century Germany with suspected ties to the royal house of Baden. ... Peter Bucher (born April 3, 1947) is a former West German handball player who competed in the 1972 Summer Olympics. ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced ) (May 21, 1471 – April 6, 1528)[1] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. ... This article refers to the philosopher. ... Adam Kraft or Krafft (c. ... Anton Koberger[1] (ca. ... Max Maxl Morlock (born May 11, 1925 in Nuremberg, † September 10, 1994 in Nuremberg) was one of the most popular German football players in the 1950s and early 1960s. ... Conrad Paumann (c. ... Hans Sachs (November 5, 1494 - January 19, 1576) was a German meistersinger (mastersinger), poet, playwright and shoemaker. ... Hartmann Schedel, a german humanist and historian (* February 13, 1440 in Nuremberg, † November 28, 1514 in Nuremberg), was one of the first cartographers to make use of the printing press. ... Veit Stoss painted by Jan Matejko Veit Stoss (Polish: Wit Stwosz) (ca. ... Peter Vischer (the Elder) (~1455 - 1529) was a significant German northern Renaissance sculptor who was the father of Peter Vischer the Younger. ... Johann Philipp von Wurzelbauer (also spelled Wurzelbaur, Wurzelbau, Wurtzelbaur, Wurtzelbau) (1651-1725), German astronomer. ... Johann Pachelbel (pronounced , German IPA: , , or [1]) (August 28, 1653 – March 6, 1706) was a German Baroque composer, organist and teacher who brought the south German organ tradition to its peak. ... Kunz (Konrad) Lochner (1510-1567) was a master armourer from Nuremberg, Germany. ... Peter Henlein (1479/1480 - August 1542) from Nuremberg is considered the inventor of the portable watch. ...

See also

For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... The Nuremberg Rally (officially, Reichsparteitag, meaning national party convention) was the annual rally of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) in the years 1923 to 1938 in Germany. ... Christkindlesmarkt is a famous Christmas market held annually in Nuremberg, Germany. ... Bratwurst with sauerkraut and potatoes A bratwurst (IPA: ) is a sausage composed of pork, beef, and sometimes veal. ... Freshly baked Lebkuchen Lebkuchen are a traditional German Christmas cookies form of gingerbread, which were probably invented by Medieval monks in Franconia, Germany in the 13th century. ... Tinsel is a common Christmas decoration, popular because of its glittery appearance See [1] for some info Categories: Substubs ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. ... Helene Bertha Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German film director, dancer and actress, and widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ... The Toy Museum in Nuremberg is a three story building, that shows toys reaching back to the Middle Ages. ... Germanisches Nationalmuseum, founded in Nuremberg, Germany in 1852, houses a significant collection of items relating to German culture and art extending from prehistoric times through to the present day. ... The Norisring is a race track in Nuremberg, on the former Reichsparteitagsgelände site of the NSDAP party conventions. ... The Grand Prix motor racing driver Pedro Rodriguez was born January 18, 1940, in Mexico City; his younger brother and racing partner Ricardo was born 2 years later. ... This is a list of mayors of Nuremberg (Oberbürgermeister der Stadt Nürnberg) since 1818: 1818-1821: Christian Gottfried Lorsch 1821-1853: Jakob Friedrich Binder 1854-1867: Maximilian von Waechter 1867-1891: Otto Freiherr von Stromer 1892-1913: Georg Ritter von Schuh 1913-1919: Otto Geßler 1920-1933... Nuremberg U-Bahn train type DT1 Nuremberg U-Bahn train type DT2 U-Bahn station Opernhaus The Nuremberg U-Bahn is a metro run by the VAG Nürnberg (Verkehrsaktiengesellschaft Nürnberg or Nuremberg Transport Corporation), which itself is a member of the VGN (Verkehrsverbund Großraum Nürnberg or...

References

Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...

