FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
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Encyclopedia > Nupedia
Nupedia
Nupedia logo
URL http://nupedia.8media.org/ (archived)
Type of site Internet encyclopedia project
Available language(s) English
Owner Bomis
Created by Jimmy Wales, Larry Sanger
Current status defunct

Nupedia was a Web-based encyclopedia whose articles were written by experts and licensed as free content. It was founded by Jimmy Wales and underwritten by Bomis, with Larry Sanger as editor-in-chief. Nupedia lasted from March of 2000[1] until September of 2003, and is mostly known now as the predecessor of the free wiki encyclopedia, Wikipedia. Image File history File links Nupedia. ... “URL” redirects here. ... The idea to build a free encyclopedia using the Internet can be traced at least to the 1993 Interpedia proposal; it was planned as an encyclopedia on the Internet to which everyone could contribute materials. ... Silvia Saint in a Bomis T-Shirt. ... Jimmy Donal Jimbo Wales, (born August 7, 1966)[2] is an American Internet entrepreneur best known for his role in founding Wikipedia, as well as other wiki-related projects, including the charitable organization Wikimedia Foundation, and the for-profit company Wikia, Inc. ... Lawrence Mark Larry Sanger (born July 16, 1968[1]) has been involved with various online encyclopedia projects. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... “Cyclopedia” redirects here. ... Free content is any kind of functional work, artwork, or other creative content upon which no legal restriction has been placed that significantly interferes with peoples freedom to use, understand, redistribute, improve, and share the content. ... Jimmy Donal Jimbo Wales, (born August 7, 1966)[2] is an American Internet entrepreneur best known for his role in founding Wikipedia, as well as other wiki-related projects, including the charitable organization Wikimedia Foundation, and the for-profit company Wikia, Inc. ... Silvia Saint in a Bomis T-Shirt. ... Lawrence Mark Larry Sanger (born July 16, 1968[1]) has been involved with various online encyclopedia projects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ...


Nupedia was not a wiki (i.e.: publicly editable). It was characterized by an extensive peer-review process designed to make its articles of a quality comparable to that of professional encyclopedias. Nupedia wanted scholars to volunteer content for free. Before it ceased operating, Nupedia produced 24 articles[2] that completed its review process (three articles also existed in two versions of different lengths), and 74 more articles were in progress. Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ...

Contents

History

Nupedia was always a free content encyclopedia. Initially the project used a homegrown license, the Nupedia Open Content License. In January 2001 it switched to the GNU Free Documentation License at the urgings of Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation. However, Stallman also started the GNUPedia project at the same time, which led to concerns about possible competition between the projects. One issue for GNUPedia participants was that, in spite of Nupedia's use of a free content license, the extensive formal peer review ran counter to the culture and philosophy of the free software movement. Free content is any kind of functional work, artwork, or other creative content upon which no legal restriction has been placed that significantly interferes with peoples freedom to use, understand, redistribute, improve, and share the content. ... The Nupedia Open Content License is a free software license used for Nupedia, a defunct Internet-based free encyclopedia. ... Bold text // “GFDL” redirects here. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms (lower case),[1] is a software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... GNUPedia (later renamed GNE) was a project to create a free content encyclopedia (licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License) under the auspices of the Free Software Foundation that has been discontinued. ... The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ...


During this same time period, Nupedia started Wikipedia as a side project to allow collaboration on articles prior to entering the peer review process. This attracted interest from both sides, as it provided the less bureaucratic structure favored by GNUPedia advocates. As a result, GNUPedia never really developed and the threat of competition between the projects was averted. As Wikipedia grew and attracted contributors, it quickly developed a life of its own and began to function largely independent of Nupedia, although Sanger initially led activity on Wikipedia by virtue of his position as Nupedia editor-in-chief.


Besides leading to discontinuation of the GNUPedia project, Wikipedia also led to the gradual demise of Nupedia. Due to the collapse of the internet economy at that time, Jimmy Wales decided to discontinue funding for a salaried editor-in-chief in December 2001[1], and Sanger resigned from both projects soon thereafter. After his departure, Nupedia increasingly became an afterthought to Wikipedia (of the Nupedia articles that completed the review process, only two did so after 2001). As Nupedia dwindled into inactivity, the idea of converting it into a stable version of approved Wikipedia articles was occasionally broached, but never implemented. The Nupedia website, http://www.nupedia.com/, was shut down on September 26, 2003, but a few pages were still available at http://nupedia.8media.org/ . Nupedia's limited content has been assimilated into Wikipedia[1]. is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Nupedia's Original HTML logo
Nupedia's Original HTML logo

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Editorial process

Nupedia had a seven-step editorial process, consisting of:

  1. Assignment
  2. Finding a lead reviewer
  3. Lead review
  4. Open review
  5. Lead copyediting
  6. Open copyediting
  7. Final approval and markup

The bar to become a Nupedia contributor was relatively high, with the policy stating, "We wish editors to be true experts in their fields and (with few exceptions) possess PhDs." However, the reviewers evaluating drafts of an article generally would have no special expertise in the article's subject. Reviewers were identified by screen names, and although there was a facility that allowed reviewers to post their bios, many did not; thus, the expert writing the article was often obliged to modify it based on comments from effectively anonymous reviewers, with no way of knowing their qualifications. The process was also different from Wikipedia's because the expectation was that reviewers would give criticisms, but not do any actual editing on the articles themselves. Because the number of participants in Nupedia was so small (many orders of magnitude smaller than the number of participants in the mature stages of Wikipedia), there was generally no dialogue between people with knowledge of the article's subject. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... For pseudonyms used for film appearances, see stage name For pseudonyms used for internet communications and BBSs, see screenname The Screen Name service (also ScreenName) is a common password system that is required to use any services or programs from AOL, AIM, Compuserve, or Netscape This is a disambiguation page...


Software development

Nupedia was powered by NupeCode collaborative software. NupeCode is free/open source software (released under the GNU General Public License) designed for large peer review projects. The code was available via Nupedia's CVS repository. One of the problems experienced by Nupedia during much of its existence was that the software lacked functionality. Much of the missing functionality had been mocked-up using underlined blocks of text that appeared to be hyperlinks, but actually were not. Collaborative software is software designed to help people involved in a common task achieve their goals. ... This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... The Concurrent Versions System (CVS), also known as the Concurrent Versioning System, is an open-source version control system invented and developed by Dick Grune in the 1980s. ...


As part of the project, a new version of the original software (called "NuNupedia") was under development. NuNupedia was implemented for testing at SourceForge, but never reached sufficient development to replace the original software. SourceForge is a collaborative revision control and software development management system. ...


References

  1. ^ a b Poe, Marshall (September 2006). The Hive. The Atlantic. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  2. ^ Rand, Matt (2004-12-13). Extreme Blogging. Forbes. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.

The Atlantic Monthly (also known as The Atlantic) is an American literary/cultural magazine that was founded in November 1857. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Nupedia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nupedia (512 words)
Nupedia was characterized by an extensive peer review process designed to make its articles of a quality comparable to professional encyclopedias.
Nupedia was always intended as a free content encyclopedia.
One issue for GNUPedia participants was that in spite of Nupedia's use of a free content license, the extensive formal peer review ran counter to the culture and philosophy of the free software movement.
Nupedia - definition of Nupedia in Encyclopedia (522 words)
Nupedia was characterized by an extensive peer review process designed to make its articles of a quality comparable to professional encyclopedias.
Nupedia was always intended as a free content encyclopedia.
One issue for GNUPedia participants was that in spite of Nupedia's use of a free content license, the extensive formal peer review ran counter to the culture and philosophy of the free software movement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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