External links

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Coat of Arms Henneberg-Schleusingen House of Henneberg: a branch of the Franconian Babenbergs which was very powerful in Franconia and Thuringia particularly in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries // The distant origins of this family are speculative yet seem to originate in the Rhine Valley, east of modern-day... Löwenstein-Wertheim was a county of the Holy Roman Empire, part of the [[Franconian Circle. ... Schwarzenberg (ze Å varzenberka in Czech) is the name of a Frankish and Bohemian aristocratic family which was first mentioned in 1172. ... Castell was a county of northern Bavaria, Germany, ruling a string of territories in the historical region of Franconia, both east and west of Würzburg. ... Erbach im Odenwald is a town in Hesse, Germany. ... Rieneck is a town in the Main-Spessart district, in Bavaria, Germany. ... Seinsheim is a town in the district of Kitzingen in Bavaria in Germany. ... 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Schweinfurt is a city in the Unterfranken region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the canalized Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 km North-East of Würzburg. ... Weissenburg in Bayern (historically also Weißenburg im Nordgau) is a city in Bavaria, Germany. ... coat of arms Bad Windsheim is a small historic city in Bavaria, Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... Aalen (pronounced ) is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Biberach is a town in the south of Germany, capital of the district Biberach in Baden-Württemberg. ... Bopfingen is a small historic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Bad Buchau Bad Buchau is a little town in the district of Biberach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany with about 4,000 inhabitants. ... Friedrichshafen is a town on the northern side of Lake Constance (Bodensee) in southern Germany, near the borders with Switzerland and Austria. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Dinkelsbühl is a historic city in Bavaria, Germany. ... Dortmund is a city in Germany, located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. ... Esslingen is a city in the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, capital of the District of Esslingen. ... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other articles with similar names, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Friedberg (Friedberg in der Wetterau) is a town near Frankfurt am Main (about 30 km north of Frankfurt) and has about 25,000 inhabitants. ... Gengenbach is a town in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg, Germany and a famous tourist destination on the western edge of the Black Forest with about 11000 inhabitants. ... Giengen (full name: Giengen an der Brenz) is a historic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Coordinates: Time zone: CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country: Germany State: Lower Saxony District: Goslar City subdivisions: 12 districts Lord Mayor: Henning Binnewies (SPD) Basic Statistics Area: 92. ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... View of the Heilbronn centre of town toward the Wartberg. ... Isny im Allgäu is a city in south-eastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Kaufbeuren is an independent city in the Regierungsbezirk of Schwaben, southern Bavaria. ... Kempten is the capital of Allgäu, a region in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. ... Leutkirch im Allgäu is a German town in Baden-Württemberg. ... famous harbor entrance of Lindau reverse side of the old town hall of Lindau Lindau is a German city and an island in the eastern part of the Lake Constance, the Bodensee. ... Location of the Free City of Lübeck with the German Empire   Capital Lübeck Government Republic History  - Formation 1226  - Abolition April 1, 1937 The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... Memmingen is a town in the Bavarian administrative region Swabia in Germany. ... Mühlhausen is a city in the federal state Thuringia, Germany. ... Mulhouse (French: , pronounced ; Alsatian: Milhüsa or Milhüse, pronounced ; German: ; i. ... Roland statue in Nordhausen Twinning The city is twinned with Bet Shemesh in Israel Charleville-Mézières in France Bochum Ostrów Wielkopolski in Poland Nordhausen is a city of about 45,000 people at the southern border of the Harz mountains, in the state of Thuringia, Germany. ... Nördlingen is a town in the Donau-Ries district, in Bavaria, Germany, with a population of almost 20,000. ... Offenburg is a city located in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Pfullendorf is a small historic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Ravensburg, Blaserturm (Trumpeters Tower), Waaghaus (Balance Hall) and Rathaus (Town Hall) Ravensburg is a town in Upper Swabia in Southern Germany, capital of the district of Ravensburg, Baden-Württemberg. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... Reutlingen is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Town Hall Square of Rothenburg A famous street in Rothenburg at Koboldzellersteig and Spittalgasse Town wall of Rothenburg Rothenburg ob der Tauber is a town in the district of Ansbach of Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia), the Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany, well known for its well-preserved medieval old town. ... Map of Germany showing Rottweil Watershed of the Neckar River Watershed of the Rhine River Rottweil is the oldest town in southwestern Germany, in the State of Baden-Württemberg. ... Schwäbisch Gmünd is a town in the eastern part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ... Schwäbisch Hall (or Hall for short) is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg; it is the capital of the district of Schwäbisch Hall. ... Schweinfurt is a city in the Unterfranken region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the canalized Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 km North-East of Würzburg. ... Speyer (English formerly Spires) is a city in Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) with approx. ... Capital Not specified Government Republic Historical era Middle Ages  - Gained City rights 1211  - Gained Reichsfreiheit 1268  - Conquered by Sweden     in Thirty Years War   1643  - Mediatised to Baden 1803 Ãœberlingen is a city in the Bodensee district in Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany. ... For other uses, see Ulm (disambiguation). ... Wangen im Allgäu is a historic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Weil der Stadt is a small town with approximately 19,200 inhabitants, located in the Stuttgart Region of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ... Weissenburg in Bayern (historically also Weißenburg im Nordgau) is a city in Bavaria, Germany. ... Wetzlar is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of the Lahn-Dill district. ... Bad Wimpfen is a historic spa town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Bad Windsheim is a small historic city in Bavaria, Germany. ... Wormser Dom Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... Zell am Harmersbach is a small historic city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Reichsfreiheit or Reichsunmittelbarkeit (adjectives reichsfrei, reichsunmittelbar) was a special, privileged status a city or region could attain in the Holy Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... From her inauspicious beginnings as a Celtic settlement in pre-Roman Central Europe, the city of Berne grew to become an aristocratic city republic and a major power in the Old Swiss Confederacy. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Utinam (Latin: If God wills) Citadel Vauban of Besançon Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Franche-Comté Department Doubs (25) Intercommunality Grand Besançon Mayor Jean-Louis Fousseret (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 65. ... Brakel is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Cambrai (Dutch: Kamerijk) is a French city and commune, in the Nord département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... Diessenhofen is a municipality in the district of Diessenhofen, in the canton of Thurgau, Switzerland. ... Known as Nordschwabens freundliche Mitte (North Swabias Friendly Center), Donauwörth is a city in the German State of Bavaria (Bayern), in the region of Swabia (Schwabenland). ... Duisburg is a German city and port in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Düren is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, capital of Düren district. ... Gelnhausen is a city in the German state of Hesse. ... Haguenau (German: Hagenau) is a commune of northeastern France, in the Bas-Rhin département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Herforder Münster Herford is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, located in the lowlands between the mountain chains of the Wiehengebirge and the Teutoburg Forest. ... Petite Venise Colmar is a town and commune in the Haut-Rhin département of Alsace, France. ... Kaysersberg (German: Kaisersberg) is a small city in the Alsace, France. ... Konstanz in 1925 seen from the lake Schnetztor, a section of the former city wall Another gate from city wall Shops in Konstanz The Konzilgebäude in Konstanz Konstanz (in English formerly known as Constance) is a university town of around 80,000 inhabitants at the western end of Lake... Landau or Landau in der Pfalz (pop. ... Lemgo is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany with a population of 42. ... For other uses, see Lucerne (disambiguation). ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) Cathedral St. ... Munster is a commune in the Haut-Rhin département, Alsace, France. ... Obernai (French: ; Alsatian: Owernah; German: ) is a town and commune in Alsace, France. ... Rheinfelden is a municipality in the canton of Aargau, Switzerland, seat of the district of Rheinfelden. ... Rosheim is a small city in the Alsace, France. ... St. ... Sarrebourg (German: Saarburg) is a city in Lorraine, France. ... Schaffhausen (German:  , French: Schaffhouse, Italian: Sciaffusa) is a city in northern Switzerland and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 33,527 as of March 31, 2005. ... Schmalkalden is a town in the Kreis (district) of Schmalkalden-Meiningen in the southwestern portion of the German state of Thuringia. ... Sélestat (German: Schlettstadt) is a commune of northeastern France, in the Bas-Rhin département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Soest Soest (pronounced ) is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The city of   (French: Soleure, Italian: Soletta) is the capital of the Canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Strasburg. ... Cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Toul Toul is a historic fortified town of France, a sous-préfecture of the Meurthe-et-Moselle département. ... Turckheim (German: Türkheim) is a small town and commune in Alsace, France. ... Verden (Aller), or Verden (IPA: ), is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, on the River Aller. ... Capital Verdun Government Republic Historical era Middle Ages  - Established Uncertain  - Three Bishoprics     annexed by France   1552  - Treaty of Westphalia     recognises annexation   1648 For other uses see Verdun (disambiguation) Verdun (medieval German: Wirten, official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a city and commune in the Lorraine région, northeast... Warburg is a city in the east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in the district Höxter. ... Wissembourg (German: Weißenburg) is a small town and commune situated on the border between France and Germany, in the Alsace région, approximately 60 km north of Strasbourg. ... The Murerplan of 1576 Zürich was continuously inhabited since Roman times. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... The Décapole (Zehnstädtebund in German) was an alliance of ten towns in Alsace, France in a league founded in 1354, and discontinued in 1679. ... The growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy began as an alliance between the communities of the valleys in the central Alps to facilitate the management of common interests such as free trade and to ensure the peace along the important trade routes through the mountains. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(lozengy). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Amberg (currently incorrect) Amberg is a city in Bavaria, Germany. ... Ansbach, or Anspach, originally Onolzbach, is a town in Bavaria, Germany. ... Aschaffenburg (IPA: ; dialect: [ˈaʒəˌbɜːʃ]) is a large town in northwest Bavaria, Germany. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... For other uses, see Bamberg (disambiguation). ... Bayreuth [pronounced by-royt] is a town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Frankish Alb and the Fichtelgebirge. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Erlangen around 1915 Erlangen is a German city in Middle Franconia. ... South part of the city, seen from the Alte Veste (Zirndorf), 2004 The city of Fürth is located in northern Bavaria, Germany in the district of Middle Franconia. ... Hof is a city located on the banks of the Saale in the northeastern corner of the German state of Bavaria, in the Franconia region, hard by the Czech border and the forested Fichtelgebirge and Frankenwald upland regions. ... Ingolstadt (Austro-Bavarian: InglstÃ¥dt) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, Germany. ... Kaufbeuren is an independent city in the Regierungsbezirk of Schwaben, southern Bavaria. ... Kempten is the capital of Allgäu, a region in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. ... Landshut is a city in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany both belonging to Eastern and Southern Bavaria. ... Memmingen is a town in the Bavarian administrative region Swabia in Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Passau (Latin: Batavis or Batavia, also Passavium; Italian: Passavia; Czech: Pasov) is a town in Niederbayern, Eastern Bavaria, Germany, known also as the Dreiflüssestadt (City of Three Rivers), because the Danube River is joined there by the Inn River from the South, and the Ilz River coming out of... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... Rosenheim is a town in Bavaria (Germany) on the river Inn, at 47°51′ N 12°8′ E. It is seat of administration of the district of Rosenheim, but is not a part of it. ... Schwabach is a German city of about 40,000 inhabitants near Nuremberg in the middle of the Franconia district of Bavaria. ... Schweinfurt is a city in the Unterfranken region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the canalized Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 km North-East of Würzburg. ... Straubing is an independent city in Niederbayern. ... Weiden in der Oberpfalz (official name: Weiden i. ... For the German World War II radar system of the same name, see Würzburg radar. ... Aichach-Friedberg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Altötting is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Amberg_Sulzbach is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Ansbach is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Aschaffenburg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Augsburg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Bad Kissingen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Bamberg Land is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Bayreuth is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Berchtesgadener Land is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Cham is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Coburg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Dachau is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Deggendorf is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Dillingen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Dingolfing-Landau is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Donau-Ries is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Ebersberg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Eichstätt is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Erding is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Erlangen-Höchstadt is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Forchheim is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Freising is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Freyung-Grafenau is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Fürstenfeldbruck is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Fürth is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Günzburg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Haßberge is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Hof is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Kelheim is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Kitzingen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Kronach is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Kulmbach is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Landsberg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Landshut is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Lichtenfels is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Lindau is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Main-Spessart is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Miesbach is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Miltenberg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Mühldorf is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Munich (German München) is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Neuburg-Schrobenhausen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Neumarkt is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Neustadt (Waldnaab) is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Neu-Ulm is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Nürnberger Land is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Oberallgäu is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Ostallgäu is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Passau is a district (Kreis) in the southeast of Bavaria. ... Pfaffenhofen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Regen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Regensburg is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Rhön-Grabfeld is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Rosenheim is a Kreis (district) in the south of Bavaria, Germany. ... Roth is a district in Bavaria, Germany. ... Rottal-Inn is a Kreis (district) in the southeastern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Schwandorf is a Kreis (district) in the east part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Schweinfurt is a Kreis (district) in the northwestern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Starnberg is a Kreis (district) in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Straubing-Bogen is a Kreis (district) in the eastern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Tirschenreuth is a Kreis (district) in the northeastern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Traunstein is a Kreis (district) in the southeastern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Unterallgäu is a Kreis (district) in the southwestern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Weilheim-Schongau is a Kreis (district) in the south of Bavaria, Germany. ... Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen is a Kreis (district) in the west of Bavaria, Germany. ... Wunsiedel is a Kreis (district) in the northeastern part of Bavaria, Germany. ... Würzburg is a Kreis (district) in the northwestern part of Bavaria, Germany. ...

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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Nuremberg (2057 words)
Nuremberg, but levied taxes and constituted the highest judicial court in matters relating to poaching and forestry; he also was the appointed protector of the various ecclesiastical establishments, churches, and monasteries, even of the Bishopric of
Nuremberg became a free imperial city, when Frederick II presented it with a most important charter, freeing it from all authority excepting that of the emperor himself.
Nuremberg Realizing its weakness, the city asked to be incorporated in the Kingdom of Prussia but Frederick William II refused the request, fearing to offend Austria, Russia, and France.
Nuremberg Trials - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3029 words)
The Nuremberg Trials were the trials of officials involved in World War II and the Holocaust during the Nazi regime.
The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg, Germany, from 1945 to 1949, at the Nuremberg Palace of Justice.
The Nuremberg trials initiated a movement for the prompt establishment of a permanent international criminal court, eventually leading over fifty years later to the adoption of the Statute of the International Criminal Court.
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